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TITLE XLVIII OF REVISED STATUTES.

OHAPTER FOUR.

DISCRIMINATING DUTIES.

SEC. 4228. Upon satisfactory proof being given to the President, by the government of any foreign nation, that no discriminating duties of tonnage or imposts are imposed or levied in the ports of such nation upon vessels wholly belonging to citizens of the United States, or upon the produce, manufactures, or merchandise imported in the same from the United States or from any foreign country, the President may issue his proclamation, declaring that the foreign discriminating duties of tonnage and impost within the United States are suspended and discontinued, so far as respects the vessels of such foreign nation, and the produce, manufactures, or merchandise imported into the United States from such foreign nation, or from any other foreign country; the suspension to take effect from the time of such notification being given to the President; and to continue so long as the reciprocal exemption of vessels, belonging to citizens of the United States, and their cargoes, shall be continued, and no longer.

Sec. 4229. No other or higher rate of duties shall be imposed or collected on vessels of Prussia, or of her dominions, from whencesoever coming, nor on their cargoes, howsoever composed, than are or may be payable on vessels of the United States, and their cargoes.

SEC. 4230. The preceding section sball continue and be in force during the time that the equality for which it provides shall, in all respects, be reciprocated in the ports of Prussia and her dominions; and it at any time hereafter the equality shall not be reciprocated in the ports of Prussia and her dominions, the President may issue his proclamation, declaring that fact, and thereupon the section preceding shall cease to be in force.

Sec. 4231. From Spanish vessels coming from any port or place in Spain or her colonies, where no discriminating or countervailing duties on tonnage are levied upon vessels of the United States, or from any other port or place to and with which vessels of the United States are ordinarily permitted to go and trade, there shall be exacted in the ports of the United States no other or greater duty on tonnage than at the time may be exacted of vessels of the United States.

SEC. 4232. The mail steamships employed in the mail-service between the United States and Brazil shall be exempt from all portcharges and custom-house dues at the port of departure and arrival in the United States if, and so long as, a similar immunity from port-charges and custom-house dues is granted by the government of Brazil.

REMISSION OF FINES, PENALTIES, AND FOR

FEITURES.

SEC. 5292. Whenever any person who shall have incurred any fine, penalty, or forfeiture, or disability, or may be interested in any vessel or merchandise which bas become subject to any seizure, forfeiture, or disability by authority of any provisions of law for imposing or collecting any duties or taxes, or relating to registering, recording, enrolling, or licensing vessels, (and for regulating the same), or providing for the suppression of insurrections or unlawful combinations against the United States, shall prefer his petition to the judge of the district in which such fine, penalty, or forfeiture, or disability has accrued, truly and particularly setting forth the circumstances of his case, and shall pray that the same may be mitigated or remitted, the judge shall inquire, in a summary manner, into the circumstances of the case; first causing reasonable notice to be given to the person claiming such fine, penalty, or forfeiture, and to the attorney of the United States for such district, that each may have an opportunity of showing cause against the mitigation or remission thereof; and shall cause the facts appearing upon such inquiry to be stated and annexed to the petition, and direct their transmission to the Secretary of the Treasury. The Secretary shall thereupon have power to mitigate or remit such fine, forfeiture, or penalty, or remove such disability, or any part thereof, if, in his opinion, the same was incurred without willful negligence, or any intention of fraud in the person incurring the same; and to direct the prosecution, if any has been instituted for the recovery thereof, to cease and be discontinued, upon such terms or conditions as he may deem reasonable and just.

Sec. 5293. The Secretary of the Treasury is authorized to prescribe such rules and modes of proceeding to ascertain the facts upon which an application for remission of a fine, penalty, or forfeiture is founded, as he deems proper, and, upon ascertaining them, to remit the fine, penalty, or forfeiture, if in his opinion it was incurred without willful negligence or fraud, in either of the following cases :

First.—[If the fine, penalty, or forfeiture was imposed under authority of any revenue law, and the amount does not exceed one thousand dollars.]

Second.- Where the case occurred within either of the collection districts in the States of California or Oregon.

Third.-If the fine, penalty, or forfeiture was imposed under authority of any provisions of law relating to the importation of merchandise from foreign contiguous territory, or relating to manifests for vessels enrolled or licensed to carry on the coasting trade on the northern, northeastern, and northwestern frontiers.

Fourth.-If the fine, penalty, or forfeiture was imposed by authority of any provisions of law for levying or collecting any duties or taxes, or relating to registering, recording, enrolling, or licensing vessels, and the case arose within the collection district of Alaska, or was imposed by virtue of any provisions of law relating to fur-seals upon the islands of Saint Paul and Saint George.

SEC. 26. That whenever any fine, penalty, ferfeiture, exaction, or charge arising under the laws relating to vessels or seamen bas been paid to any collector of customs, or consul, or officer, and application has been made within one year from such payment for the refunding or remission of the same, the Secretary of the Treasury, if ou investigation he finds that such fine, penalty, forfeiture, exaction, or charge was illegally, improperly, or excessively imposed, shall have the power, either before or after the same has been covered into the Treasury, to refund so much of such fine, penalty, forfeiture, exaction, or charge as he may think proper, from any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated.

[By Act of June 22d, 1874, it is provided as follows :)

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Sec. 4. Provided, That for the purposes of this act, smuggling shall be construed to mean the act, with intent to defraud, of bringing into the United States, or, with like intent, attempting to bring into the United States, dutiable articles without passing the same, or the package containing the same, through the custom house, or submitting them to the officers of the revenue for examination.

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SEC. 5. That in all suits and proceedings other than criminal arising under any of the revenue laws of the United States, the attorney representing the Government, whenever, in his belief, any business-book, invoice, or paper, belonging to or under the control of the defendant or claimant, will tend to prove any allegation made by the United States, may make a written motion particularly describing such book, invoice, or paper, and setting forth the allegation which he expects to prove; and thereupon the court in which suit or proceeding is pending may, at its discretion, issue a notice to the defendant or claimant to produce such book, invoice or paper in court, at a day and hour to be specified in said notice, which, together with a copy of said motion, shall be served formally on the defendant or claimant by the United States marshal by delivering to him a certified copy thereof, or otherwise serving the same as original notices of suit in the same court are served; and if the defendant or claimant shall fail or refuse to produce such book, invoice, or paper in obedience to such notice, the allegations stated in the said motion shall be taken as confessed unless his failure or refusal to produce the same shall be explained to the satisfaction of the court. And if produced, the said attorney shall be permitted, under the direction of the court, to make examination (at which examination the defendant or claimant, or his agent may be present) of such entries in said book, invoice, or paper as relate to or tend to prove the allegation aforesaid, and may offer the same in evidence on behalf of the United States. But the owner of said books and papers, his agent or attorney, shall have, subject to the order of the court, the custody of them, except pending their examination in court as aforesaid.

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SEC. 9. That except in the case of personal effects accompanying the passenger, no importation exceeding one hundred dollars in dutiable value shall be admitted to entry without the production of a duly certified invoice thereof, as required by law, or of an affidavit made by the owner, importer, or consignee, before any officer authorized to administer oaths, showing why it is impracticable to produce such invoice.

SEC. 10. That no entry shall be made in the absence of a certified invoice, upon affidavit as aforesaid, unless such affidavit be accompanied by a statement, in the form of an invoice or otherwise, showing either the actual cost of the merchandise included in such importation, or, to the best of the knowledge, information, and belief of the deponent, the foreign market value thereof; which statement shall be verified by the owner, importer, consignee, or agent desiring to make entry of the merchandise, and which oath shall be administered by the collector or his deputy.

SEC. 11. That before such oath is taken, it shall be lawful for the collector or deputy administering the same to question the deponent touching the sources of his knowledge, information, or belief in the premises, and to require bim to make oath to the same, and to produce any letter or paper, in his possession or under his control, which may assist the officers of the customs in ascertaining the dutiable value of the importation, or any part thereof; and in default of such production, when so requested, such owner, importer, consignee, and agent shall be thereafter debarred from producing any such letter or paper for the purpose of avoiding any penalty or forfeiture incurred under this act, unless he shall show to the satisfaction of the court that it was not in his power to produce the same when so demanded.

SEC. 12. That any owner, importer, consignee, agent or other person who shall, with intent to defraud the revenue, make, or attempt to make, any entry of imported merchandise, by means of any fraudulent or false invoice, affidavit, letter, or paper, or by means of any false statement, written or verbal, or who shall be guilty of any wilful act or omission by means whereof the United States shall be deprived of the lawful duties, or any portion thereof, accruing upon the merchandise, or any portion thereof, embraced or referred to in such invoice, affidavit, letter, paper, or statement, or affected by such act or omission, sball, for each offence, be fined in any sum not exceeding five thousand dollars nor less than fifty dollars, or be imprisoned for any time not exceeding two years, or both; and, in addition to such fine, such merchandise shall be forfeited; which forfeiture shall only apply to the whole of the merchandise in the case or package containing the particular article or articles of merchandise to which such fraud or alleged fraud relates; and anything contained in any act which provides for the forfeiture or confiscation of an entire invoice in consequence of any item or items contained in the same being undervalued, be, and the same is hereby, repealed.

1. See U. S. v. Auffmordt, supra under $ 2864. 2. This is still in full force. 1887, s. s. 8304.

SEC. 13. That any merchandise entered by any person or persons violating any of the provisions of the preceding section, but not subject to forfeiture under the same section, may, while owned by him or them, or while in his or their possession, to double the amount claimed, be taken by the collector and held as security for the payment of any fine or fines incurred as aforesaid, or may be levied upon

and sold on execution to satisfy any judgment recovered for such fine or fines. But nothing herein contained shall prevent any owner or claimant from obtaining a release of such merchandise on giving a bond, with sureties satisfactory to the collector, or, in case of judicial proceedings, satisfactory to the court, or the judge thereof, for the payment of any fine or fines so incurred : Provided, however, That such merchandise shall in po case be released until all accrued duties thereon shall have been paid or secured.

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Sec. 16. That in all actions, suits, and proceedings in any court of the United States now pending or hereafter commenced or prosecuted to enforce or declare the forfeiture of any goods, wares, or merchandise, or to recover the value thereof, or any other sum alleged to be forfeited by reason of any violation of the provisions of the customs revenue laws, or any of such provisions, in which action, suit, or proceeding an issue or issues of fact shall have been joined, it shall be the duty of the court, on the trial thereof, to submit to the jury, as a distinct and separate proposition, whether the alleged acts were done with an actual intention to defraud the United States, and to require upon such proposition a special finding by such jury; or, if such issue be tried by the court without a jury, it sball be the duty of the court to pass upon and decide such proposition as a distinct and separate finding of fact; and in such cases, unless

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