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spirit. Thus moved, I gave notice that late their conduct in that particular
diately going forth ; or were they
to that particular mission, and convince me that the doctrine which I maintains that they were binding had advanced was true, but of so novel upon the Apostles, and upon all and unpalatable a character, that if it was succeeding Missionaries, to the end to do any good, or even to live, it must be brought before the public with a more
of time. On the contrary, it has minute investigation of the Scriptures, generally been considered, that seand fuller development of reason, than veral of the directions here given could be contained within the compass of were solely applicable to that partia single discourse. - Pp. xi.--xiii.
cular service, though, at the same This statement indicates some- time, information and instructions what less prudence and considera- were annexed with reference to tion than might have been antici- future and more extended mispated; but the result of all Mr. sions. Irving's deliberations is the publi- Mr. Irving's idea of an Apostolication of the first part of a work, cal Missionary appears to be, that entitled "For Missionaries after the of a man's going forth, or being Apostolical School ;" and which is sent forth, without any provision intended to contain The Doctrine, for temporal wants ; without any The Experiment, The Argument, change of raiment; without weaand The Duty ;-the whole founded pons of defence; and, as far as on our Lord's instructions to his dis
appears, without any previous inciples, Matt. x. 5–42, which Mr. Struction in languages, or ascerIrving calls The Missionary Charter. tained aptitude for acquiring them.
The part now published (that is, Arriving at the place of his destiThe Doctrine), consists of an In- nation, he is to sit down among troduction, Three Orations, and a savages; relying simply on their Conclusion. In these Mr. Irving kindness for food and shelter, and considers, from the words of his trusting to the interposition of Di. text, Messiah's Constitution for the vine Providence for the supply of Missionary Estate, and endeavours
If received by the to demonstrate the perpetuity of people, he is to continue there; if this Missionary constitution, from rejected, he is to shake off the dust the document itself, and from the from his feet, and to depart else, analogy of the Christian faith and where.This is, in Mr. Irving's discipline. We think he has failed idea, the perfection of a Christian in both these particulars ; and, ac- Missionary. He allows that many cordingly, we find that in the Con- cannot come up to this standard ; clusion he has made allowances and that, even by those inferior beings, concessions which fairly evince that good has been done ; that, there, he himselfentertains but feeble hopes fore, they are not to be rejected ; of ever finding such Missionaries but that still they are Missionaries as he has attempted to describe. of a lower form.
We may inquire, Were the direc- Now we see nothing in Scripture tions given in Matt. X. to the to justify these ideas. twelve disciples, intended to regu, perhaps, be numbered with those
whom Mr. Irving apostrophizes as Before the Saviour's crucifixion, “ foolish men! vain, ignorant, and however, the Apostles received (in foolish men!” and against whom he Luke xxii. 35) intimations of more profanely launches forth an ana. extended service, and directions to thema. 'But his arguments and his provide against greater dangers and vituperations have still left us un- difficulties. Mr. Irving endeavours convinced. We concede that some to confine this striking passage to parts of the instructions given to the short interval of time between the twelve Apostles are of perpe
the crucifixion and the day of Pentual application ; that a careful at- tecost ; and is sure that he is right tention to this chapter would have in so doing. But we are here again prevented many mistakes, obviated compelled to differ from him. We many difficulties,
and provided are no crusaders, nor prepared to against many failures, which have
contend for a literal sword: but we disappointed and distressed the find no hesitation on the part of an Christian church. But, still, there Apostle to avail himself of the proare important particulars in the tection of laws and magistrates ; passage before us which refer only and hence conclude, that he was to the special mission on which the satisfied miraculous interpositions Apostles were then sent; which were not to be expected when ordiwere inapplicable to the future nary means might suffice. scenes of their labours, and still Indeed, the conduct of the Apomore inapplicable, nay, in some re- stles, after the day of Pentecost, spects absolutely impracticable, in convinces us that they were very the case of modern missions. Mr.
far from understanding some partiIrving has felt some of these diffi- culars of those instructions as liteculties, and has endeavoured to rally applying to themselves. On obviate them ; but, with all his spe- their first mission, they were to cial pleading, they still remain, and have neither gold, nor silver, nor only shew how embarrassing it is to brass, in their purses; no scrip for apply his system to ever-varying their journey ; neither two coats ; circumstances.
nor shoes ; nor yet staves. In all This first mission of the Apostles their subsequent wanderings they differed from their succeeding mis- entered into the spirit of the presions, in that they were sent solely cept—they were holy, self-denying, to their own countrymen : they were disinterested men: they abhorred confined to the “ lost sheep of the the very idea of prostituting their house of Israel :" they were espe- talents for sordid purposes ;—but, cially restrained from “ going into still, they evidently did not feel the way of the Gentiles,” or themselves tied down to the literal tering into any city of the Samari- meaning of the passage. When Paul tans. They were to travel in à departed from Melită, the historian country where hospitality generally states that those who had been healed prevailed; where some, in almost “ honoured us with many honours, every city, were accounted “ and, when we departed, they laded thy," and who had possibly acquired us with such things as were necesthis distinction by not forgetting to sary.” Nor is this a solitary ins entertain strangers ;"-and, what stance: the saints at Philippi send is of immense importance, they “ once and again " relief to the were not instructed to preach on Apostle: he “robs other churches, this occasion, what doubtless formed and takes wages of them, to do the the most offensive feature in all Corinthians service;" and, when he their future ministrations, namely, is in want, “his own hands minister the doctrine of CHRIST CRUCIFIED to his necessities, and those who for Gentiles as well as Jews.
were with him." Our minds natu
rally recur to “the carriages” - The travels of the Apostles were, the packages-of St. Paul and as far as Scripture history extends, his companions; to the “cloak confined to what we may fairly call left at Carpus ;” and to the “ help- civilized countries. St. Paul was, ing forward of the saints in their it is true, “ a debtor to the Greeks way after a godly sort :” and the and to the Barbarians ;" but the impression produced on our minds term barbarians applies to foreignis, that these passages do fairly, and ers, rather than savages. The “barlegitimately, imply a degree of fore- barous people” of Melita, were, at sight and provision, not only in- the time of the Apostle's shipwreck, consistent with Mr. Irving's views, under Roman authority, and the but with the primary commands of inhabitants were therefore placed our Lord when he sent forth his under the restraints of law and gotwelve disciples.
vernment; and, however it may be But, whatever difference might conjectured that some of the Apoexist between the primary and later stles might visit Gaul, or Britain, missions of the Apostles, how or other literally savage lands, we amazing is the discrepancy between have no Scriptural evidence on the the Apostles themselves and all subject. In a very large proportion succeeding Missionaries! In va- of instances, their first addresses rious respects the Apostles had no were delivered in the synagogues successors. Where are now the of Jews, who were then widely disgifts of tongues? the miraculous persed throughout the world, and powers? the discerning of spirits ? they travelled, principally at least, the special and infallible direction in mild and healthy climates, where of the Holy Spirit ? That the they would not be exposed to any Apostles did not work miracles to very sudden or distressing changes relieve their own wants, we con- of temperature. cede; but the exertion of their Now, contrast with this a modern miraculous powers—their healing of Missionary going forth from the sick especially—was in many bighly civilized country, where cases the instrumental cause in the even the middling classes of society hands of Almighty God of supply- are from their birth habituated to ing their various necessities. We comforts and luxuries which ill are doubtless to imitate the Apo- adapt them for the privations of stles, as far as circumstances will a foreign clime : see him wafted, admit; but we have no reason to in a few weeks or months, to the expect that the extraordinary pow- frozen shores of Labrador or Huders they possessed will be given to son's Bay, on the one hand; or to us, and must therefore act by ordi- the burning climes of the East and
the pestilential vapours of the West In point of fact, the case of mo- Indies, or Western Africa :-see dern Missionaries is one of which him necessarily, from his very cono example is to be found in sacred lour, and from the wretched conScripture. The obligation is still duct of his countrymen, the object binding on the Christian church, of jealousy and suspicion ; employ“Go ye into all the world, and ing weeks, and months, and years, preach the Gospel to every crea- in acquiring an imperfect acquaintture ;” but we have no instance on ance with an imperfect vocabulary record which may direct either the of a scanty and barbarous and disMissionary or the Society under sonant language ; and attempting, which he acts, as to the specific while his head is racked with fever, line which he is to adopt, in West or he is almost perishing with cold, Africa, or among the Hottentots, to fix the attention and communior at Otaheite, or New Zealand, &c. cate instruction to a set of listless
savages, who have no ideas upon tain the important results exhibited religion, and scarcely words in their by experience. language by which such ideas can But we'must go further. Supbe communicated ;—and then, we posing a Missionary, or a body of ask, is it conceivable that the same Missionaries, should be found, willinstructions are literally applicable ing at once to go forth without in one case as in the other? purse, without scrip; with simple
The true Missionary will indeed, dependence on God's providence, by serious study, by careful exami- and reliance on his teaching, to sit nation of Scriptural principles, and down among savages, and teach by a diligent observing and reason- them the Gospel of Christ; we ask, ing on the results of experience, would Missionary Societies be, geendeavour to determine the path he nerally speaking, justified in sending should go ; but he must ever feel them forth, without some previous that he has not Apostolical gifts arrangement and preparation, and and powers, and must therefore, to without taking all prudent means to a
very considerable extent, walk by secure for them countenance and a different rule. He will feel that provision? We think they would 'he must be à devoted character, a not. Was it no reproach and dischild of Providence; prepared for grace to the Achaian churches, habitual self-denial ; cultivating that they neglected to provide for holy deadness to the world ; willing
the wants of St. Paul ? Was it no to partake of the meanest fare; dis- honour to the Philippians, that they posed to make allowances, in case sent once and again to minister he receive less supplies than he had to his necessities? We feel that previously been led to expect; de- every thing which can be done, sirous of being as little chargeable to smooth the Missionary's path, as may be to the funds of Christian ought to be done. He will stil! benevolence ;-but, still, he will have many sacrifices to make, feel, and we think ought to feel, sacrifices which will require an and to expect, that his Christian eminent degree of Christian fortibrethren should communicate those tude and holy self-denial: and, to supplies which may, as much as whatever pitch of devotedness he possible, render the Gospel without may be exalted, it appears to us a charge to those who must be ready, gross dereliction of Christian duty from various causes, to suspect mer- and charity, to let him go forth cenary motives.
without doing all we can to lighten That Missionaries should be thus the burden he must sustain, and to men of self-denial and devotion ; of strengthen his hands in the good faith, and prayer, and dependence work in which he has engaged. on God's providence; men of few We may indeed do too much : wants and easily satisfied, is no new we may adopt means which
may doctrine ; and bad Mr. Irving, in his counteract the very end we have in retirement in the country, turned view. The Missionary may be so over a few pages of the Proceedings rich, in tools, and weapons, and of the Church, the London, the treasures, that savage
may Moravian, Baptist, or other Mis- proclaim war in order to receive sionary societies, he would have so rich a prize : and the history of found those very ideas had long the Missions at Otaheite and New since been pressed on the attention Zealand shew that this is not enof the Christian world. We think tirely conjectural. But we may it is one of Mr. Irving's defects, also do too little : and we scruple that he confines himself too much to not to affirm, that the conductors of abstract study and speculation, and any Missionary Society who should does not sufficiently strive to ascer- now send forth Missionaries to the
Torrid Zone, to India, and espe- compel us to conclude.--Mr. Mor. cially to West Africa, without en- timer's. Sermon is, like his other deavouring to provide them with publications, pious and sensible. comfortable habitations and with We think he has erred in taking a competent provision, would be guilty text which does not primarily refer of as gross a dereliction of duty as to the missionary cause ; and the if they sent them forth in a leaky whole sermon, with the exception vessel, or with scanty water and of the last few
is provisions. Time was when the applicable to Bible than Missiondangers of exposure to the sun, or
These two objects rains, or over-fatigue, was rated too are, however, nearly united ; and,
when anxiety of mind about with reference to both, we would worldly circumstances was added to say, The Lord grant them prospe, other trials; and when, in conse- rity,! quence, the lives of valuable men were endangered, if not sacrificed, for want of suitable precautions ;- Prayers for Families ; selected and but experience has taught all Mis- altered from various Authors. By sionary Societies the necessity of Thomas Webster, M. A., Vicar of sending out at once better educated Oakington, &c. Pp. xii, and 220. men, and placing them, in various
Price 2s. 6d. Seeley. respects, on a more liberal footing. This selection comprises Prayers We are not prepared to adopt the from the writings of Bishops Kenn, sentiment of one, whose experience Patrick, Taylor, and Wilson; from yet entitles all his opinions to serious Drs. Doddridge, Horneck, Scott, consideration, and who has asserted and Watts ; and from Messrs. Baxthat Missionary appointments ought ter, Grove, Henry, Jenks, Mason, to be rendered desirable, even by Scott, Toplady, Willison, and Venn, pecuniary recommendations; but we and also from the end of an old do say, that, however ready and Book of Common Prayer. One or willing a Missionary may be to two appear to be original, though encounter the utmost hardships and not marked as such. In some cases privations, it is still a disgrace to considerable alterations appear to a Christian Society to send him have been made ; and the selection forth with scantier appointments, contains a considerable variety both and worse temporal prospects, than as to length and style. the clerks or servants who go forth The volume is introduced by a to our foreign factories. They short preface inculcating the geought to be devoted men, willing to neral duty of family worship, from live and die at their posts; but, at which the following is an extract : the same time, we feel that they
Its advantages (that is, the advantages have a right to expect such mo
of family worship) are perceived by its derate provision as may enable them, obvious tendency to produce, in the memafter a reasonable period of service bers of the same family, a spirit of love to return and visit their friends, to and peace; to lead them to the knowledge
and practice of true religion; to impress recruit their health in their native
upon them line upon line, and precept country, and to encourage others
upon precept; to awaken their conby the relation of what God hath sciences by a continually, recurring call; wrought among the Gentiles by the evil of sin, of their need of pardoning their means.
mercy, of the value of the soul, of the We intended illustrating our sen, Saviour's love, of the Father's grace, and timents by various references to the of the Holy Spirit's influence, and thus to interesting Report of the Church lead them to pray earnestly for spiritual
blessings upon themselves. It produces Missionary Society which has re
a deep and habitual, and abiding feeling çently appeared; but our limits a feeling which often recurs to the mind