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Greek in the university of Bourges, seized many letters, which brought and preferred bis instructions, to suspicion on his correspondents. those of the Professor of Civil Law, Margaret de Valois, sister of This enlightened scholar was secret Francis I. and Queen of Navarre, ly a Lutheran, and took occasion to patronized the reformed, and sucencourage Calvin in biblical learn- ceeded for a while in allaying the ing, and to imbue his mind with storn raised against them. This Protestant sentiment. While his gifted and amiable princess sent for own heart responded to the exhorta- Calvin, and entertained him kindly tions and remarks of his friend, he in her palace. She was an instruused to preach at the neighbouring ment of God in that trying season, village of Liniers through the in- to counteract in some measure the dulgence of its proprietor. His advice given to her brother by his father dying suddenly in 1532, he Chancellor and others of his counreturned to Paris, with a full de- cil, wrote some tracts which distermination to devote himself to pleased the bigots, and preserved theological pursuits. At this pe- many Protestants, among whom riod he wrote a tract on Seneca's was a kinsman of Melancthon. work “On Clemency.” It ap. Calvin did not consider the friendpears that his design was to give ship of this personage sufficient good counsel to his sovereign, to protect him from the snares of Francis I. in a delicate way, know- his adversaries, but repaired to ing that that monarch would read Saintonge, where he became fathe work, and hoping that its pe- miliar with Lewis du Tillet, a worrusal would lead him to discoun- thy canon of Angoulesme, at whose tenance a persecution of the Hu- desire he drew up some short guenots, or Protestants, which Christian Exhortations, which was carried on by the ascendant were read by several priests to party at court.

their congregations. From AnDuring his stay at Paris, he goulesme he went to Poitiers, and formed acquaintance with many secretly instructed the well-disinquirers after religious truth, who posed, administering the sacrarequested him to become their mi- ment in caves or retired gardens *. nister. Nicholas Cope, deliver- Returning to Angoulesme, he ing an oration as Rector of the visited Jacques le Fevre of EstaUniversity on the first of Novem- ples, who had been persecuted by ber, the feast of All Saints, was the Sorbonnists, when professor of induced by Calvin to speak with mathematics at Paris, and had remore freedom on certain points of tired to Nerac in Gascony, a town divinity, than had been customary; under the jurisdiction of the queen which so much offended both the of Navarre. The venerable man doctors of the Sorbonne, and the received him with cordiality and members of the Parliament, that paternal affection; and seeing his they cited him to appear before zeal, foretold his eminence as a rethem; but as he was on the way, former of the church. Such interhe was advised by some friends views are worthy of particular renot to trust himself in their hands, cord, though of minor character as and returning home, made his es- incidents; for while the young solcape to Basle, the residence of dier is animated to martial enterhis father, a reputable physician. prize by the conversation of the They then sent officers to appre- veteran warrior, lasting impreshend Calvin, who had time to drop sions are made on the minds of from the window by his sheets; but they ransacked his study, and 4* Maimboury, Hist. de Calv. p. 59.

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a scholar of the first order. He to be more profitable than that of wrote in Latin as well as is pos- divinity, as by his personal consible in a dead language, and in viction of unjustifiable practices in French with a purity which was that communion, in which he liad extraordinary for his time. This only received what was called the purity, which is to the present day simple tonsure of an ecclesiastic t. admired by our skilful critics, ren- He had a relation named Oliveders his writings greatly superior tan, who was attached to the docto almost all of the same age; trines of the Reformation; a pious as the works of Messieurs de Port and sensible man, of whom little Royal are still distinguished on the is known but that he translated the same account, from the barbarous Bible into French, and for his rerhapsodies of their opponents and ward was poisoned at Rome the contemporaries *.”:

year after its publication. It was He was born at Noyon on the through the advice of this person, border of Picardy, July 10, 1509. that Calvin paid diligent attention His parents were Gerard Calvin to the perusal of Holy Scripture, and Jane Frank, of good cha- as the pure spring of saving knowracter, and competent estate. The ledge. So that, though he put on former was secretary to the bishop, the gown of the advocate, he did and much esteemed by his su- not neglect the duties of the clerperiors for his solid judgment. gyman. While he studied civil After sending his son John, des- law under Pierre de l'Etoile, pretined to render the family name so sident of the parliament of Paris, illustrious, to a provincial gram- at Orleans, he embraced every opmar school, he removed him to the portunity of spreading religious inFrench capital, where he prose- formation, and, according to the cuted his studies, first at the aca- testimony of Varillas, succeeded demy of La Marche under Cor- in turning many to a clearer faith. derius, and next at that of Mon- His manner at this period was to tague under Hispanus, who were read till midnight, and to ruminate both qualified to foster the rising on the subject of his lecture when genius of their pupil. Profiting he awoke the next morning; but by their instruction, he outstripped he accustomed himself to such his competitors, and soon pro- spareness in diet, that he is supceeded from common logic to the posed to have injured his conliberal arts. If his father wished stitution. him to engage in the sacred office, From Orleans he removed to that desire would be strengthened Bourges, to which city he was atby the religious impressions which tracted, with many students of the he discovered. The chapelry de day, by the fame of Alciati, a la Gesine was obtained for him in Milanese, and an eminent civilian, Noyon cathedral; afterwards the whom the French court had invited cure of Marteville; which he soon to read lectures, and who is men exchanged for Pont L'Eveque, tioned with approbation by Thuthe birth-place of his father, in anus, for his enlargement of mind, which he preached for some timè; in improving the method and rebut he was never admitted into fining the language of his particuthe order of priests in the Romish lar science. But Providence had church. This issue was prevented, higher designs in view for young as well by a change in the mind of Calvin. He became warmly athis parent, who now began to con- tached to Wolmar, professor of sider the study of the law as likely

+ Beza, Vita Calvini, p. 51. Bayle, v. * Encyclopedie, Art, Genev.

ii. pp. 554, 260. Dupin, cent. xvi.

Greek in the university of Bourges, seized many letters, which brought and preferred bis instructions to suspicion on his correspondents. those of the Professor of Civil Law. Margaret de Valois, sister of This enlightened scholar was secret- Francis I. and Queen of Navarre, ly a Lutheran, and took occasion to patronized the reformed, and sucencourage Calvin in biblical learn- ceeded for a while in allaying the ing, and to imbue his mind with storni raised against them. This Protestant sentiment. While his gifted and amiable princess sent for own heart responded to the exhorta- Calvin, and entertained him kindly tions and remarks of his friend, he in her palace. She was an instruused to preach at the neighbouring ment of God in that trying season, village of Liniers through the in- to counteract in some measure the dulgence of its proprietor. His advice given to her brother by his father dying suddenly in 1532, he Chancellor and others of his counreturned to Paris, with a full de- cil, wrote some tracts which distermination to devote himself to pleased the bigots, and preserved theological pursuits. At this pe- many Protestants, among whom riod he wrote a tract on Seneca's was a kinsman of Melancthon. work « On Clemency.” It ap. Calvin did not consider the friendpears that his design was to give ship of this personage sufficient good counsel to his sovereign, to protect him from the snares of Francis I. in a delicate way, know- his adversaries, but repaired to ing that that monarch would read Saintonge, where he became fathe work, and hoping that its pe- miliar with Lewis du Tillet, a worrusal would lead him to discoun- thy canon of Angoulesme, at whose tenance a persecution of the Hu- desire he drew up some short guenots, or Protestants, which Christian Exhortations, which was carried on by the ascendant were read by several priests to party at court.

their congregations. From AnDuring his stay at Paris, he goulesme he went to Poitiers, and formed acquaintance with many secretly instructed the well-disinquirers after religious truth, who posed, administering the sacrarequested him to become their mi- ment in caves or retired gardens*. nister. Nicholas Cope, deliver- Returning to Angoulesme, he ing an oration as Rector of the visited Jacques le Fevre of EstaUniversity on the first of Novem- ples, who had been persecuted by ber, the feast of All Saints, was the Sorbonnists, when professor of induced by Calvin to speak with mathematics at Paris, and had remore freedom on certain points of tired to Nerac in Gascony, a town divinity, than had been customary; under the jurisdiction of the queen which so much offended both the of Navarre. The venerable man doctors of the Sorbonne, and the received him with cordiality and members of the Parliament, that paternal affection; and seeing his they cited him to appear before zeal, foretold his eminence as a rethem; but as he was on the way, former of the church. Such interhe was advised by some friends views are worthy of particular renot to trust himself in their hands, cord, though of minor character as and returning home, made his es- incidents, for while the young solcape to Basle, the residence of dier is animated to martial enterhis father, a reputable physician. prize by the conversation of the They then sent officers to appre- veteran warrior, lasting impreshend Calvin, who had time to drop sions are made on the minds of from the window by his sheets; but they ransacked his study, and .* Maimbourg, Hist. de Caly. p. 59.

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he ordered a public procession, in continued his noises and made them which, with his queen and chil- no answer. They then bade him dren, he took a part, bare-headed, to give them a sign if he might not and carrying a lighted taper, in speak; on which he redoubled his token of national humiliation for strokes, in token of the affirmative. the spread of heresy; and more- All who were not in the secret over had the infatuation to com- were greatly alarmed; and the bremand, that eight Protestants thren told their friends in the city should be burnt alive in four prin- what had occurred, begging them cipal quarters of the city, swear- to attend their devotions, and being before all the people, that he come ear-witnesses of the. fact. would not spare his own children, When their neighbours were preif he knew them to be infected sent, the contrivers asked him, with those damnable tenets, whether he were buried there? and

Calvin's heart sickened at these then named several persons whose sad spectacles, and he resolved to funerals had been lately performed. quit the capital, whither he had As soon as they mentioned the gone from Angoulesme in 1534, provost's lady, he knocked against with a view to counteract the pro- the board. This inquiry was folpagation of Arian or Socinian sen- lowed by others, such as, “ Was timents by Servetus, and retire to she damned? For what? For coOrleans. The lady of the provost vetousness, or pride, or incontiof that city, dying about this time, nence, or Luiheranism? Would requested to be interred without she have her corpse dug up, and ceremony, and her husband bu- carried out of consecrated ground?” ried her in a private manner by the He answered, Yes, or No, to side of her father and grandfather these different questions, according in the Franciscan church, content- as he gave two or three blows ing himself with presenting six upon the wood. When the ghost crowns to the monks, who it seems had signified that she was conexpected more. They considered demned for heresy, and must be this as a dangerous precedent, exhumated, they required the tending to encourage the growth of townsmen to subscribe a record, heresy; and to deprive them of and make affidavit of its truth, certain fees which they claimed for which they excused themselves attending corpses to the place of from doing for fear of disobliging burial. Afterwards, when he felled their chief magistrate. The Frana wood, and sold the timber, they ciscaps then removed their vessels asked for some trees, which he and relics to another place, and refused to give them, at which they there said their mass; which caused were still further enraged, and re- the Bishop's Official to visit the ported that the deceased was church, commanding the monks to damned. To give colour to this begin their exorcism, and directing report, they were guilty of a scan- some persons to go upon the roof, dalous imposture. Stephen of and see if they could discover any Arras, and some others, stationed apparition. The principals in the a young monk on the roof of the plot assured him it would be very church, with a board in his hand rash thus to interrupt the spirit. which he was to strike against when The provost, deservedly indignant, they were engaged in their midnight went to court, and laid the whole services; having previously bored a matter before the King; who, on hole in the roof that he might hear the protest of the monks against the what was passing below. As soon interference of the magistracy, apas the noviciate was perfect in his pointed a special commission from lesson they exorcised him, but he the Parliament of Paris to investi

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