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Franciscàns, those of Jude and every sentiment with themselves, James ; to Wadsten, those of Peter and even to commence actions of and John; and, lastly, to the Car- this nature on very slight foundathusians, the book of Revelations. tions. Irritated at this answer, the It was a curious era in the history Archbishop rejoined, “that he would of the Swedish Church, when, con- readily undertake to convict Olaus, trary to their real inclinations, si- on the most weighty grounds, of multaneous employment was thus heresy, before his royal majesty and found for her various members *. his ministers, and make them all · Meanwhile the Archbishop and witnesses of his conviction.” The his suffragans, that they might not king, believing that a conference of appear inimical to the cause of this description would be highly evangelical truth, and yet avert if useful, and tend to the promotion of possible the blow that was aimed truth, took the earliest opportunity against them, waited in a body on of appointing a public disputation the sovereign, and made a formal on the chief articles of the Christian charge of heresy against Olaus and faith, to be held in the college of his adherents. The metropolitan Upsal; at which he would himself represented that his version was attend, with his court, and listen to merely taken from that of Luther, the arguments on both sides. But which the Pope had already inter- he had no sooner summoned the dicted, and condemned as heretical: senators and nobles, and the acmoreover, that the royal declara- cused had shewn his readiness to tions which had been issued against meet the charge, than the prelates the clergy were owing to the per- began to find some plea for delay; suasions of these same obnoxious declaring that it was beneath characters, who, as they were the their dignity to dispute with one enemies of religion, so in opposing of whom they were the proper the immunities of the clergy they judges; and that a man of his sinin effect violated the privileges of gular fluency and sagacity might, the whole nation; and therefore with his faction, put them to unbehe implored his Majesty, in the coming confusion : they therefore name of all the clergy, to rescind appointed Peter Galle, Professor of these grievous decrees, and deign theology in the academy of Upsal, to shew himself the protector of re- to be their representative. ligion and its ministers. Gustavus The controversy, as appears from replied, that he had proceeded in the document extracted by Gerdethese matters with perfect under- sius from Baazius, turned on those standing of their merits, and with points at that time commonly disjustice and equity, since he had puted between the Romanists and taken nothing from the ecclesiastics Evangelicals. As usual, each party that they had not previously arro- claimed the victory, and could come gated to themselves. With respect to no agreement, because one ap. to Olaus, he was ready to extermi- pealed to tradition, and the other to náte him, and all other heretics, if Scripture. The King, fearing that they were justly convicted; but the minds of the audience would be he had noticed such excellent qua- thereby too much confused to form lities in him, that he was well per a deliberate judgment, commanded suaded he could easily wipe off the the disputants to write their argustigma of heresy; whereas theolo- ments, that religious hearers and gians were too apt to bring this readers might know which party decharge against all who did not hold fended true doctrine, and taught

such worship as was agreeable to ...* Puffendorf, p. 284.


the word of God.

The dispute

being thus abruptly terminated, the tavus convened the senate, to conRomish advocate committed to sider of the means of discharging a writing the papal proofs, to which debt to the Lubeckers, and of the Protestant champion took twelve settling the military arrears. He exceptions.

instructed his Chancellor to repreBishop Braske now used his ut- sent the expediency of requiring the most endeavour to prevent that clergy, as good citizens, to contrispirit of appeal to the sacred oracles bute to the necessities of the state which seemed to be diffusing itself from those treasures of which they among all ranks. He asserted, that held unjust possession ; stating, that Christ had entrusted the interpreta- the ecclesiastical tenths for one tion of Scripture to the bishops and year, or even two-thirds, would sup. doctors of the church, not to laymen ply the treasury, or pay the foreign and the multitude, that a handle debt. The clergy raised such opmight not be given for mooting position to this demand, and excited points on the most holy subjects. so many tumults, that the King He shewed that the vernacular ver- went to Upsal, about Easter 1526, sion would only tend to establish and summoned a chapter of the Lutheranism, by constituting the archbishop and canons, instituting people, ever greedy' of novelty, a new conference, at which Olaus judges in matters of faith. He de. Petri and Dr. Galle appear to have clared that religion ought not to be been present, concerning the reve. subjected to such a test, and that nues and exemption of the prelates his brethren had been criminally of the church. He inquired indulgent in permitting it; and “whence the clergy derived their vented his fury against Olaus, call. prebends and ecclesiastical immuing him a heretic, whom the dio- nities?” Galle replied, “ From the cesan of Stregnass ought to arrest, grants of pious kings and princes, and dispose of, or at least send to according to the word of God, freely Rome, that the church might suffer given for the sustentation of the do detriment from him and his ad- church.” The King inferred, “ If herents,-men not to be dealt with they obtain their goods and priviin a way of conviction, but to be leges from the liberality of kings, punished with fire and sword *. may not the donation cease from All his opposition, however, was the same authority, especially if ineffectual to hinder the progress of they abuse these gifts ? ” Galle a purer doctrine, which was daily said, “If the ecclesiastical goods are striking deeper root in the national withdrawn, the church itself must mind; while the publication of the fall, contrary to the will and promise acts of the Upsal conference, and of Christ, who had declared that the example of marriage set by the the gates of hell should never prevail venerated Olaus, had the effect of against it." Gustavus remarked, inclining many of the clergy to the “ The revenues of the church are profession of a Protestant faith and wasted on slow bellies, who know the renunciation of celibacy, and of not how to preach or write profitinducing many of the nobility to ably, and are content if they chaunt make choice of such chaplains as what is called " The Canonical would preach the truths of the Go- Hours,' which many of them do spel in their castles.

without devotion. Since, then, it On , occasion of the assistance could not be proved from the word rendered to the exiled monarch, of God that dues absolutely beChristiern, by the Emperor, me longed to the church, nor that these nacing an invasion of Sweden, Gus- goods tended to the increase of

piety, or were converted to neces* Vertot, P. il. p. 64. . sary uses, it would be beneficial to

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the church itself to turn them to a pretensions of the ecclesiastical better account.” The Doctor was body, who had been accustomed to silent; on which his Majesty com- see the Archbishop of Upsal, as manded the Archbishop to speak, primate, seated next to the King, but he declined. Then Master and its different members placed George Turson, provost of the ca. above the temporal nobility. As thedral, urged a grave plea for the soon as the feast was over, the biprivileges of the clergy : “ It was shops and clergy withdrew to the not permitted to any man to take church of St. Egidius, and consulted ought from the church without with closed doors on the provision danger of excommunication and to be made against the encroacheternal damnation.” The King bore ments which were meditated. Bithis patiently, but reminded the shop Braske, in great indignation, theologian that he should speak inveighed against the proceedings theologically, and prove his asser- of his Majesty, as aiming at absotions from holy Scripture. He then lute power, and innovating on the declared his sentiments, that he did ancient laws of the country; but not refuse to pious ministers both the diocesans of Stregnass and Scara reverence, according to God's word, recommended conciliatory measures, and a necessary and decent support, and, arguing on the weakness of the but could not see that any stipend clergy to oppose a sovereign who was due to the slow bellies living in was so well supported by the nobi. sanctuaries and monasteries.

lity, proposed the resignation of The Archbishop, continuing his part of their rights to save the reopposition, was at length sent into mainder. The session ended by a honourable exile, and, going to Rome, solemn oath, taken by all present, implored the protection of the Pope. to defend their privileges, to root Gustavus meanwhile prosecuted his out heresy, and to oppose the royal measures of reformation, especially innovations; and, binding each other at Stockholm, where he removed to secrecy, they deposited their resofrom the churches the various mo- lutions under a tomb-stone, where numents of idolatry; among which they were discovered about fifteen was a statue of St. George, of co- years after. Gustavus, unconscious lossal size, which had given occasion of this proceeding,' charged his to various superstitions; placing Chancellor to invite the States to faithful preachers in the pulpits; and enactments against insurrection and enjoining ministers to celebrate invasion ; adding, that restrictions public worship in the vernacular should be laid on the wealth tongue. He also sent out an apo- and power of the ecclesiastics, and logy, in answer to the calumnies a demand made of a portion of their spread against the Swedish church revenues for the exigencies of the and government by the exiled pre- state. This proposition was violate; and, because the discontents lently opposed by the bishops, who of the clergy had excited insurrec- declared that the sacred treasure tion in Dalecarlia, he convened a of the church ought not to be meeting of the States at Aros, where touched without permission of the be first gave an entertainment to Roman Pontiff. The remonstrance the members, and assigned the of the episcopal order had such an chief place to the senatorial lords, effect on the States, especially on the second to the bishops, the third those nobles who were still attached to the nobles, the fourth to the rest to the Popish religion, that Gusta of the clergy, the fifth to the citi- vus rose, and reproached them with zens, and the sixth to the deputies inconstancy, and ingratitude towards from the country. This arrange himself, who had exposed his person ment was designed to humble the in defence of their liberties, while a set of idle priests had not scrupled marriage, with an ample dowry, to charge him with heresy; declaring whether as some equivalent for the that he was ready to lay down impoverished state of the see, or as the royal dignity and quit the king- testifying his approbation of the aldom, on the security of a pension. liance itself. He now acquiesced in He then left the assembly, with some the ceremony of coronation, having officers his adherents, and, shutting previously witnessed the ordination himself up three days in the citadel, of three bishops to the sees of left the Chancellor to preside over Stregnass, Scara, and Abo, by the the Senate, which broke up without hands of the diocesan of Aros, further deliberation. New confer- without the consent or investiture ences were held between Olaus and of the Pontiff. The principal eccleGalle, which were soon disconti- siastics attended a meeting of the nued, because the latter would in- States at Orebrog, in 1529, where sist on using the Latin 'tongue, all dependance on Rome was forwhile the former maintained the mally renounced, and the rule of propriety of using the Swedish, that Scripture solely recognised. In this all might comprehend the nature of assembly the Chancellor sat as royal the dispute. The seditious designs commissioner, and Olaus acted as of the prelates were, however, frus- secretary. All the old superstitions trated, and a deputation from the were not abolished, but a right use States invited the King to retain was aimed at in such as were rethe royal dignity. The bishops tained. Olaus had a difficult task were removed from a share in the to perform, being enjoined by the government, and obliged to resign King to innovate as gently as poscertain possessions which had been sible. He drew up a manual of unlawfully obtained; while they liturgical services, which afforded were enjoined to ordain useful pas- in some instances a curious mixture tors, and forbidden to appropriate of Popish and Protestant sentiment: the goods of deceased clergymen thus, in the form of burial, it was who had legitimate heirs. Restraints 'said, “ If it be permitted to pray were laid on mendicant friars, and for the dead, we beseech thee, o certain abuses corrected in the ec- Lord, to have mercy upon him!” clesiastical courts. .

But the greatest benefit which he Olaus found it necessary to de- rendered the church in this trying fend these proceedings against the season, was his Tract on Justificaattacks of Paul Helie, the Danish tion. He says, “ A sinner is justiCarmelite, and to answer his ca- fied by faith ; not, however, because lumnies against the Lutherans, he believes, but by an appropriawhom he accused of stirring up tion of the righteousness of Christ, 'sedition, and denying the necessity for the grace of God alone justifieth. of good works. He also explained We know indeed that the wrath of the theory of the freedom of the God is infinite, and can never be will, which had been misrepresented; pacified by man. Therefore came maintained that Baptism and the the Son of God manifest in the Lord's Supper were the only sacra- flesh; who bore infinite wrath in ments in the Christian church; and our stead, lost as we were by sin, that wedlock was lawful in clergy. while he merited infinite grace for men. Gustavus, towards the close all that believe. Whoever, then, will of the year 1527, made open pro- be justified by his own works, defession of Protestantism ; confirmed spises the merit of Christ, and canOlaus in the pastoral care of Stock- not obtain the righteousness which he holm; and soon afterwards raised seeks. We who believe are beloved his brother Laurence to the arch- in Christ, and the wrath of God bishoprick, giving him his niece in abideth on unbelievers. The elect in Christ are sons of God, through repugnant to goodness, but yet acthe merit and redemption of the cepted through the reconciliation in only incarnate Son of God, who was Christ, and direction of the Holy willing to become our brother, that Spirit, by whom the believer obe he might bear the office of mediator. dient to the word is guided." The Holy Spirit himself, their guide, 66 A believer cannot properly seek supports in the justified this assur- . a reward, though freely promised ance of salvation and election; by in Christ, since he has it from the whose assistance the faithful daily grace of a promise, and not from a proceed in the exercise of good desert of work ; as those who expect works and obedience to the divine a great reward must be totally dis

.: appointed, if a saint is unable to « To preach the Gospel, is to an- do any thing rightly, but as he gives nounce the remission of sins, and glory to a co-operating God, and the righteousness of Christ, which acknowledges a gratuitous reward, is followed by good works in the without ascribing a particle of glory renewed; not indeed perfect, through to himself; for the true life of man the old Adam dwelling in the flesh, is the glory of God.”


BARTIMEUS.-MARK X. 46–52. A BEGGAR, helpless, vile, and weak, * The words thrill’d thro’my darksome soal On yon broad highway side

And shed a light divine. I sat me down, in hope to meet

I thought, “ That Name can make me The aid for wbich I sigh’d.

whole, Sealed up in night, the glare of day

“ Can chase a gloom like mine!" Ne'er broke upon mine eyes;

I cried : they bade me hold my peace: And thicker gloom forbade one ray

I rais'd my voice more high; To pierce my mental skies.

My tongue determin'd not to cease The cares that uppermost arose,

Till Jesus heard the cry. And rack'd my heart and head, “ Thou Son of David," loud I said, Were only such the body knows,

“Have mercy upon me!" Its garments, and its bread.

He stood-all heaven around me spread When fix'd upon my dusty seat,

When told “ He calleth thee!” How anxious did I hear

*My tatter'd garb aside I cast, The fast-approaching busy feet

* Sprang from my weary seat: Of travellers drawing near !

Though blind, I rush'd to him in haste ; Their willing mite some few bestow'd, : . Fell suppliant at his feet. At my accustoin'd cry;

“ What wilt thou that my love shall do?" But others pass'd me on the road , (Like balm the accents fell). · I heard them stealing by.

“ Lord, give me sight, my powers renew, At length upon my listening ear

“ Take me with thee to dwell.”. · Burst forth the loud acclaim,

He spake : broad daylight pour'd around; And, trembling between hope and fear, My eye-balls own'd the ray : · I asked the Hero's name.

My soul a brighter vision found, “ Perhaps he will regard the blind, And follow'd in the way. “ And pity's stores supply.”

Now where he goes my feet attend, “ Be still,” they cried," and calm thy And bless the happy road. mind,

He is my Home, my Father, Friend, : “ Tis Jesus passeth by!" . . My Saviour, and my God!

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