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Romish Church with a safe con- derstanding that his wife Barbara science. The king is said to have was at Louvain he waited on her, taken this resignation in good part, and recognised Lasco's features, but, understanding his desire of lite- whom he had seen some time berary travel, to have granted him, of fore, in the countenance of his inhis own accord, letters of recom- fant daughter, but was grieved to mendation to various nobles and hear that the climate of Emden princes.

was injurious to his health. · He reIn 1537 he visited Mentz, with quested him to give him letters of his friend Hardenberg, who took his recommendation to Luther and Medoctor's degree ; and two years lancthon, whom he wished to visit after, being at Louvain with the at Wittenberg, as well to avoid same learned and pious individual, persecution in the Netherlands as he gave further proof of his anti- to gain instruction in theology; and popish character by entering into concluded in this respectful and afthe marriage state. “He had,” fectionate manner : “ I obtained, says Clark, “ a very great love to some months ago, from a Spanish Christ and his people; a great hatred nobleman, a sword, which he highly of popery and superstition, and a prized for its antiquity and material: great contempt of the world; so and although I feel that it is a trifling that, whereas he might have been present, and unworthy your acceptpreferred to great honour in his ance, yet I send it you. For I deown country, such was his love to sire that you should possess some Christ and his church, and such his pledge of the regard I entertain for hatred to · popery, that he chose, you. I would have you measure with Moses, to suffer affliction with the gift not by its intrinsic value, the people of God, rather than to but by the sentiments of the donor. live in worldly honour and peace You will say, · What have I to do amongst his friends."

with swords ?' I confess indeed His primary undertaking in his that you are armed with another new character was to arrange, with weapon, far more excellent than the Countess Anne of Oldenburgh, this, and sharper than any doublecertain regulations for the govern edged, even the word of God. But ment of the church of Emden, where I merely send this to assure you in 1540 he assisted that widowed how much I esteem both your corprincess with his counsel, without poreal and mental worth, or rather sustaining any public charge. His the gifts of God in you: on one zeal and ability were much appre hand, your illustrious and even ciated by those who desired the im- royal descent; on the other, your provement of the existing state of sincere profession of religion, rare religion and letters, of which an learning, and most striking example interesting testimony is given in an of integrity and piety. Wherefore, epistle sent him from Louvain, in I pray you, condescend to receive May in the following year, by kindly the expression of my goodFrancis Enzinas, otherwise called . will, though you may despise the Dryander, a Spaniard, who subse- present itself. Farewell, most ex. quently was imprisoned at Brussels, cellent sir, and believe the name of for translating Luther's version of your Francis worthy to be inscribed the Scriptures into the Castilian in the catalogue of those who are tongue. This foreigner had heard most devoted to you." Though so much in favour of our reformer the general strain of the epistle is froin their mutual friend Harden- too laudatory for the more correct berg, and had been so much grati- feeling of modern times, yet such fied by the report, that he ardently documents are valuable, as evincing desired an interview with himn. Un- the Christian love and esteem which

men of spirituality and cultivation rious schisms had divided the minds felt for each other, at a season of professors, not yet sufficiently when, as sheep of Christ, they were freed from popish leaven. In his worried by the wolves of supersti- endeavour to heal these mischiefs, tion in every quarter.

with resolution, tempered by pruThe inclemency of the climate of dence, it might be expected that Emden, and the declining state of many difficulties would arise, one health of his brother Jerome, seem while from the strict disciples of to have determined Lasco, in 1542, Luther, at another from the sect of to return to Poland, where he at. Memmo and David George, and tended the death-bed of his relative. again from some counsellors of disHe was called back to Emden be- solute habits, who were more ready fore the end of the year, to take to complain of the divisions occacharge of the church, and pro- sioned by religion, than to establish ceed with the Countess Anne, her an unity of faith. Mean time, by brother Christopher, and others in continued and wise application, he authority, to a systematic reform of carried his point so far, that images religious worship in East Friesland. were removed from the churches; He endeavoured to excuse himself vain and superstitious observances, from this task in the first instance, exorcisms, and the like, were abpleading the difficulty of the under- rogated; a form of discipline and taking, his own infirmity, and un ecclesiastical order was signed ; and, skilfulness in the language of the the profession of purer doctrine was country; but when he was seriously reduced to system. The followers admonished of his obligation to pro- of David George, and all supporters mote the cause of Christ, he as- of his wild anabaptistical errors, sented, with this condition, that were expelled East Friesland; while “ if upon experiment it should be Lasco himself began a regular visi. found that the glory of God was tation of the churches, and a purer promoted by this call from the confession of the sacrament, which church and the prince, then he had been abolished by a certain would remain in his office, otherwise Luneburg formulary forced on Emhe should beg to be discharged by den ten years before, was restored, them both.”

and a consistory founded, which ~ When the die was thus cast," became respected through the whole observes Gerdesius, “ it cannot be of reformed Christendom *.” told with what prudence, diligence, In 1544 he was invited by Albert, moderation, and constancy, he ap. duke of Prussia, to regulate the replied to the work of reforming doc- form in his dominion; but as he trine and ecclesiastical' discipline; deemed it expedient to send that which it would be tedious to detail, prince a declaration of his sentiand had therefore better be summed ments on the subject of the commuup in three words : The last stroke nion, which accorded with those in the Emden Reformation was of Zuinglius, the negociation was wanting ; many relics of the former broken, through the attachment of superstition remained; on account Albert to the Lutheran views. of the affair of the sacrament various In 1548 he obtained leave of the disturbances had been by some Countess Anne to sail to England, rigid maintainers of the carnal pre- on a request from Edward VI. to sence of Christ in the holy supper; whom he had been recommended and there had been no rule of dis- by Archbishop Cranmer, Peter cipline observed, but all regulation Martyr, professor of divinity in had become rather matter of sus- Oxford, and Turner, a physician, as picion, as affording refuge for every a person qualified by his experience kind of sectarianism : in a word, va- * Hist. Evang. Renov. t. iii. p. 148.

to manage affairs relative to a settle- tenhove translated the Psalms into ment of Protestant refugees in Lon- Dutch verse, setting them to tunes don. A considerable number of adapted for public worship. This individuals of this description, chiefly tranquillity, however, was of short duDutch, were accustomed to assemble ration; for the succession of the Prin. for Divine worship in private dwell. cess Mary, a staunch Romanist, on ings; and their case, as sufferers the death of Edward, in July 1553, on account of religion, exciting a led to a change of measures unfanatural sympathy in the breasts of vourable to the Reformed profession. English Reformers, they were not The minds of the foreigners were without hope of obtaining, in their then turned towards Denmark, on favour, some privileges from the account of the enlightened characGovernment. This hope was re- ter of Christian III. and two Daalized, when the pious and amiable nish vessels lying in the Thames, young sovereign granted them a Lasco, with three hundred and fifty charter in due form, and the use of his poor flock, consisting chiefly of a church in Austin Friars. Dur- of Dutch and French, with some ing his stay in England, Lasco ren- English and Scotch who chose to dered them essential service by his share in their lot, and his colleagues, counsel; and though he returned to except Francis Rivers, who remained the continent, yet he soon rejoined some time longer engaged in minithem, in consequence of the troubles stration with Peter, son of Walter occasioned by the publication of the Delany, embarked on the 17th of Interim, when the whole affair was September. The wind was at first settled, by his own nomination as prosperous; but in a short time such superintendant over four other mi- a tempest arose that they were in nisters, named Walter Delany, Mar. much peril for seven weeks, when, tin Micronius, Francis Rivers, and after great suffering, they arrived Richard Gall. The revenues which off the coast of Denmark. But here had belonged to the monastic foun- it pleased God that fresh trouble dation were appropriated for the awaited them. Lasco and his subsistence of these pastors, and friends being well known to mainthe corporation of London charged tain the Zuinglian view of the sacrato protect them in the enjoyment of ment, Paul Noviomagus, one of their rights. At the same time the king's chaplains, with a bitterthree hundred and eighty of them ness reflecting lasting disgrace on were naturalized*.

his name, took that opportunity to · This is one of the most interest- denounce them as dangerous intruing facts connected with the English ders; though Palladius, the superReformation, as affording a specimen intendant of Zealand, and professor of the tolerant character of persons of divinity at Copenhagen, declared in authority at that early period. that he was ready to give them the John. Uttenhove, another minister, right hand of fellowship. As this and particular friend of Lasco, fre- unseasonable attack provoked a quently assisted in this congrega- defence from Lasco, the king was tion, which flourished till its mem- persuaded to forbid them from winbers amounted to three or four thou. tering in his dominions in the most sand. Lasco maintained a good peremptory manner. They then understanding with Bucer at Cam- attempted in vain to gain admission bridge, and Martyr at Oxford, and at Rostock, Wismar, Lubec, and edited a publication of Bullinger on Hamburg, and after experiencing a the sacrament, as well as another variety of hardships in wanderings of his own, on the true meaning of on the ocean, protracted till the the words of institution ; while Ut following March, they sailed for

.Burnet's Hist. of Reform. East Friesland, and were hospitably

entertained at Emden · and other the instrument of establishing towns, under the kind patronage of at Frankfort, in their sermons, the Countess dowager of Oldenburg. writings, meetings, and private disSome migrated to Frankfort, some courses, declaring that they differed to Dantzick, some to Wessel, and very blameably from the Augsburg others to Strasburg; while their Confession, he thought it his duty, dispersion tended, as in an earlier at the commencement of the folperiod of the church, to the wider lowing year, to edit an Apology for diffusion of evangelical truth.

that Church, in which he observed ; After staying about a year at " That their doctrine wàs not opEmden, he received an invitation posed to the Augsburg Confession to his own country, which he de concerning the presence of Christ termined to accept; but first went in the Supper ; but that, if it did, to Frankfort, where he obtained they ought not therefore to be conleave of the Senate to build a demned, if they could warrant their church for the Reformed strangers, dissent from that Confession by the and particularly for those of the Low word of God.” Westphalus proCountries. While in this city he ceeded to the greatest length in his wrote a defence of his faith and reviling, and accused the Senate conduct as a minister, against the of Frankfort of admitting the enemisrepresentations of thosè zealous mies of the empire within their Lutherans, Westphalus, Tillemann, walls ; observing “ that those who. and Bugenhagen, which he ad. had suffered in defence of such dressed to Sigismund king of Po- sentiments as were held by these. land. He asserted that the doctrine settlers, in England, Holland, inculcated by his adversaries was France, and elsewhere, were the opposed to the sense of Scripture, devil's martyrs.” the analogy of faith, and the con- Of his return to Poland we have. sent of the catholie church. He an interesting account in an epistle complained that the true doctrine from John Uttenhove to the celeof the eucharist was condemned brated Calvin. only through prejudice and want “ As I am engaged in writing to of examination, and that the more my friends in general, I am unwilviolent Lutherans too much resem- ling to send off my letters, without bled the Papists, not supporting giving assurance to you, my most their cause by legitimate weapons respected Calvin, of the success of Scripture and reason, but by which has attended the illustrious force and authority; and calling noble John a Lasco in Poland : those persons heretics, who could with whom, thanks he to Almighty not agree with them in every God, affairs have prospered as yet, point*.

although not without amazing opIn the same year, 1556, by per- position on the part of satan, who mission of the duke of Wirtemburgh did not a little fear for himself and he held a conference with Dr. his dominion from one whose auBrentz on the subject of the Lord's thority in his country is very consi. Supper. Of this conference an derable ; and therefore he has used account was published, which he every, endeavour, and employed affirmed was so false, that it con- every mean by his hirelings, either tained many things which he never to destroy him or force him out of spoke or heard, and omitted others the kingdom. For when, about which ought to have been stated. two months since, our bishops, As the Lutherans traduced the who were all with the king at the congregation which he had been meeting of the States at Warsaw,

* Melchior Adam, Vitæ Theolog. suspected that he was coming exteror. p. 11.: ,

hither, they convened under the

Archbishop of Gnesna, together arms against the monarch, and to with Lipomani bishop of Verona excite sedition in every direction ; the papal legate, without the pre- that he rode about the diocese of sence of any secular witnesses. Cracow with two or three hundred They spent the whole day in con- horse, demolishing all things in the sultation how they might most con- churches at his own pleasure, and veniently dispose of him, which was much more of the same kind; a matter of great concern, as they which they so constantly repeated, were well persuaded he would be and boldly affirmed, that the king the ruin of them all, according to began to suspect something sinister the expression of the diocesan of about Lasco, and to be somewhat Cracow, and therefore a timely set against him, till he spoke on remedy was to be provided. The the subject to a certain nobleman next day they waited on the king, his relation. This person told the Lipomani first, then all the prelates king, that all these reports were in a body. They stated, that they nothing more than mere calumnies, had heard John a Lasco was coming, most audaciously hatched and conand desired a conference with the trived by his adversaries; that the sovereign: wherefore they besought king ought to be persuaded of this, him not to grant him an audience, and that he was ready to pledge because he was a very great heretic, his honour and his life to the truth whom none of the nations could of such disavowal. At these words tolerate, and so he returned to his the royal mind began to soften, native land, and that indeed he had and the king observed, “You know been already declared such. To that tumults and commotions of whom the king, who is yet rather this sort have often led to the overfearful, replied, It is certainly throw of great states. Wherefore true, that he was some time ago tell Lord a Lasco, that you who pronounced a heretic by you in are related to each other may your synods; but not also by the manage religious matters among council or senate. John a Lasco yourselves, and you shall shortly and his friends assert and are ready see, that I will have more regard to to prove that they are not heretics, God than men. Which that the but catholics. I do not see there- Almighty may grant to the increase fore how I can grant your request.' of his kingdom, we again and again The bishops then said, that the fervently pray. Moreover, the king ought by all means to do this, sessions lately held at Warsaw have if it were only out of regard to the not altogether as yet succeeded to peace of the kingdom. For there our wish; so furiously doth satan was no doubt but that many distur- oppose himself to the spread of the bances would arise, if he were suf. kingdom of Christ the Lord. They fered to remain. But the king, were broken off rather suddenly, on when he found that they persisted account of the war in Livonia, for in their remonstrances, ordered which the king is now preparing, so them to be silent ; for that their that the discussion relative to relirequest was unjust, and contrary to gion and ecclesiastical reformation the rights of the kingdom. When was postponed to the next meeting, they perceived that they could do for which a day was not named. nothing at this first attack, they Meanwhile, the whole of the nobi. most impudently forged a thousand lity use the greatest liberty, without lies from that day, with which they being subject to episcopal scrutiny, loaded my Lord of Lasco generally, and are allowed to provide evangeand particularly before the king. lical preachers for themselves and Among other things asserting, that their people. And at length it is he came into Poland, to take up to be hoped, that we are on the

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