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mittee " are but too visible in the ideas on this subject, was not well whole of their proceedings." “ They qualified to direct the public opinion have acted under strong irritation on the reasonings of others. He and vindictive feeling, whatever be flatters himself that he has “ not its source.” They had never a overlooked any essential part of “ very cordial” intercourse with the the argument" in this discussion, Parent Society. And the Reviewer while, in truth, he has met neither hopes that his remarks will “con- a single fact nor argument of the found the machinations of those case; but has founded the whole who would divide, and if possible of his observations upon the graruin, an institution which is the tuitous assumption that “our own glory of our country and the hope canon" of Scripture “ may possibly of the world !” (pp. 12, 14, 15.) include books not inspired.” It is · The length to which this letter lamentable to think, that, in suphas been protracted does not allow porting a weak position, any indivime to make any comments upon dual can thus trifle with the questhese INCONSISTENT statements, tion of the inspiration of the Sacred although some of them deserve se- Writings ! May the God of the rious reprehension. It will, however, Bible avert the fearful consequences sufficiently answer my purpose to which may attend discussions so have pointed them out. Many of conducted, and confirm the faith of the readers of the Christian Guar- his servants in the truth and efficacy dian, I doubt not, will conclude, of his holy Word ! with me, that a writer who has taken GEORGE CORNELIUS GORHAM. such little pains to arrange his own Clapham, Surrey, Sept. 22, 1825. *
THE PRESENT WORLD.
A peevish April-day ?
And all things fade away :
Man (soon discuss'd) Yields up his trust;
And what is beauty's power?
It flourishes and dies;
Beneath it's surface lies ?
The most belov'd on earth
Not long survives to-day;
But now 'tis gone away :
Thus does the shade, In memory fade,
Then since this world is vain
And volatile and fleet,
And cares and sorrows eat ?
Why fly from ill With anxious skill,
REVIEW OF BOOKS. The Substance of a Journal during habits are formed that every new
a Residence at the Red River settler is assailed with powerful Colony, British North America; temptations, and finds comparatively and frequent Excursions among few, if any, to encourage his persethe North-West American Indians. verance in moral and virtuous conBy John West, M. A. late Chap- duct ;- that, if once he yield to lain to the Hudson's Bay Company. temptation, there are none to re
Pp. xi. & 210. Seeley : 1824. mind him of his guilt and his danger, It has pleased Divine Providence while many will combine to keep to place under British controul very him in countenance, and persuade extensive territories in far distant him that, under such peculiar circumparts of the globe. In addition to stances, he could not act otherwise, our empire in the Eastman empire and therefore need not apprehend exceeding those of Alexander or of either human or divine displeaCæsar-we are the undisputed mo- sure. Hence, also, every attempt narchs of New Holland; have an at moral and religious improvement unlimited territory in Africa; and has to contend with almost insurare governors of an immense region mountable obstacles, and the most in North America, extending from patient and indefatigable agents are Hudson's Bay to the Pacific, and at length compelled to relinquish measured rather by degrees of lati- the almost hopeless task. tude and longitude than by the Such are the ideas which have puny standards of miles or leagues. sprung up in our minds from the
Of various parts of these posses- perusal of Mr. West's Journal. It sions our information is very scanty is the plain, unvarnished, honest and imperfect. Few travellers bave narrative of a pious and judicious so much as attempted to explore Clergyman, who went out, in 1820, as the immense tracks of the Hudson's- chaplain to the Hudson's-Bay ComBay Company's possessions; and, pany, and under the patronage also large as they are, they have at of the Church Missionary Society; tracted little notice until of late who endeavoured to form and carry years, when some unhappy quarrels, into effect plans for the education which had a sanguinary termina of the numerous offspring of Eurotion, brought them more within the peans by Indian women; and to colfield of public view.
lect a few native Indian children, and · Our information as to their moral“ train them up in Christian and civistate is still more defective; and we lized habits and who, after labourhave therefore read with painful ing with great zeal and assiduity interest the work before us, which for three years, and erecting the shews that in the North, as well as first Protestant church in this imthe East, the profligacy of Euro- mense wilderness, returned to Engpeans, and the criminal neglect of land, under the idea of conveying Government in not providing ade- his wife and family to the seat of his quate religious instruction, have labours; but who, from some cause, produced the most lamentable ef- not here assigned, has been induced fects. The original inhabitants of or compelled to relinquish his imall our colonies have been rendered portant services. We fear he has still more corrupt and licentious by been compelled to quit the field: their connexion with us; and the un- and that the same evil influence happy settlers have too commonly with which our ministers and misgiven way to immoral and disgrace- sionaries have had to contend in the ful practices. The consequence has East and the West, has also been been, that depraved and vicious exerted in the North, to prevent the OCT. 1825.
permanent exertions of an individual tioned; their countenances were pleasing, who appears, with the spirit of an with aquiline noses, and beautifully white
and regular teeth.-- The leggins of some Apostle and a Martyr, to have de
of them were fringed with human hair, voted hiinself to the work of an taken from the scalps of their enemies; Evangelist.
and their mocasins, or shoes, were neatly The following extracts from Mr. ornamented with porcupine quills. They
are notorious horse-stealers, and often West's Journal will confirm these
make predatory excursions to the Mandan observations, which, we are com villages on the banks of the Missouri, to pelled to remark, apply very gene- steal them.--Such indeed is their propenrally to a large proportion of the
sity for this species of theft, that they have
fired upon, and killed the Company's British colonies and possessions. The
servants, close to the fort, for these useful whole subject demands the serious animals. — They take as many wives as attention, not only of the Christian they please, and part with them for a public, but of the British statesman.
season, or for a gun, a horse, or some
article they may wish to possess. All the If the empire of England is to be
lowest and most laborious drudgery is imperpetuated in those territories posed upon the woman, and she is not perwhich are now under her controul, mitted to eat till after her lord has finished some more effectual means must be
his meal, who, amidst the burdensome
toil of life, and a desultory and precarious adopted for their moral and religi
existence, will only condescend to carry ous improvement. The most for- his gun, take care of his horse, and hunt midable enemies of Great Britain as want may compel him.-Pp. 38, 39. will, we doubt not, be found among
The Indians have been greatly cor
rupted in their simple and barbarous the country-born of India, the co
manners, by their intercourse with Euroloured population of the West In
peans, many of whom have borne scarcely dies, and the half-breeds of our any other mark of the Christian character North American possessions ;-men
than the name; and who have not only
fallen into the habits of an Indian life, but who, to a large portion of European
have frequently exceeded the savage in activity, add a considerable degree their savage customs. When a female of native cunning, and who, from a is taken by them, it does not appear that low, debased, and vicious education, her wishes are at all consulted, but she
is obtained from the lodge as an inmate at are prepared to indulge ambition
the Fort, for the prime of her days geand cruelty whenever an opportu- nerally, through that irresistible bribe to nity is afforded. This may appear Indians, rum. Pp. 53, 54. to some of our readers strong lan
One of the principal settlers informed guage, but we fear it is not stronger
me this morning, that an Indian had
stabbed one of his wives in a fit of inthan the actual circumstances of the toxication at an encampment near his case will justify.
house. I immediately went to the Lodge Of the moral depravity Mr. W. to inquire into the circumstance, and
found that the poor woman had been speaks,
stabbed in wanton cruelty, through the The blasphemy of the men, in the
shoulder and the arm, but not mortally. difficulties they had to encounter, was
The Indians were still drunk, and some truly painful to me. I had hoped better
of them having knives in their hands, I things of the Scotch, from their known
thought it most prudent to withdraw from moral and enlightened education ; but
their tents, without offering any assistance. their horrid imprecations proved a de.
The Indians appear to me to be generally
of an inoffensive and hospitable dispo. generacy of character in an Indian country. This I lamented to find was
sition; but spiritous liquors, like war, too generally the case with Europeans,
infuriate them with the most revengeful particularly so in their barbarous treat
and barbarous feelings. They are so ment of women. They do not admit
conscious of this effect of drinking, that them as their companions, nor do they
they generally deliver up their guns, bows allow them to eat at their tables, but
and arrows, and knives, to the officers, degrade them merely as slaves to their
before they begin to drink at the Comarbitrary inclinations; while the children
pany's post; and when at their tents, grow up wild and imcultivated as the
it is the first care of the women to conceal heathen.-Pp. 15, 16.
them, during the season of riot and in
toxication.-P. 56. Many of these Indians were strong, A danghter has driven her aged Inathletic men, and generally well-propor- dian father, lashed, in his buffalo robe, on
a sledge, to the colony. He appeared to from limb. If the duck be but wounded be in a very weak and dying state, and has with the gun, bis prey is not instantly suffered much from the want of provisions. dispatched to spare all future pain, but I was much pleased with this instance of feather is plucked out after feather, and filial affection and care. Sometimes the the hapless creature is tormented on aged and infirm are abandoned or de principle. At one moment he sastroyed. - The Chipwyan or Northern In tisfies the cravings of nature from the dians are no sooner burdened with their breast of his mother, and instantly rerelations, broken with years and infirmi wards the boon with a violent blow perties, and incapable of following the camp, haps on the very breast on which he has than they leave them to their fate. In been hanging. Nor does the mother dare stead of repining, they are reconciled to resent the injury by an appeal to the father. this dreadful termination of their exist He would at once say, that puwishment ence, from the known custom of their would daunt the spirit of the boy. Hence nation, and being conscious that they can the Indian never suffers his child to be no longer endure the various distresses and corrected. We see then the secret spring fatigue of savage life, or assist in hunting of his character. He is a murderer by for provisions. A little meat, with an axe, habit, engendered from his earliest age; and a small portion of tobacco, are general and the scalping knife, and the tomakawk, ly left with them by their nearest relations, and the unforgiving pursuit of his own who, in taking leave of them, say, that it enemy, or his father's enemy, till he has is time for them to go into the other world, drenched his hands in, and satiated his rewhich they suppose lies just beyond the venge with his blood, is but the necessary spot where the sun goes down, where they issue of a principle on which his education will be better taken care of than with has been formed. Pp. 152-151.'. them, and then they walk away weeping.
The following extracts point out On the banks of the Saskashawan, an aged woman prevailed on her son to shoot her some of the aimculties
some of the difficulties with which through the head, instead of adopting this Mr. W. had to contend, and shew sad extremity. She addressed him in a the fatal tendency of Popery to most pathetic manner, reminding him of rivet the bonds of' sensuality inon the care and toil with which she bore him on her back from camp to camp in his in
its unhappy subjects. fancy; with what incessant labour she The prejudices which the Canadian brought him up till he could use the bow priests at the colony express against and the gun; and having seen him a great Catholics marrying Protestants must tend warrior, she requested that he would shew to weaken the religious and moral obher kindness, and give a proof of his ligation of the marriage contract, as encourage, in shooting her, that she might tered into between them. I have known go home to her relations. “I have seen the priests refuse to marry the parties of many winters,” she added, “ and am now the above different persuasions, at the become a burden, in not being able to as time that they were cohabiting together, sist in getting provisions ; and dragging as though it were better for them to live me through the country, as I am un- in fornication, than that they should vioable to walk, is a toil, and brings much late the rigid statutes of the Papal see. distress :-take your gun.” She then I married a couple a short time ago, drew her blanket over her head, and her and afterwards found that the priests had son immediately deprived her of life ; in been unwearied in calling upon the woman the apparent consciousness of having done who was a professed Protestant, and an act of filial duty and of mercy.-P. 124. never ceased to repeat to her their opi
The character of the North American nions of heretics, till, with the persuasion Indian is bold, fierce, unrelenting, san- of her husband, they prevailed upon her guinary, and cruel ; in fact, a man-devil to be re-baptized, and re-married by in war, rejoicing in blood, exulting in the them in the nominal profession of the torments he is inflicting on his victim, and Catholic faith. And I was assured by a then most pleased when his inflictions are' Swiss gentleman at the settlement, who most exquisite.-Our surprise ceases when had married a Catholic from Montreal, we learn that he is trained up in blood, that some months after their marriage, that he is catechized in cruelty, and that one of the priests called upon his wife, he is instructed not in slaughter only, but and told her that it would have been better in torment. Nothing that has life with- for her to have married a heathen, than a out the pale of his own immediate circle Protestant. A heathen, he said, might not only does not escape destruction, but be converted to the Catholic faith, and be is visited with torment also inflicted by saved, but little hope could be enterhis infant hand. If his eye in passing by tained of a Protestant. These circumthe lake observes the frog moving in the stances prove that Popery, as it now rushes, he instantly seizes his victim, and exists, at least in this quarter of the globe, does not merely destroy it, but often in- is not contrary to what it was in the days geniously torments it by pulling limb of the Reformation.--Pp. 75, 76.
Without the curb of civi restraint, and carried into effect, if patronized by art the settlement oan hold out but faint active co-operation, which would ultihopes of answering in any way the mately result in producing great benefits expectations of its patrons. Till morality to the half-caste population, and the and religion form its basis, disappointment Indians in general. There is an opening must follow. Nor can I imagine that the for schools on the banks of the Saskassystem taught by the Canadian Catholic hawan, where the soil is good for cultivapriests will avail any thing materially in tion, as well as on the banks of the Athabenefitting the morals of the people; they basca river ; and frequent applications are bigotted to opinions which are calcu- reached me to forward their establishment lated to fetter the human mind, to cramp in those quarters, under the prospect of human exertion, and to keep their depend their being supported through the produce ents in perpetual leading-strings. Their that might be raised from the soil, and the doctrine is, “ Extra Ecclesiam Romanam, supplies to be obtained from the waters salus non esse potest”-(“there is no sal- and the chase.-P. 107. vation beyond the pale of the Roman 'The following passage deserves church”). They appear to me to teach Christianity only as a dry system of eccle
serious attention by all the friends siastical statutes, without a shadow of
to missions among the heathen. spirituality. While they multiply holidays,
Of all men, the missionary most needs to the interruption of human industry, as strong faith, with a simple reliance upon generally complained of by those who em- the providence and promises of God in ploy Canadians, they lightly regard the the trials that await him. His path is Sabbath ; and sanction the practice of indeed an arduous one. Many unexpected spending the evenings of this sacred day. circumstances will oppose his conscienat cards, or in the dance. In their tinkling tious endeavours to fulfil his calling ; and service of worshipping the elevated host difficulties will surround him in every as the very God himself, they fall down shape, so as to put his patience, his hopes also in adoration to the Virgin Mary of usefulness, and steady perseverance, and proudly arrogate to the church of severely to the test. He will often exclaim Rome the absolute interpretation of Scrip. in the deep conviction of his mind, who is ture ; forbidding the people to examine sufficient for the great undertaking ? whether she does it rightly or not. I Experience in the missionary field has thank God that I am a Protestant against convinced me, that there are indeed but such idolatry and ecclesiastical tyranny ! few among a thousand qualified for the Pp. 120_122.
difficult and exalted work. If that eminent It was now hinted to me, that the in- missionary, St. Paul, abounding in zeal, terest I was taking in the education of the and in all the graces of the Spirit, thought native children, had already excited the it needful to solicit the prayers of the fears of some of the chief factors and churches, that “the word of the Lord traders, as to the extent to which it might might run, and have free course,” how be carried. Though a few conversed earnest ought our entreaties to be of all liberally with me on the subject, there friends of missions to “ pray for us,”. were others who were apprehensive that who, if we feel aright, must feel our own the extension of knowledge among the insignificance, in our labours among the natives, and the locating them in agri. heathen, and in our services to the Chriscultural pursuits, where practicable, would tian church, when compared with the operate as an injury to the fur trade. labours of the Apostles, or with those of a My reply on the contrary was, that if Swartz, a Brainerd, or a Martyn.-Pp. Christian knowledge were gradually dif- 111, 112. fused among the natives throughout the Mr. W. concludes by remarking, vast territory of the Hudson's Bay Com- In sending this volume to the press, I pany, from the shores of the Atlantic to feel that I am discharging a duty which I those of the North Pacific, it would best owe to the natives of the rocks and of the promote the honour and advantages of all wilderness, whom I have seen in the parties concerned in the fur trade, and darkness and misery of heathenism; and which I was persuaded was the general I ardently desire that the Mission already enlightened opinion of the Directors in entered upon, may become the means of London.-P. 92.
widely extending the knowledge of ChrisWe have a considerable number of half- tianity among them. I have no higher caste children, and some adult Indian wish in life, than to spend and be spent women, married to Europeans, who attend in the service of Christ, for the salvation a Sunday-school, for gratuitous instruction; of the North American Indians. Not my and I have no doubt that their numbers will, however, but His be done, who will increase considerably in the spring. alone can direct and control all Missions These children have capacity, and would successfully, to the fulfilment of His prorival Europeans, with the like instruction, phetic word, when “ the wilderness shall in the development of their mental fa- become a fruitful field,” and “ the desert culties. Extensive plans might be devised, shall rejoice and blossom as the rose." ;