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CALVIN.

ficial and the head of the Univer[Continued from Page 8.] sity. His whole temper and conAFTER waiting on the Duchess of duct were marked by such decided Ferrara, daughter of Louis XII. opposition to papal abuses, and he a princess who favoured the Re- was betrayed by his constitutional formation, and confirming her in fervour into such provoking exthe faith and hope of the Gospel, cesses, that his life seems to have Calvin returned to France to settle been preserved by a constant mihis domestic concerns. He then racle. In his discourses he sought prepared to take up his residence too exclusively to persuade men by at Strasburg or Basle; but from the terrors of the law, which drew the obstacles presented in those this expostulation from CEcolamquarters by warlike circumstances, padius: “ Your commission is to he was constrained, accompanied preach the Gospel, not to deal in by his brother Anthony, to bend cursing; I admire your zeal, but his course to Geneva.

let it be softened by compassion; He appears to have been led to there is a time for pouring in the oil this city by a particular direction of and wine; be known as the evanProvidence, that he might establish gelist, rather than the severe legisthe work of a revival of pure re- lator.” After meeting with great ligion, which had been begun by success in Western Helvetia, he William Farel and Peter Viret. came to Geneva in 1532 with anThe former was a Dauphinese other minister named Saunier. gentleman, of remarkably energetic They were brought before two of character and good education, the syndics in the Ecclesiastical whose mind had been early en- , Court, when they offered to prove lightened on divine subjects, and their doctrines from Scripture; but who became a zealous and un- one of the magistrates observed, daunted preacher of reformed truth. “ If we are to have disputation, it By favour of Brissonet, Bishop of may be the ruin of religious mysteMeaux, he laboured for a short time ries. What do you mean, you in his diocese, but was forced by wicked wretch, by coming to disthe persecution to retire to Stras- turb this city ?” “ I am not what burg and Basle, where he was con- you call me," said Farel, “ I preach sidered by the leading reformers as Jesus Christ, crucified for sin, but a valuable auxiliary. At the latter raised again; whosoever believeth place, he publicly maintained the in his name shall be saved; this is most important article of Protes- the substauce of my message; I tantism; but was expelled through am a debtor to all who are disposed thejoint influence of the Bishop's of- to hear and obey the Gospel, my

FEB, 1825.

whole and sole desire being, that to hundred citizens, confiscated obedience to the faith may generally their property, and transferred the flourish; for this purpose are we episcopal seat to Gex. The Senate come hither, to try whether any declared the see vacant, and reman in this city is willing to give us quired the chapter to elect officers a hearing, ready to render an ac- for the administration of its tempocount of our faith and hope, and, if ralities. The canons resorted to need be, to seal our testimony with the base expedient of destroying our blood!” Then a counsellor the most popular preachers, and called out, “ He' hath spoken employed a woman who had alblasphemy! what need have we of ready poisoned a youth at Lyons, further witness ? he is guilty of and who, under pretence of being death. To the Rhone! To the a convert, was introduced as cook Rhone! it is better that a Lutheran into the house where Farel and his rascal should suffer, than tumults friends lodged and boarded. On should be, excited.” Farel fixed the day when she had mixed poison his eyes on the man who had thus with the victuals, Farel and Froblindly quoted Scripture, and said, ment providentially dined from “ Do not speak the language of home; but Viret partook of the Caiaphas, but the words of God.” meal, which did not immediately Here a by-stander struck him on take effect, but shortened his days the mouth, and one of the servants by a slow and sure decay. The fired a pistol, at him, which missed wretched woman confessed her its aim. They were then ordered crime and was executed, and one to quit the city *. The government of the canons whom she named as however permitted the Scriptures her accomplice was imprisoned. to be printed in the vulgar tongue, On the 27th of August 1535, the and the evangelical doctrine gained Senate solemnly decreed that the ground among the commonalty, Protestant should be the establishwhile some of their superiors in- ed religion. clined to its reception; but the Such was the state of things leading citizens had a difficult part when Calvin arrived. Farel laid to act; Friburg declaring it would before him the obstacles which the break alliance with Geneva if it Reform had yet to contend with, received the Protestant faith, and and used many arguments to preBerne threatening it with vengeance vail on him to stay at Geneva, and if that faith were opposed. Under benefit the serious inquirers after the protection of the Berners, and truth by his authority and counsel. with the connivance of the magis. Calvin, appearing reluctant to close tracy, who were in general dis- with this offer, was thus addressed gusted with the tyranny of the by Farel with his 'accustomed ecclesiasties, and jealous of the energy: “ I protest unto thee in patronage afforded them by the the name of Almighty God, that Duke of Savoy, Farel was ad- if thou persistest in framing exmitted again to preach, with two cuses, and will not join us in this able coadjutors, Viret and Froment. work of the Lord, the Lord will These excellent men proceeded in curse thee, as seeking thine own, the face of opposition to declare rather than the things of Jesus the truth, in nothing terrified by Christ!" Viret seconded this protheir adversaries.

; test in a solemn but mild manner, The Bishop, disappointed in a being as remarkable for the suavity, plan to surprize the city in concert as Farel for the vehemence of his with the Duke, excommunicated eloquence. Urged thus on both

sides, he yielded to their repre* Scultetus, p. 181.

sentations, assuredly gathering that . the Lord had called him. By the and Jesus would be no more man united , votes of the presbytery, but God. If he be in the Sacramagistracy, and people, he was ment in a glorified body, then he is chosen preacher and divinity pro- not as he was at the time of instifessor.

tution. For at the supper he was While these private affairs were passible and mortal, not having transacting, the aspect of political yet been glorified, nor was he yet circumstances was propitious to the in more places than one, and by interests of the reformed. The al- consequence he was not in the liance between Berne and Geneva bread, but occupying a place at was confirmed, and an opening was the table. Now, if he were not in made for the introduction of Evan- that very actual supper which he gelic instruction into the neigh- himself administered, you must exbouring city of Lausanne. Its cuse my believing that you have bishop, like that of Geneva, hav- more power than he had, or that ing gone over to the Duke, the you, gentlemen, can administer a citizens surrendered to the Berners, superior ordinance to his * !” who appropriated to themselves all In consequence of such disputhe rights and prerogatives of the tations, the Protestant faith was see, converted the bishoprick into confirmed at Lausanne, and Viret a college, and assigned the reve- appointed pastor. Farel drew up nues of monastic foundations to a form of confession for that city, the maintenance of hospitals, while Calvin composed a catechism churches, and schools. A dispu- for the Genevese. The latter wrote tation was appointed to be held, two letters into France, to establish which was attended by Calvin, the Protestants in their belief: one Farel, and Viret, on behalf of the was directed to Nicholas Chemin, Protestants. Farel, having sus, containing an affectionate exhortatained the primary office of reply tion against idolatry; and the other to the Papists, was followed by was addressed to Gerard Roussel, Viret, who (notwithstanding his lately made Bishop of Oleron, debilitated state from the effect of against the Popish priesthood. “ It the poison, as well as from the was most delightful,” says Beza, wounds of a dagger given him by “ to see and hear these three inanother priest,) was enabled to dividuals, so distinguished in the bear a powerful testimony. The Church of God, agreeing so comparticulars of this conference have pletely in their divine work, yet been handed down by a faithful blessed with different gifts. Farel reporter; and the following extract was noted for a certain grandeur affords a specimen of the lively of mind, to whose thundering dismanner in which he addressed the courses or fervent supplications no assembly on the subject of the one could listen without a trembling corporeal presence in the Lord's emotion, though at the same time Supper. It is impossible that he seemed lifted up to heaven: the body of Jesus Christ should be Viret had such a peculiar sweetin the Sacrament, in such sort as ness of address, that his hearers when he instituted the ordinance, hung as it were on his very lips : for then it would be passible and and as to Calvin, whatever submortal. It would follow that he ject he handled, he filled the was yet bodily present, which I mind of the hearer with so many deny. Or granting that he had weighty sentences, that I have two bodies, one capable of suffer- often thought, an union of their ing, and the other incapable, but glorified and omniprésent :-why * Ruchat, Hist. de la Reform. de la then this would be no more body, Suisse. Tom. VI. p. 257.

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excellencies would present the gaining the ascendant by their image of what one might venture management. The ministers preto call a perfect pastor *»

sented themselves before the asThis reformation of doctrines sembly, and requested to be heard, did not produce a correspondent previously to a decision, but in improvement of manners. There vain; the council declared that the was a laxity of morals and a tur. liberties and privileges of the state bulence of disposition in the citi- ought to be preserved; that the zens that led to great disorders, three pastors had invaded those and could with difficulty be re- privileges; and that, therefore, they strained by those whom they most should be expelled the city within reverenced. A number of the two days. Truly,” said Calvin, magistrates, though indignant at the on being made acquainted with this Savoyard influence, were attached resolution, « if I had served men, to the Romish persuasion, while I should have had a poor reward ; many of the principal families were but 'tis all well: I have served One divided by factions. Calvin was who doth always perform to his grieved to observe the prevalence servants what he hath once proof customs and maxims, uncon- mised.” genial with the spirit of the Gospel, He retired to Zurich, where a and, assisted by Farel and Cou- synod of the Helvetic churches rault (a minister, who had lost was called, and ineffectual interhis bodily vision, but shared spiri- cession for his return made through tual light with his pious coadju- the Berners; whereupon he protors,) refused to administer the ceeded to Basle, and thence to Sacrament while these abuses con- Strasburg, where he experienced a tinued. Difference also between sweet and soothing contrast to the the ecclesiastical rites of Geneva ill usage of the Genevese, in the and Berne increased the existing cordial welcome given by Bucer, disorders, and inflamed political Hedio, Capito, and others. He animosity. The former used lea- was immediately appointed provened or common bread in the fessor of divinity, and by consent sacrament, removed fonts out of of the magistrates founded a churches, and abolished all festi- French church, of which he bevals except Sundays; but the latter came pastor with a competent disapproved these regulations, and maintenance. Farel withdrew to by a decree of a synod held at Neufchatel. The populace, exultLausanne, reguired that the use of ing in the banishment of this zealous unleavened bread, similar to the man, with vulgar humour carried Popish wafer, baptisteries, and through the streets a stove on holidays, should be restored. The which they used to broil their meat, ministers of Gepeva claimed to be together with the cotton-wick of a heard in their own defence, and candle which they termed Farels, demanded a synod to be held at implying that they had broiled

Farel*. But he pitied their ignoThe Syndics for the year 1538, rance, and wrote them an epistle, who were opposed to the reforming exhorting them in a truly Christian party, summoned a common coun- spirit to unity in doctrine. Calvin cil, on pretence of providing for also, fearing that a refusal to adthe public safety, but with a view minister wafers in communion of giving those who adhered to the would only serve to exasperate the ancient forms an opportunity of obstinate, and lead to the expul

sion of other pious ministers, who * Beza, Vit. Cals. Opp. tom. iii. fol. 368-370.

* Spon, Hist. de Geneve, L. 3.

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Zurich.

yet remained in Geneva and its that God had given him many chilterritory, by which the people dren throughout the Christian would be hindered altogether from world. hearing the Gospel, addressed a While preparing to attend the letter to the reformed citizens with two diets called by the Emperor in this apostolic superscription, “ To 1541, at Worms and Ratisbon, my well-beloved brethren in the for the settlement of religious differLord, the remnant of the scattered - ences, in both which he was treated church of Geneva;" enjoining them with marked respect by the asnot to contend about a question sembled divines, especially by Mewhich was in itself indifferent. Jancthon and Cruciger, he received Hence unleavened bread was aster- intelligence of a favourable change wards used by the Genevese Pro- of affairs in Geneva. In the polititestants, though contrary to the cal disturbances which had sucprivate judgment of Calvin, who ceeded his expulsion, the two main this particular, as in some others, gistrates who had been foremost in discovered a spirit of conciliation, rendering him odious in the eyes for which his enemies have always of the commonalty, came to an been backward to give him due untimely end; one, leaping from credit. Cardinal Sadolet, Bishop the city wall, bruised himself so of Carpentras in Avignon, took severely that he lived but a few occasion from Calvin's absence to days; the other, having killed a write to the citizens, exhorting man in an affray with his staff of them to return to the bosom of the office, was condemned to lose his Romish church, and using with head to appease the popular fury. dexterity the customary arguments. The victorious party, who were As soon as the Reformer read this offended at some clauses of a document, he answered it in so treaty recently concluded with the able and convincing a manner by a Berners, 'united religious with policounter-address, that the design of tical questions, and demanded the the prelate was completely frus- recal of the banished pastors. trated.

They could not prevail on Farel to This was succeeded by an en- quit Neufchatel, where his minislarged edition of his Institutions, a try was peculiarly acceptable; but Commentary on the Romans, and they despatched deputies to Strasa Treatise on the Lord's Supper. burg to solicit the return of Calvin. He had likewise the satisfaction to and used the mediation of Zurich convince many Anabaptists of their for the same purpose. The Reerrors, among whom were two of former was not disposed to accept their principal leaders; one named their invitation ; for, although he Volsius, who became minister of had corresponded affectionately a Strasburg congregation; and the with them by letter, he was un other John Storder, a native of willing to encounter new troubles Liege, who soon after died of the by appearing amongst them again plague; when Calvin, at the sug- in an official character. As a gestion of Bucer,' married his minister he had served them withwidow Idolette de Bure, a lady out charge, and had reaped inwho, to the recommendations of gratitude and slander. The Strasyouth and beauty, added the supe- burgers on the other hand had rior qualities of piety and integrity entertained him with liberality, and She survived their union about nine remonstrated against his removal. years, and brought him a son, who When, however, Bucer perceived died before his father. He was that the Genevese pressed their left widowed and childless, but suit with uncommon earnestness, comforted himself in the reflection he thought that God was evidently

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