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Overcome anger,

Vinco ira. Hope gives strength,

Spes do vis. Truth does not offend me,

offendo veritas. You will easily avoid hatred, Odium facilè vito.

Non ego

PREDICATE-NOMINATIVE.

A noun in the predicate, after a verb neuter or passive, is put in the same case as the subject, when it denotes the same person or thing. 0210.

Indolence is a vice,

Inertia sum vitium. Anger is a short madness, Ira furor brevis sum. I am not a shepherd, Non ego sum pastor. Men are mortal,

Homo sum mortalis. Death is certain,

Mors sum certus. Cæsar was accounted great, Cæsar magnus habeo. Experience is the best mas- Experientia sum bonus ter,

magister. A true friend is a great trea- Amicus verus thesaurus sure,

sum magnus. Catiline was brave, but (his) Catilina sum fortis, sed cause was unjust,

causa sum injustus. Thou art a judge,

Sum judex. We are not ignorant,

Non sum ignarus. Cicero was esteemed elo- Cicero habeo disertus.

quent, The soldiers sleep secure,

Miles dormio securus. You will become a poet,

Tu fio poeta.

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A noun which limits the meaning of another noun, denoting a dif. ferent person or thing, is put in the genitive. Ø 211.

The love of money increases, Cresco amor nummus. Necessity is the mother of Mater ars sum necessitas.

arts, Semiramis was the wife of Semiramis sum Ninus ux

Ninus, Scipio routed the forces of Scipio fundo Annibal coHannibal,

piæ,

or.

The sun is the light of the Sol sum lux mundus.

world, He received the fruit of his Virtus is fructus capio.

virtue, Observe the boldness of the Video homo audacia.

man, Sleep is the image of death, Somnus imago mors sum. Helen was the cause of the Helena causa sum (perf.) Trojan war,

bellum Trojanus. Cræsus was king of the Ly- Rex Lydus Cræsus sum.

dians, The memory

of past evils is Jucundus sum memoria pleasant,

præteritus malum. The course of life is short, Vita brevis sum cursus,

(that) of glory eternal, gloria sempiternus. The love of his country pre- Amor patria vinco.

vailed, The infirmity of nature is Natura infirmitas accuso.

blamed, Honor is the reward of vir- Honos sum præmium virtue,

tus. Penelope was the wife of Penelope conjux Ulysses Ulysses,

sum (imp.) Pan is a god of Arcadia,

Pan Deus Arcadia sum.

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A noun limiting the meaning of a verb, is put in the dative, to denote the object or end, to or for which any thing is, or is done. Ø 222.

Piso brought assistance to his Piso frater auxilium fero.

brother, I give thanks to you, Ago tu gratia. The body is restored to the Reddo terra corpus.

earth, Vulcan made arms for Achil- Arma facio Vulcanus A. les,

chilles, Applause was given to you,

Do tu plausus. I will give (my) fears to the Metus trado ventus. winds,

They favored the undertak- Catilina incæptum faveo.

ings of Catiline, They do good neither to Nec sui nec alter prosum.

themselves nor to any oth

er, L. Otho restored to the eques- L. Otho equestris ordo res

trian order their dignity, tituo dignitas. I do not envy the fortune of Haud invideo fortuna ulany citizen,

lus civis. Tell me the truth,

Dico ($162, 4) ego verum. The grass returns to the Redeo gramen (plur.)camplains,

pus.

ACCUSATIVE

AFTER

PRE POSITIONS.

(1.) Twenty-six prepositions are followed by the accusative. $ 235.

Ariovistus sends ambassadors Ariovistus legatus ad Cæto Cæsar,

sar mitto. Roses shine among the lilies, Rosa fulgeo inter lilium. Few come to old age, Paucus venio ad senectus. He waited at the sea below Expecto ad mare infra opthe town,

pidum. The slaves were in the

power
Servus
penes

accusator of the prosecutor, Your good will toward me, Tuus voluntas erga ego, et

and mine toward you, are meus erga tu sum par.

equal, There is a grove near the Sum lucus prope amnis.

river, They divided the captives Divido inter sui captivus.

among themselves,

sum.

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(2.) In and sub, denoting tendency, are followed by the accusative; denoting situation, they are followed by the ablative.

revoco.

All Italy calls me back into Italia cunctus ego in patria

my country, An incredible multitude came Multitudo incredibilis in

together into the Capitol, Capitolium convenio. I have letters in (my) hand, In manus epistola teneo.

The kingdom was in the Regnum sum in potestas power of the enemy,

hostis. The army was sent under the Exercitus sub jugum mityoke,

to. War is concealed under the Sub nomen pax bellum name of peace,

lateo.

A BLATIVE

AFTER

PREPOSITIONS.

Eleven prepositions are followed by the ablative. 241.

Learn from me,

Cognosco ex ego.
He spoke concerning the na- De natura bellum dico.

ture of the war, They took up arms for the Arma pro salus communis common safety,

capio. They undertook the business Negotium sine ullus mora without any delay,

suscipio. Think of yourselves and Cogito de tu et liberi.

(your) children, He shall call (them) Romans Romanus suus de nomen from his own name,

dico. One part takes (its) rise from Unus pars initium capio a the river Rhone,

flumen Rhodanus. He spoke with a low voice, Cum vox suppressus dico.

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Nouns denoting the cause, manner, means, and instrument, after adjectives and verbs, are put in the ablative without a preposition. 0 247. See also jg 249 and 250.

The moon shines with a bor- Luna luceo alienus lux.

rowed light, They seek safety by flight, Fuga salus peto. He was beaten with rods,

Cædo virga. We live by hope, Neptune struck the earth Neptunus tridens suus terwith his trident,

ra percutio. I will speak with a very loud Dico vox clarus.

voice,

Spes vivo.

reo.

He quieted the voice of the Auctoritas suus vox popu

people by his authority, lus sedo. Old age comes with silent Pes tacitus venio senecfoot,

tus. Affected with a severe dis- Affectus gravis morbus,pe

ease, he died, His mind is disturbed by sud- Mens subitus dolor turbo.

den grief, Thou failest by imprudence, Tu imprudentia labor. They drive our (men) from Funda, sagitta, lapis nos

the rampart with slings, ter de vallum deturbo. arrows, and stones,

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The infinitive without a subject is only used after certain verbs, especially such as denote desire, ability, intention, or endeavor. $ 271.

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I desire to see you,

Tu cupio video. Dare to despise riches,

Audeo contemno ops. I was

able to touch the Possum (imp.) contingo rabranches, I cannot understand,

Intelligo non possum. Alexander wished to be fear- Alexander metuo volo. ed,

[cio. Money cannot change nature, Natura muto pecunia nesHe longs to relate the dan- Gestio narro periculum.

gers, Themistocles could not take Themistocles somnum ca

pio non possum. We hope to be loved, Spero amo. They have endeavored to re- Conor renovo bellum.

new the war, You seem to entertain some Videor habeo hope,

nullus. Virtue cannot be lost,

Virtus amitto non possum.

rest,

spes non

CONJUNCTIONS.

Copulative and disjunctive conjunctions, and some others, connect words which are in the same construction. $ 278,

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