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The concluding, or Apterous section, comprizes Lepisma, Podura, Termes, Pediculus, Pulex, Acarus, Hydrachna, Phalangium, Aranea, Scorpio, Cancer, Monoculus, Oniscus, Scolopendra, and Julus. Here, the figuring article is a long but interesting extract from Mr. Smeathman's history of the Termites. la the selection of his quotations, Dr. Shaw, on this as on former occasions, manifests both taste and judgment : but we fear that he has been less anxious than heretofore to confirm his claims to the merit of an original writer, or to that of a critical expounder and corrector of existing arrangements. Yet we cherish the well-grounded hope that, in the farther prosecution of his undertaking, he will resume his habits of patient investigation, and present us with a more complete and more elaborate analysis of the subjects which wait bis discussion. We have only to add, that the plates and typography of the present volume are exe. cuted in the same superior style as in those which leave pre. ceded it.
Art. IV. A brief Restrospect of the Eighteenth Century Part the
First ; containing a Sketch of the Revolutions and Improvements in Science, Arts, and Literature, during that Period. By Samuel Miller, A.M. One of the Ministers of the United Presbyterian Churches in the City of New York, Member of the American Philosophical Society, and Corresponding Member of the Historical Society of Massachusetts. 3 Vols. 8vo. Printed at New York and
re-printed for Johnson in London, Price one Guinea, in Boards. A
HISTORY of literature, science, and the arts, is a more
pleasing and instructive theme of contemplation than those registers of the follies and crimes of man which have never ceased to deform the annals of the world ; and a review of the progress of mind, during the most recent and splendid period of its improvement, is a task not unworthy of the most apa proved talents and of the most exalted genius. The reverend author of these volumes, however, arrogates to himself no such lofty pretensions, but very candidly acknowleges the come paratively limited range of his reading, his want of access tą large libraries, and his ignorance of most of the languages of the continent of Europe. These, we must confess, are very serious disqualifications in one who should attempt an enlarned and liberal retrospect of the literature and philosophy of the eighteenth century: but it is not every writer who would have the ingenuousness to avow them; and Mr. Miller, with a degree of modesty and good sense which cannot be too much commended, limits his exertions to the circumscribed sphere of his opportunities and acquirements. As he aims only at rapid sketches, he is, for the most part, contented merely to state the principal discoveries, inventions, and improvements which distinguish the important age to which his work refers; and to mention the names of those individuals to whom the world is indebted for them. Such an outline, it drawn with ability and fairness, may better suit the purposes of popular seading than a more detailed and learned analysis, while it may assist the philosophic scholar in preparing more ample and satisfactory records. The author has at least the merit of sug. gesting and of partly executing an important design, and the honour of inviting the literati of Europe, who possess advantages that have been denied to him, to follow and to excel in the same career.
Mr. M. thus relates the origin of this publication:
On the ist day of January, in the ycar 1801, the author being called, in the course of his pastoral duty, to deliver a sermon, instead of choosing the topics of address most usual at the commencement of a new year, it occurred to him as more proper, in entering on a new century, to atiempt a review of the preceding age, and to deduce from the prominent features of that periud such moral and religious reflexions as might be suited to the occasion. A discourse, formed on this plan, was accordingly delivered. Some who heard it were pleased to express a wish that it might be published. After determining to comply with this wish, it was at first intended to publish the original discourse, with some amplification; to add a large budy of notes for the illustration of its several parts; and to comprise the whole in a single volume. Proposals were issued for the publication in this form, and a number of subscribers gave their names for its encouragement,
· Little progress had been made in preparing the work, on this plan, for the press, before the objections to such a mode of arranging the materials appeared so many and cogent, that it was at length thought best to lay aside the form of a sermon and to adopt a plan that would admit of inore minuteness of detail, and of greater freedom in the choice and exhibition of facts. This alteration in the structure of the work led to an extension of its limits; materials insensibly accumulated ; and that portion which was originally intended to be comprised in a third or fourth part of a single volume gradually *welled into two volumes *.!
This first Part consists of twenty-six chapters, which respectively treat of Mechanical Whilosophy, Chemical Phi. losophy, Natural History, Medicine, (which occupies two chapters), Geograplıy, Mathematics, Navigation, Agriculture, Mechanic Arts, Fine Arts, Physiognomy, Philosophy of the Human Mind, Classic Literature, Oriental Literature, Modern Languages, Philosophy of Language, History, Biography, Romances and Novels, Poetry, Literary Journals, Political Journals, Literary and Scientific Associa• * The original edition is in two volumes.'
tions, Encyclopædias and Scientific Dictionaries, Education, and Nations lately become Literary. A more connected arrangement of his materials would probably occur to an acute inquirer; and we can perceive no good reason for placing the mechanic arts at such a distance from mechanic philosophy, nor for anticipating the general division of Politics by giving an account of Political Journals. The tabular view of the departments of knowlege, prefixed to the French Encyclopédie, might have furnished the author with a more philosophical disposition of his general and particular titles.
Of French, German, and Italian writers, the notices are scanty and meagre : but this deficiency seems to originate in want of access to the sources of informatinn, rather than in any undue partiality to British and American names. It would, indeed, be unjustifiable to insinuate unfair prepossesion or bias on the part of a strenuous advocate for Christianity, who can thus distinguish between faith and intellectual talents :
• Should any reader be offended by the language of panegyric, which is frequently bestowed on the intellectual and scientific endowe ments of some distinguished abettors of heresy or of infidelity, he is entreated to remember that justice is due to all men. A man who is a bad Christian may be a very excellent mathematician, astronomer, or chemist; and one who denies or blasphemes the Saviour, may write profoundly and instructively on some branches of science highly interesting to mankind. It is proper to commiserate the mistakes of such persons, to abhor their blasphemy, and to warn men against their fatal delusions ; but it is surely difficult to see either the justice or utility of withholding frem them that praise of genius or of learning to which they are fairly entitled.'
Mr. Miller's regard, however, for every thing connected with the Scriptures, sometimes warps his estimate of comparative merit; as when he dwells with complacency on the writings of Hutchinson and his followers, though he terms their opinions wild and fanciful; and when he appeals to the Mossic cos. mogony as containing the true principles of geological knowlege. If, in other instances, more attention is bestowed on the state of science and literature in North America than strictly suits its proportion of notice in such a very general survey, the European reader will be disposed to pardon the minuteness of the information on account of its novelty and authenticity.
After having distinctly enumerated the five Medical Schools in the United States, Mr. M. thus concludes his review of Medicine during the eighteenth century:
• The happy influence of these institutions has been much aided by the formation of Medical Societies in almost every state, which have all come into being within the last forty years. The effect of such establishments in exciting a thirst for the acquisition of knowledge;
in producing a spirit of generous emulation ; in cultivating a taste for observation and inquiry ; and in combining the efforts and the skill of physicians in every part of our country, must be obvious to every attentive mind. Many of the Inaugural Theses, defended and published by the students in the American medical schools, would be considered as honourable specimens of talents and learning in the most renowned univer ities of Europe.
• Within the last fifieen years of the century. under review, medis cal publications have greatly multiplied in the United States; many of which do equal honour to their authors and their country. Among these the numerous and valuable works of Dr. Rush hold the first place; and to no individual are we more indebted for promoting, both by precept and example, that laudable and enlightened zeal for medical improvements, which has been so happily increasing, for a numer of years past, among American physicians. In a catalogue of our medical writers, also, Drs. Maclurg, Mitchill, Barton, Ram. say, Caldwell, Currie, and several others, would be entitled to partie cular notice, did not the liinits of the present sketch forbid an ato fcmpt to do justice to their respective merits.
In the year 1797 a periodical publication, under the title of the Medical Repository, was commenced by Drs. Mitchill, Miller, and Smith, which, from the peculiar circumstances of the country, may be considered as an important event, in noting the successive steps of medical improvement in the United States. In the premature death of the last-named gentleman, who bade fair to attain the most honourable eminence in his profession, this work sustained a great loss. It is still, however, prosecuted with undiminished excellence and success; and furnishes at once very reputable specimens of the learning, talents, and zeal, of many American physicians ; and a highly useful vehicle for conveying to the public a knowledge of every improvement in the science of medicine.
Many interesting particulars, connected with the state of literature on the other side of the Atlantic, will also be found in the third section of the twenty-sixth chapter. It is, however, admitted that what is called a liberal education in the United States is, in common, less accurate ard complete ; the erudition of their native citizens, with some exceptions, less extensive and profound; and the works published by American authors, in general, less learned, instructive, and elegant, than are found in Great Britain, and some of the more enlightened nations on the eastern continent.' This inferiority is ascribed to defective plans and means of instruction, to want of leisure, want of encouragement for learning, and want of books :
• Such are some of the causes which have hitherto impedid the progress of American literature. Their influence, however, is gradu. ally declining, and the literary prospects of that country are brightening every y. Letters and science are growing more important in the public estimation. The number of learned men is becoming rapidly greater. The plans and means of instruction in their seminaries
of learning, though by no means improving in all respects, are, in some, receiving constant melioration. The emulation of founding and sus. taining a national character in science and learning begins to be more generally felt, and, from time to time, will doubtless be augmented. A larger proportion of the growing wealth of their country will hereafter be devoted to the improvements of knowledge, and especially to the furtherance all the means by which scientific discoveries are brought within popular reach, and rendered subservient to practical utility. American publications are every day growing more numerous, and rising in respectability of character. Public and private lis braries are becoming more numerous and extensive. The taste in composition among their writers is making very sensible progress in correctness and refinement. simerican authors of merit meet with more liberal encouragement; and when the time shall arrive that they can give to their votaries of literature the same leisure and the same stia mulants to exertion with which they are favoured in Europe, it may be confidently predicted, that letters will flourish as much in America as in any part of the world ; and that they will be able to make some return to their transatlantic brethren, for the rich stores of useful knowledge which they have been pouring upon them for nearly two centuries.'
It would be an easy but invidious task to note many omis. sions in the several divisions of this retrospect, or to call for more elevated language, and for greater depth and acuteness of remark. Where much has been effected in a very wide and diversified range, it is unreasonable to expect perfection.
The History of the Moral World, and of Political Principles and Establishments, remains to be treated in the second and third parts of the plan : but the author is chiefly solicitous to discuss the fourth and last division, which relates to the Literature, Science, and Revolutions of the Christian Church during the last century.
Art. V. Memoirs of the Medical Society of London, Vol. VI. 8vo.
pp. 623. 128. Boards. Longman and Co. ALTHOUCH this volume furnishes us with papers of unequal
degrees of merit, it must on the whole be considered as a valuable addition to our stock of medical knowlege. We shall at least enumerate the subjects of all the communications, and shall state more particularly the result of those which are distinguished by their novelty or importance.
The first article is by Dr. Falconer of Bath, and is intitled Sketch of the Similarity of Ancient to Modern Opinioris
, and Practice concerning the Morbus Cardiacus. This similarity is fully proved by numerous quotations from the antients, compared with the opinions of the most approved modern authors. It appears