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surprise by their magnitude, and gratify by the rapidity of their succession.'
The Section on the essential Qualities of Wool informs us that in this country there are three general kinds of fleeces, and each of them is sorted in a manner different from the others. The finest includes all those adapted to the fabrication of woollen articles, and comprehends by far the larger proportion of the wool of the island; the second comprehends the longer pile, that which is suitable to worsted goods; and the other is confined to wool of a medium length, that which is used in the hose trade.'-Toibis section is subjoined a Table shewing the quality of English wool, arranged in classes according to the fineness of the pile;' and we shall abstract the general view which this table presents :
« TOTAL VALUE OF ENGLISH WOOL.
The Slaughter of short-wooled Sheep is
Carrion of Do.
4,221,748 per anno
7,142,856 The number of Lambs yeaned per ann. is 7,002,802 Annual decrease,
A summary of the contents of the 4th Section, in which the author examines into the produce of long and short wool in the several districts and counties of England, is exhibited at the end of the work in a long table, in a number of distinct columns; the ist giving the district, the 2d the county, the 3d the number of acres, the 4th the proportionate stock per acre, the 5th the number of sheep, the oth the weight of the fleece, and the 7th the number of packs. On this table Mr. L. remarks: 37
« The whole quantity of fleece wool produced in England, according to the table, is three hundred thirty four thousand four hundred and thirty packs, of which rather more than one third is adapted to the comb; the remainder is wrought upon the card and fabricated into the different articles of woollen goods. But to this quantity of carding wool, obtained from ficeces naturally short, must be added that proportion of skin wool, which is not long enough to be employed in the manufacture of worsteds. This is the aggregate of several particulars specified in the table, and amounts to forty two thousand five hundred and fifty packs
According to Mr. Luccock's reckoning, the quantity of wool produced in England and Wales is much smaller than it has been commonly estimated; he observes, however,
• I do not feel anxious, lest this diminution of sheep should prove detrimental to the woollen manufacture ; because, though the flocks of England are not so numerous as formerly, yet those of Scotland and Ireland seem to be increasing in a rapid manner; and in proportion as the waste land of both countries is brought into a state of cultivation, it produces a more useful fleece Even in England and Wales we have more than three millions of acres capable of being improved, and carrying a more numerous stock; we have two millions of sheep whose fleeces are scarcely wool, and which might be brought to contribute their share to support the woollen manufacture, and to increase the wealth of the country.'
He thus proceeds in his concluding reflections:
• From the general view which we have taken, the English fleece appears susceptible of very great improvement. There are but few tracts of land, and these comparatively small ones, on which it has attained a moderate degree of perfection. Long wool, though not possessed of all the excellent qualities which ought to be communicated to it, is in general, well adapted to those inferior worsted goods, in the manufacture of which it is used, and also to those coarser kinds of woollen articles, which require a long map and are calculated to produce an extraordinary degree of warmth. But a very small quantity only of this pile, is applicable to superior articles; a more attenuated one might be produced, and would be found of great value. It must be observed with regret that, during the last hundred years, the manufacture of worsted goods has greatly declined If it be desirable to revive it, care must be employed to render them more thin, flexible and soft; to give them a greater si. militude to the fabrics of cotton, or of silk ; to qualify them to endure the rivalry of the first of these articles both at home and abroad. But whoever examines the manner in which the manufacture of cot. ton and that of worsted are conducted, will not only observe a great difference in favour of one, but will almost despair of the revival of the other. in the worsted manufacture only small capitals are employed; no extensive works are constructed for carrying them on ; the machines made use of, are simple and old ; the masters in general have but litile dead stock, and of course, a small stake in the coun. try; the workmen are prejudiced in favour of old modes, jealous of innovation, always obstinate, and till their spirits were broken by dis. tress, they were too commonly vain of their importance, captious, and turbulent. There is in this branch of manufacture but little speculation ; and genius lies dormant. There are few articles made now which were not fabricated and in fashion the century before last. But in the manufacture of cotton every thing wears just the opposite appearance ; there we observe large capitals, immense establishments, a highly speculative spirit, great confidence, and a combination of all the productions of modern genius. We notice a race of workmen also generally industrious, punctual, and contented: the articles which their looms produce are ever new, and ever varied. The effects which a Aourishing manufacture produces, and those which result from a dispirited and dying trade, are obvious to every one, who can com. pare the state of Manchester with that of Norwich ; of Glasgow with Sudbury ; the county of Lancaster with Suffolk, or that of Renfrew with Northamptonshire.
• The short wool of England is still in a wretched state, for although some noble efforts to improve it have excited emulation and activity, yet, when compared with what remains to be accomplished, but little has been already effected. When looking over the preced. ing table, we are surprised at the number of sheep in every district, which might be exchanged for a better stock; and with respect to their coats, no woolstapler, I am pursuaded, who has any general acquaintance with the English fleece, will think me extravagant when I conjecture that of the fifteen millions of short stapled ones, which the kingdom produces, there are not five hundred thousand which cven border upon perfection.'
Mr. Luccock finishes with accusing us of national negligence and folly, for neglecting the growth of fine wool; and he recommends the encouragement of this fine material, by imposts on the article of foreign production. Advice is given to graziers and woolstaplers; he thinks that the price of wool ought to be gradually augmented ; and he hopes that the interests of the grower and manufacturer will be so balanced as to insure the combined exertions of both.
The language of this volume is an object of inferior consideration : but Mr. L. is occasionally very pom pous, as at p. 114. where he calls an orchard the precious precincts of Pomona ;' and in other places his style soars above his subject. If his facts be correct, however, and his reasoning just, the merit of his work will not be affected by these trivial matters. At least, he has directed the attention of the public to a subject of great magnitude, and for the labour which he has bestowed on it he is intitled to thanks.
ART. VI. Religious Enthusiasm considered; in Eight Sermons
preached before the University of Oxford in the Year 1802, at the Lecture founded by John Bampton, A. M., Canon of Salisbury. By George Frederic Nott, B.D., Fellow of All Soul's
College. 8vo. PP. 502. 85. Boards. Rivingtons. Some distinguished members of the Established Church have
contemplated with alarm the growth of Methodism, and have regarded the circumstances under which this sect arose, and now maintains its influence, as matters which require the most serious discussion. Mr. Nott being of this number, he avails himself of the opportunity of the Bampton Lecture, one of the prescribed subjects of which is the confutation of heretics and schismatics,”-10 enter the lists against the advocates of Wesley and Whitfiela; to discuss the merits of the methodistic system ; and to defend the Apostolic authority of the Established Church against those who arrogate to them selves a right of separating from her, and of instituting a new communion. For this purpose he takes a wide field, argues with all the subtlety of a legal advocate, and from his premises deduces conclusions which, if admitted, must restore all conscientious methodists to the bosom of the National Church. We are apprehensive, however, that Mr. Nott's mode of reasoning is better adapted to flatter the hierarchy, than to gain on the minds and affections of those separatists with whom he undertakes to expostulate. Few, perhaps, will be much offended at having the founders of Methodism represented as Enthusiasts, since the warmth and fervency of their zeal must subject them to this appellation : but their followers will be burt at having the enthusiasm of their leaders traced to pride and ambition as its source, and at having their conduct branded with the impulation of criminal schism. That Wesley and Whitfield were in many instances visionaries, who acted under the influence of a heated and delusive imagination, no sensible person can have a doubt: but it would be uncharitable not to allow that they were stimulated by a high sense of duty, and (if we admit Mr. Noit's explanation of the phrase) it may Even be conceded to them that they were 11.oved by the Holy Ghost *."
Certainly the Minister of the Church of England does declare, that, before he presumes to take part in its Minis ry, 66 he trust3 heis moved by the “ Holy Spirit.
Holy Spirit.” Yet who is there that is quainted with the sense in which our Church wishes these words to be understood? If in presenting ourselves for ordination we can truly say, that we are not actuated by any carnal motive; if we can say, Though we have no wish to encourage schisms in the church of Christ, and though the harmony and affection which result from church-unity are much to be desired, we cannot, in fairly stating the case, and in judging impartially between the parties, declare that the whole weight of the guilt of schism necessarily attaches to the separatist. Mr. Nott's argument is no where more embarrassed than in that part of his discourse which relates to this subject. In assuming the high tone of the authority of an Apostolic Church, and fulminating denunciations of schism against those who, on any ground whatever, secede from their communion, Protestants bit themselves, as the common people say, a slap in the face. How must Papists smile at hearing such arguments drop from the lips of a clergyman of one of the reformed churches? If the Church of Rome be allowed to be apostolically constituted," which Mr. Nott grants, as much guilt must attach to our clergy in separating from her, as belongs to the English sectary in separating from his Established Church. Mr. Nott is fully aware of this difficulty, and therefore he artfully proposes not to apply his strictures on the guilt of schism to the case of the Reformers: but will the modern Dissenter submit to this treate ment? Is it fair to allow one denomination of Christians the full benefit of the principles of the Reformation, and to withhold it from another? If Church Unity and Church Au. therity must at all events be maintained, then the claims of the Church of Rome cannot be resisted; and the power of pronouncing absolu:ion of sin,' which this preacher asserts has been annexed by divine authority to the Christian priesthood,' must aspertain, not to the members of a church which has renounced the supremacy of the Apostolic See, but to the
that we prefer to every other consideration the desire of promoting the cause of true Religion ; that we wish in our own persons to profess a life of such strict holiness, as becometh those who minister about holy things ; that we are content to occupy such situations in the Church as are, we may reasonably believe, assigned us by Christ's good pleasure, without seeking for them by forbidden means; if we can add likewise, that, as far as we know our own hearts, our charity is lively, our faith pure, and our hope in the mercies of God firm and constant; then we securely say, that we trust that these holy motions proceed from the influence of that Spirit, who enables us not only to do, but to will that which is well pleasing in the sight of God. Is there any thing however in these assertions, that justifies the idea of designation to an extraordinary commission ?'
Here is at least nothing which precludes an appointment to an extraordinary commission.
Does not St. Paul say, that “ there are differences of gifts ; but the same spirit ?"