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nessed with all its awful concomitants, our chief resource to alleviate its direful distress, is to assess the poor, and squeeze out of their scanty pittance, a trifling som which will but partly satisfy the cravings of the hungry indigent, while the rich inhabitants in the city, who devive a great part of their opulence from the labours of these very poor, (which are virtually their own,) contribute nothing to their reliet.'

It is farther observed that, though various acts of Parliament have heen passed to correct this grievance, no effectual remedy has yet been applied, but rather that the parochial misery has increased. Mr. Hale feelingly details the distress which prevailed in this district of poverty in 1800, when he was himself one of the overseers, and pays a mérited tribute to the benevolent exertions of Mr. H. Thornton in behalf of the parish ; who assisted in obtaining a temporary aid from Government, and obviated the effects of the tardiness of office by immediate advances from his own pocket. The local hard. ships, under which this parish groans, are enumerated for the purpose of exciting parliamentary attention ; and the author inclines to the opinion that its boundaries ought to be virtually extended, and that its richer neighbours should be forced to participate in the support of its numerous poor; who, though they perform the work of several parishes, unfortunately reside only in this one.

This subject certainly requires attention and remedy, and Mr. Hale as evidently deserves thanks for the exertion and the ability which he has devoted to it. Art. 43. An Aldress 10 the Visilors of the Incorporated Society of

Doctors in Civil and Canon Law. Parts I. and 11. By Nathanael
Highmore, LL. and M.D.


Cadell and Davies. 1836.

It seems that this gentleman, who had entered into Deacon's ore ders, and had graduated as a physician, was desirous of being admitted into a third profession, that of a Civilian. When holy orders are sought, it is never asked what has been the candidate's previous profession ; nor will our own Universities of the North refuse the quali. fying rank of M.D to any man because he may have exercised an. other calling.–The door is less open to admission into the learned society of Doctors in Civil and Canon Law: holy orders disqualify a person for this Corporation ;-a rule which it is the object of the present work strenuously to oppose. It may be said of matters of ihis nature, that it imports society less what the rules are, than that they should be known and fixed; and we cannot regard the regulations of so small a body, however exclusive, as of very general moment. On the subject of the right of the clergy to hold secular offices, we are not disposed to go far with Dr. Highmore ; we admit it, however, to be a hardship that Deacons cannot descend, and reduce themselves to their original lay character,

This learned person gives the following account of himself: • I feel emboldened to avow to your Lordships, that I have in. deed presumed to explore the hidden treasures of other sciences also : and am ready to admit, (premising, only, and with a view to obviate any doubts as to the completeness and validity of my qualification,

which the most fastidious scrutiny might incline to suggest, that in the University, from wheace I received my degree, my devotion to the study of the civil and canon làw has been as pure, as chaste, and es immaculate as could be that of the learned Judges and Advocates to whom his Majesty's Royal Charter was, in consideration of such their professed devotion, at first granted,)—thus much premised I am ready to admit that I have in other Universities addicted myself to other studies and to other sciences; That I have studied theo, logy and the sacred languages of the East, under Michaëlis, and Walck, and Koppe, in the University of Gottingen ; that, in the same University, I have “tasted,” though not “drunk deep,” from the profaner springs of Grecian and of Roman literature, under the erudite classic, philologist, and antiquary, Heyne; and, in the course of a residence of two years, I have there applied myself to other branches of study connected with morals and with humanity. Nor, My Lords, under the same sanction, and confiding in the same authorities, do I hesitate to avow to your Lordships that I have also studied medicine. That I have studied the same, both as an art and as a science, in the Schools of London, and in the Universities of Leyden and of Edinburgh. As a trade, My Lords, I have never, and no where studied it ; nor, as a trade, have I yet learned to practise it."

That Dr. H. is aliquid in omnibus will not be denied : but whether he is nihil in toto we have not the means of judging. If he has been refused admission into one profession, he is still master of two be

chuse. Considerations on the Alliance between Christianity and Commerce, applied to the present State of this Country. 8vo. 28. Cadell and Davies.

An ingenious and elegant tract, which encourages the most cheering hopes. We recommend the perusal of it to the lovers of ho. nourable dealing, and to the friends of religion and virtue. The alliance between pure religion and the interests of commerce, and the means which the latter furnishes for the propagation of the former, are ideas of which much good use may be made, and they are not ill pursued in these pages.

tween which he


Art. 44•

SINGLE SERMON S. Art. 45.: An Exemplar of Divine Worship, as exhibited to St. Jola in

the Apocalypse, stated in a Discourse on Rev. iv. 1. By the Rev. R.B. Nickolls, LL.B., Rector of Stoney Stanton, and Dean of Middleham, in Yorkshire. 8vo. 28. Hatchard.

In the several symbols contained in the Apocalyptic vision, this preacher discovers the nature of the Christian dispensation, the offices of the Holy Trinity, the conversion of nations to the Christian faith, and the worship of the Trinity as it should ever be main. tained by the Orthodox Church to the end of the world.' We can- . not say that Dcạo Nickolls has adduced any strong arguments in favour of the interpretation of St. John's vision in this passage. We are at a loss to conceive by what logic such inferences are obtained



from such premises ; and if these conclusions be correctly drawn, we are sorry to own that some divines enjoy a road to truth from which we are altogether excluded. Art. 46. Preached before the University of Cambridge, June 29,

1806, being Commencement Sunday. By Edward Maltby, D.D. 4to. Cadell and Davies.

When we remark that this discourse reminded us of the nervous morality which distinguishes some of the papers of the Rambler, we mean not to intimate that the Divine has been indebted to the Essayist, but that he expostulates with equal dignity and energy. Both resist the dangerous notions that some individuals are born to be illustrious without labour ; and both endeavour to impress on the rising generation, that it is essential to acquire early habits of industry and virtue, in order to ensure future success and honour. On John ix. 4. Dr. Maltby has constructed an address which is remarkably adapted to the occasion; and the lessons which he inculcates merit the peculiar attention of those who constituted, or are supposed to have constituted, the chief part of his audience.

It has been a general subject of lamentation, that young men are not sufficiently aware of the importance of duly improving the commercement of life, and of the intimate connection which subsists between the blossome of youth and the fruits of maturer years. They require to be reminded that patience and perseverance are indispensably necessary to the attainment of eminence, and that un. cultivated talents can be a blessing neither to the possessor aor to mankind.

• In an early age (says Dr. M.) the foundations of knowlege must be laid ;' and in order to reconcile the young to the toil which such attainment imposęs, he farther observes that so little is a life of occupation incompatible with pleasure, that pure and permanent enjoyment cannot be secured without it. - "'If labour, remarks Jortin,“be the child of sin, it is the parent of virtue." - The prcacher thus energetically addresses his young hearers :

• Whether you are destined to fill the commanding station of Le. gislators, to assert the rights of your fellow-citizens by a just admiDistration of the laws, to soften the pangs of disease by a skilful application of medicine, or whether it shall be your peculiar province to spread abroad the treasures of religious knowlege ; who does not perceive what incalculable benefits may flow from a rational disposi. tion of your time,- from an honest and vigorous exercise of your faculties? Upon the wise, or indiscreet, employment of the precious hours now within your controul, it must depend whether so. ciety at large shall acknowlege with gratitude and triumph the advantages derived from your patriotism, your eloquence, your pro fessional skill, your ardent, but well regulated zeal; or whether it shall deplore the mischief produced by your remissness, your incapacity, or your vices.'

Turning to the sons of the noble and the affluent, he bids them recollect that riches are not bestowed for the gratification of a groveling appetite, of fantastic caprice, or of enervating indolence, but


for the gracious and salutary purpose of making many among God's creatures happy.'

From these short specimens, it may be inferred that the preacher bas nubly discharged his duty; and on ingenuous minds, such forcible eloquence as that of Dr. Maltby will not be thrown away, Art. 47. Future Punishments of endless Duration– Preached at the

Rev. James Knight's Meeting House, Collyer's Rents, Southwark, at a Monthly Association of Ministers and Churches. December 11, 1806. By Robert Winter. 8vn. 18. Jordan aud Co. Different persons make different conclusions from the same premises. We recollect to have read, some years ago, a sermon against thie eternity of Hell-torments, from the same text (2 Thess. 1. 9.) on which this preacher has chosen to maintain themi ; and if we are to be guided by the strict meaning of the word destruction, the idea of torment is excluded. Before, however, we boast of the de, cisive testimony of scripture, founded on particular words, or rather the translation of them, are we not to consider the principles of rational and enlightened criticism? If the words “they shall go into everlasting punishment,” without adverting to the nature of the Deity and the nature of man, must be understood to signify never ending or eternal misery in the fullest sense of the terms, then “ this is my body" may signify, according to the Papists, the absolute transubstantiation of the sacramental elements into the very body and blood of Christ ; and they are equally justified with this preacher in assuming with a high tone the absolutely decisive testimony of scripture.'

Mr. Winter, we have heard, is an amiable man: but when he speaks of the eternal misery of sinners reflecting an awful lustre on the unsullied justice of God,' we could almost persuade ourselves that we were perusing the speech of a Spanish Inquisitor at an auto da fé, instead of the discourse of a humane protestant divine. We are sorry that he could be induced to lend his respectable talents to the

support of so horrible a tenet ; in che defence of which, he has only repeated the most common place arguments, which every scholar knows to be fallacious. Punishment is a measure, not the ultimate end, of human government, and to represent the Almighty, “ who willeth not that any should perish", as instituting eternal punishments as an end, is in fact to degrade his government below the imperfect institutions of men. Scripture, judiciously interpreted, gives no countenance, in our opinion, to such a doctrine ; which we must decidedly conceive to be at variance with every notion that a devout Christian can entertain of the moral perfections of God.

* Mr. Winter tells us that the word in the original is the same as that which is translated torment, 1 John iv. 18: byt St. Paul's word is not xo.apis, but oradzox, which even Beza translates exitium.


CORRESPONDENC E. In consequence of some remarks which we made in our account of Mr. Hoare's Inquiry into the Present State of the Arts, (see our last Number) with reference to the omission of any mention of the Paintings of the late Mr. Barry, we have received a letter from Mr. Hoare ; in which he states that he was personally honoured with the regard' of that eminent artist, and highly esteemed his superior talents,' but that he refrained from specifying his works in consistency with the plan (as expressed in the preface) of not introducing living artists; and that Mr. B. was not only alive when the Inquiry was written, but that his death, on the 26th February, was subsequent to its publication by nearly a fortnight."

We are glad to receive Mr. Hoare's testimony to the merits of the ill requited Barry, and his declaration that our remarks would, in his opinion, have been highly justified by inattention to a man of genius and virtue,' were it not in his power to answer them by the above plea, of which we could scarcely be aware. We must observe, however, that the words in Mr. Hvare's preface are, " omitting, in general, any mention of the names of living professors, for reasons sufficiently obvious :" that an exception might properly have been made in the instance of Barry, whose labours afforded so remarkable an exemplification of Mr. Hoare's argument; and that, though the reasons for omitting the names of living artists may be obvious, it is equally evident that, on such a plan, Mr. Hoare's Inquiry displays not the present state of the arts : it may shew the recent or modern state, but not the actually existing state.

If we admit Mr. Hoare's account of the relation between the time of Barry's death and the publication of the Inquiry, so far as that on the latter point he must be the best informed, we believe that he is not perfectly accurate in the former event; which, we under. stand, took place on the 22d February, Mr. Barry being on that very day 65 years old. It is remarkable that the same peculiar oc, currence, of dying on the aniversary of his birth, happened also to one of the most celebrated artists of former times, viz. to Raphael Santio, da Urbino, in the year 1520, at the carly age of 37.

An Old Friend may rest assured that principles and measures, not men and parties, will ever be the first objects of our regard, amid all the changes and contentions of these eventful times. Places and Pensions never have been the idols of the Monthly Review; nor ever will, while the stream of its sentiments continues to be directed in its original channel.

The hint of a Constant Reader has been recommended to atten. tion, in the proper department.

In the Number for February, p. 145. 1. 25: for Mr. Carn,' 1. Mr. Cam.-P. 169. 1. 22. for maximum again,' r. minimum again. -P. 184. 1. 3. for variety,' r. venity.-P. 199. note, for xxvii. f. xxxvii.

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