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3dly. That in the course of the disease there takes place in the constitution a certain state, denominated the critical disposition, which tending gradually to maturity, at length concurs with certain remis. sions of sol-lunar power in producing a crisis ; by which salutary change the tendency to paroxysm is diminished or removed, so as to bring fevers to an end after certain intervals of time.

Theorem. The fluctuating force of sol-lunar influence coinciding and co-operating in all its various stages and degrees, with the various modifications of the paroxysmal disposition, excites febrile paroxysms co attack on all the days of the neaps and springs, and supports and reiterates them, according to various types, until the commencement of different neaps ; at which junctures the maturity of the critical disposition happening to concur with the periodical decline of sol. lunar influence, these paroxysms, then subside and come to a termination or crisis: and thus form different successions of paroxysms constituting fevers of various length or duration.'

According to Dr. B., not only the general character of the disease but even its particular symptoms are materially affected by this sol-lunar attraction : for he observes that a regular fluctuation occurs in the color and consistence of the urine in fe. ver, corresponding to the positions of the sun and moon; and that the appearance of eruptions, sores, and ulcers, undergoes similar changes.

Proceeding on this principle, Dr. BALFOUR has found that fevers are most frequent about the equinoxes ; at which periods, the influence of the sun and moon is more powerfully excited, and the tides rise to greater heights. In support of his doctrine, and to shew that the same effects are produced in other quarters of the globe, he refers to some remarks made by Dr. Currie on the fevers in Liverpool; from which it appears that in that town, during a period of 17 years, the disease prevails more frequently at the equinoxes than at the solstices. From Dr. Currie's statement, Dr. BALFOUR deduces these

pror positions :

ist. 'That whilst the temperature of the season in the spring was passing from cold to hot, the number of typhus fevers rose about 1 above the common standard.

• 2dly. That whilst the temperature of the season in the autumn was passing from hot to cold, the number of typhus fevers rose in like manner about 14 above the common standard.

3dly. That during the months of summer, when the heat of the season is greatest, the number of typhus fevers fell bencath the common standard about 14 ;- and

4thly. That during the months of winter, when the heat of the season is least, the number of typhus fevers fell in like manner below the common standard in the same proportion, about 14.'

As may be conceived, Dr. B. regards this as a striking illusmation of his doctrine : but we confess that we are more dis

posed

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posed to consider it only as an example of the greater effect produced by a variable temperature, than by the extreme of heat or cold which occurs in England.

The existence of this sol-lunar influence is a mere question of fact; and although we believe it is not to be discovered in this country more than in India, where all meteorological phænomena are much more uncertain, and are affected by many incidental circumstances, we must acknowlege that a powerful body of evie, dence exists in favor of its agency in tropical regions. Its effect. on the ocean is most evident, and perhaps we may add on the atmosphere, and therefore we see nothing repugnant to the principles of philosophy in supposing that it may affect the human body. Farther experience and observation alone can decide the inquiry.

Extract from a Journal, during the Late Campaign in Egypt. By Captain C. B. BURR.–We are here presented with accounts of the temple of Dendera, or Tentyris, similar to those which have been recently published by the French. Speaking of the figures on the walls, Captain B. observes,

• The dresses, the utensils, canoes, and many of the articles of the domestic teconomy of the ancient Egyptians, are herein representcd in the most minute and pleasing manner; and the entire state of these figures, not only in shape, but colouring, conveys the most perfect idea of the habits of the times. A vast resemblance exists in the dresses with those at present worn in India ; the cholie of the woman, the moond, and many others, claiming a direct comparison. It has often struck me, and never more forcibly than in contemplating this temple and its sculptures, that there must have existed a much greater affinity in the customs of, and of course a more friendly intercourse amongst, the nations of the East formerly, when they pursued one system of worship, than since the introduction of Christianity, and Mahometanism.'

Some natives of Eastern Asia having accompanied our troops, Captain Burr had an opportunity of witnessing the impression which these relics of Egyptian idolatry, having perhaps the same origin with that of the Hindus, produced on their minds:

• Our Indian followers, who had attended us, beheld the scene before them with a degree of admiration, bordering on veneration ; arising not only from the affinity they traced in several of the figures to their own deities, but from their conviction of its being the work of some Rácshas, who they conceived had visited the earth, to transmit to an admiring posterity a testimony of supernatural talents.'

Of the Origin of the Hindu Religion. By J. D. PATTERSON EsQ:- That “ more was meant than met the ear," or the eye, in the religious institutions of the Heathens, is very certain ;

since we are informed of mysteries intended to explain to the initiated that which, under figures and ceremonies, was concealed from the vulgar. It is to be lamented that none of the books used in the mysteries have descended to us; and that we are forced in a great measure to appeal to conjecture, for explanations of their sacred fables and mythologies. The deities of the Iliad, though they play so absurd a part, and must impress all persons of reflection with a contempt for the idola. try of the Greeks, might originally have been invented as mere signs of the parts and powers of nature ; and it is highly probable that the Metamorphoses of Ovid have a meaning to which, not having the key, we cannot attain. Hieroglyphic writing having introduced an extensive use of emblems, they were employed to express philosophical as well as other ideas; and it is natural to conclude that when, in after ages, these were attempted to be interpreted, they occasioned gross errors and mistakes. It may reasonably be supposed that the mythology of the Greeks, which is of very high antiquity, is founded on symbolical representations; and in many instances they appear to have been ignorant of its original purport. We can perhaps scarcely expect that, after a lapse of ages, we should completely enlighten the darkness which rests on this mysterious subject : but our connection with the east affords an opportunity for making the experiment, and such essays as that before us cannot fail of being gratefully received by the learned world. Mr. Patterson's account of the Origin of the Hindu Religion contains at least a plausible conjecture, which is of. fered to the public with much diffidence; and which, if it be admitted, will help to explain Grecian as well as Hindu fables and rites. We cannot more neatly exhibit his view of the subject than by employing his own words:

· The Hindu religion appears to me to have been originally a reform of existing systems, when the arts and sciences had arrived at a de. gree of perfection ; that it was intended to correct the ferociousness and corruption of the times, and to reduce mankind to an artificial order on a firmer base of polity; that it was the united effort of a society of sages, who retained the priesthood to themselves and rendered it hereditary in their families by the division of the people into separate casts; that it was supported by the regal authority, which, while it controuled, it supported in return : that it was promulgated in all its perfection at once as a revelation of high antiquity, to stamp its decrees with greater authority; and that it was founded on pure Deism, of which the Gayatri, translated by Sir William Jones, is a striking proof; but to comply with the gross ideas of the multitude who required a visible object of their devotion, they personified the shree great attributes of the deity.

« The

• The first founders of the Hindu religion do not appear to have had the intention of bewildering their followers with metaphysical definitions ; their description of the deity was confined to those at. triburis which the wonders of the creation so loudly attest : his al. mighty power to create ; his providence to preserve; and his power to annihilate or change what he has created.

• In fact, no idea of the deity can be formed beyond this : it is simple, but it forces conviction upon the mind. This simplicity however was destroyed, when they attempted to describe these attributes to the eye, by hieroglyphics ; perhaps letters had not then been invented : in which case they could have no other mode of instruc. tion than by signs and emblematical figures.

• In order to impress on the minds of men a sense of their total and absolute dependance on him, by whom they live, and from whom they have their being, they invented the hieroglyphical figures of BRAHMA VISHNU

Sira.
As Emblematical of
Creation
Preservation-

-Destruction.
These they referred to
Matter
Space

-Time.
And painted them
Red
Blue

-White.

To represent substance.

rent colour of space. To represent the appa.

night of eternity. In contrast to the black

BRAHMA had originally five heads, alluding to the five elements ; hence in one of the forms given to Si'va, as the Creator, he is like. wise represented with five heads. But the introduction of images goon led the mass of mankind to consider these personified attributes as real distinct personages; and as onc error brings with it many others in its train, men separated into sects, each selecting one of the triad, the particular object of their devotion, in preference to and exclusive of the others : the followers of VISHNU and Siva in vented a new symbol each, to ascribe to their respective divinity the attribute of creation. This contention for pre-eminence ended in the total suppression of the worship of BRAHMA, and the temporary submission of the sect of VISHNU, to the superiority of Siva; but this did not last long; the two rival sects raised crusades against each otbor; hordes of armed fanatics, under the titles of Sannyasis and Vairágísom enlisted themselves as champions of their respective faith; the former devoted their lives in support of the superiority of Siva, and the latter were no less zealous for the rights of Vishnu: alternate victory and defeat marked the progress of a religious war, which

far

for ages continued to harrass the earth and inflame mankind against each other.

• Plutarch has said of the Egyptians, that they had inserted nothing into their worship without a reason, nothing merely fabulous, nothing superstitious (as many suppose): but their institutions have either a reference to morals, or to something useful in life ; and many of them bear a beautiful resemblance of some facts in history, or some appearance in nature ; perhaps in the commencement to lead mankind into superstition was not intended nor foreseen ; it is a weed that springs up naturally when religion is blended with mys. tery and burdened with perplexing ceremonials. The mass of man. kind lost sight of morality in the multiplicity of rites, and as it is easier to practise ceremonies, than to subdue the passions, ceremo. nies gradually become substitutes for real religion, and usurp the place of morality and virtue.'

Mr. P. supposes that the religions of Hindustan and Egypt were identical; and concluding Brahma to be synonymous with Osiris, and Osiris with Bacchus, be endeavours to account for the strange representations which Grecian writers afford of this mythological personage :

BACCHUS, or Osiris, was represented by an equilateral triangle; Si'ra has the same hieroglyphic: the worship of Bac Hus was the same as that which is paid to Si'va ; it had the same obscenities, the same bloody rites, and the same emblem of the generative power.

• In Bacchus may be traced the characteristicks of each of the personages in the Indian tiad; and this may be accounted for by supposing the Greeks to have been deceived by the title Osiris : they considering it as the name of an individual, mingled the characters and adventures of all the three in one personage. BACCHUS may possibly be derived from a title of VRIHASPATI, VA'G. I's'a, the lord of speech, which might be applied to Brahma' as the husband of SARASWATI' the goddess of speech. The Greeks called him BroMios, as Sir William Jones says without knowing why; and he was styled by the Romans BRUMA : his feasts were celebrated for several days at the winter solstice ; from him they were called Brumalia, and the winter solstice itself Bruma.

• The crescent of Si'va may have suggested the horns of BacchUS; and his army of satyrs, and victories in India, shew the resemblance of this part of his character to Vishnu as Rama, who, with his army of monkies, overran the peninsula of In.dia.

It was a common practice with the Greeks to disguise their own ignorance of the purport of a foreign word, by supplying a word of a similar sound, but different meaning, in their own language, and inventing a story to agree with it: thus Méru or the north pole, the supposed abode of the Dévatás, being considered as the birth place of the God, gave rise to the fable of Baccave's second birth from the thigh of Jupiter, because Meros, a Greek word approaching Méru in sound, signifies the thigh in that language.'

The immoralities of idolatry are a proper subject of reprobas Hjor : but it cannot be fairly imagined that those symbols which

occasioned

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