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vision of the verses might be shewn. A Cretic is sometimes thus intermixed with short trochnics. See the last chorus of the Supplices, as arranged in the Monthly Review, Jan. 1798, article Butler's Mfusurus.- Agam. 684, 702, read;
μή τις, δντιν' ουχ ορώ-
μωσιν υστέρων χρόνωÎn the Perse, 'o'a is of course extra versum. It might as well, or better, have been written in a line by itself.
At last, then, we close this book. From the samples which have been produced, some estimate may be formed of the nature of M. Bothe's innovations : but of their extent no idea ean be given, except by printing so much of the text as would cover a quantity of paper that we cannot in conscienae devote to such a performance.
Before we part with this editor, however, let us pay him one sincere and merited commendation. If he be more precipitate and more confident than Pauw, he is at least free from his petulance and acrimony. He is always good-humoured. He rightly considers that all critics are not Bothes; and from the elevation of his genius, he looks down with placid composure on Porson, Stanley, and other dull mortals, who drudge, in the inferior regions of sense and learning :- who submic to read before they correct, and to think before they write.
Art. X. Monumens Celtiques, &c.; i.e. Celtic Monuments, or
Inquiries concerning the Worship of Stones, preceded by an account of the Celts and the Druids, and followed by Celtic Etymologies. By M. CAMBRY, of the Celtic Academy, of the Imperial Society of Agriculture, &c. Dedicated to his Majesty the Einperor aad King8vo. pp. 471. and 7 large Plaics. Pa.
ris. Imported by De Boffe. IT. Tis doubtless worthy of great nations and enlightened rulers
to avail themselves of all the means which they possess, in order to illustrate their antiquities and early history; and much commendation is here bestowed on the encouragement afford. ed by the new Imperial government to researches concerming the Celtic' language and monuments. The establishment of the institution, indeed, of which mention is here made, shews that its Imperial patron covets every species of glory; and we shall be glad to learn that the objects of it are pursued with zeal
and diligence, being convinced that it is a field not yet suffi. ciently explored, and of which no corner should be left unexo amined.
From some passages in this volume, it would seem that the Bretons are not less zealous for national honor and superior antiquity, than our worthy fellow-subjects of the principality of Wales; and in the present writer, though not a Breton himself, their pret nsions meet with a warm and intrepid ada vocate. A Celtic monument in his neighbourhood, and an accidental excursion into the vicinity of Carnac, (the Stonekenge of Brittany,) gave to his studies their present direction. He states that the results disclosed in this work are the fruit of assiduous labour, lucky chances, and long excursions; and they lead, he says, to a new course, it being, clear that, to this day, history has not followed the track which would conduct us to truth :--but why are we at this period to expec; new discoveries ? Because the restraints imposed on men in past times exist no longer; the means of study and of criticism are infinite; the sciences and all the arts are highly advanced; we direct our attention to matters which have been neglected until eur own days, and new views lead to new results. Ia grand revolutions, all is in motion. Under the auspices of the genius which presides over and outstrips the age, great progress is to be expected in all the objects of liberal pursuit.'Very much the reverse of all this, however, has been the case in the interval which has transpired since this volume has seen the light: for the genius which presides over the age has spread desolation through those districts of the globe, in which mental cultivation had reached its highest pitch ;-we refer to the North of Germany.
M. CAMBRY asserts that the antient Celiic, the Breton, the Welsh, and the Erse, form one and the same language; he also maintains that the Armorican Bretons, having expelled the Romans, were never subjugated by the Franks; and that their country was not included in the partition between the song of Clovis. Pasquier says; “ Our Bretons have always been military, and the only people to whom the domination of the Franks never extended. - Defeated by Clovis, Chilperic, and Dagobert, they have been tributary, but never were subjugated.” . The Bretons had even frequent wars with the Franks: but Dagobert prohibited all communication between the two people, in order to prevent his subjects from emigrating, Brittany enjoying the blessings of commerce and abundance, while its government never debased its coinage. The author then observes that Brittany dates its decline from its union with the crown of France, in consequence of the
marriage of its last Duchess Anne. The Bretons, he informs us, never ceased from attempts to recover their independence ; their country was in consequence regarded with a jealous eye by the kings of France; and its flourishing state, its manufac.. tures, commerce, and industry, very soon disappeared.
Our Cambrian countrymen, we have understood, maintain that their language is the primæval one; and therefore, we suspect, they will not be very well pleased with the moderate pretensions asserted by their present advocate, who only contends on behalf of their dialect that it is the parent of all those of Europe :
· Let not,' he says, “this claim be disregarded because the claimants now form an inconsiderable tribe, are poor, ill.clothed, and ill. accomodated; for it cannot be denied that Brittany constituted a large portion of the antient residence of the Celts; that it never was subjugated ; that neither admixture nor emigration ever corrupted its language; and that the dialect of Brittany at this day is that of the antient Gauls. Is it then extraordinary that we should find Cekic etymologies, and those of other tongues, in the very language whicly the Celts themselves spoke?
• All the Gallic words which are to be found in antient writers are at present current in the language of Erittany, and in that of the principality of Wales. The Romans, during their residence in Gaul, altered some Celtic words and gave them different terminations, but the basis of the language remained unchanged.
The conviction of the antiquity of the language now spoken ia Brittany, Wales, and some districts of Ireland and Scotland, has determined some men, zealous for the glory of the Celts their ances tors, to institute inquiries into their language and bistory; to collect together the monuments which illustrate theię country; and to found a Celtic academy. It is proposed by this body, I to make research. es into the Celtic language, to give the etymology of all words which are derived from it, and expecially of those which enter into the French; 2. to describe, cucidate, and engrave, all the remains of Gallic monuments which have reached our times. The society will regularly publish its memo rs.'
The writer highly extols M. JOHANNEAU for his researches and discoveries in etymology; who, he contends, has introduced into this science all the certainty of geometry. He was honored, we are told, with the friendship of Latour d' Auvergne, who bequeathed to him his Cilic library,
From the labours of this academy, the author promises the introduction of an improved geography, and of vast light into the antiquities of France; the thick veil which now conceals antient times is to be removed, and the nionuinents which belonged to them, with the customs which distinguished them, are about to re-appear.' We, however, do not expect from this field of inquiry, all the harvöst winch this sanguine writer anticipates; yet we rejoice that it is become an object of attention in France, and we hope that it will remain so till the ground is fully explored. That active and enterprizing peo ple have investigated their Roman and Teutonic antiquities with laudable diligence, and with eminent success. Let them also endeavour to signalize themselves in regard to their Gal. lic antiquities, since it is most fitting that all which can be discovered relating to them should be brought to light.
The ingenious and judicious Mallet, in the introduction to his history of Denmark, invited attention to the distinction between the Celts and the Goths; a distinction which it appears to us very important to bear in mind in every thing that relates to European antiquities. That grand distinction, which the accounts of Cæsar and Tacitus sanction, is here not once noticed. Indeed, if we are allowed to form a judgment from this volume, we should conclude that the subject of Celtic antiquities is altogether a new topic in France; and that the proficiency made in it falls very short of that which this country can boast.
If it be admitted that the district now called Brittany was never subdued by the Franks, it cannot be denied that it was completely reduced by the Romans; and what proofs can this writer bring that the language of Brittany, as well as that of other parts of Gaul, did not become wholly Latin? Or how does he prove that all who speak the Breton language are not the descendants of emigrants from this country? The testimony of tradition is strong on the subject, and the change of name which the country underwent strongly corroborates it. We think that the presumption that the modern Bretons are the descendants of British emigrants is much stronger than that which represents them as original Gauls; and the extraordi. nary resemblance of the two dialects
supports the latter hypothesis. The Welsh and the Bretons are able to hold intercourse together, and in a very short period become conversant with their respective dialects: but we believe that this is by no means the case with regard to the Welsh and those who speak the Irish and Highland dialects; the two latter of which bear a very close affinity, while they have very little similarity to the Welsh and the Breton. We form our judgment, however, on a comparison of printed specimens of cach ; and we are aware that the rules of construction in these languages render this test far from satisfactory.
The most interesting specimen of the Celtic remains now discoverable in France is unquestionably the grand Cromlech of Carvac, situated near the burgh of that name, about three leagues from the city of Auray, in the department of Morbihan. It stands near the sea, and the adjoining country is the most wild and barren that can be imagined. This singular monument, though presenting little of minute resemblance, exhibits all the general characteristics of Stone-henge; the stones are equally massive, but they are differently ranged; those of Carnac stand singly, and run in lines as well lengthwise as transversely; the distance between each stone in the one way being from twelve to fifteen feet, and in the other, from thirty to thirty-three. The author is of opinion that this marvellous assemblage of stones bore some relation to astronomy; and among the traditions respecting it, he deems that to be the most rational, which ascribes its formation to the annual addition of a stone at the time of the summer solstice: a practice which he compares with the Roman usage of inserting, every year, a nail in the door of the temple of Jupiter, The highest stores of Carnac measure in height from twenty to twenty-two feet; they vary considerably in breadth and thickness: but among them is one which is twenty.two feet high, twelve wide, and six in thickness, the weight of which is calculated at 250,000 pounds. The number of stones is made to amount to four thousand : but they are said to have been more numerous formerly, and to have covered upwards of three leagues coastwise.
The aspect of these shapeless masses is stated to be most singular; the assemblage stands alone in a large plain, without trees or shrubs of any kind; they rest on a basis of sand, which presents not a fragment of a stone nor even a pebble ; they are in equilibrium, without any thing like a foundation; and many of them are moveable. Engravings of the whole, under different points of view, accompany this volume; and, aided by the descriptions which it contains, they are here said to furnish an accurate representation, though they must pe cessarily fail in exciting the impression communicated by the original.
M. CAMBRY observes of these rude monuments, the dol. mins, the cromlechs, the erect stones, the high places shaded by venerable oaks, sanctified by the presence of a god which was adored in the silence of the night, -that they were the forerunners of the altars of marble, the elegance of which we admire; of the statues of Phidias, the temples of Pestum and of Sicily, of the Pantheon, of the temple of Theseus, the tomb of Mausolus, the pyramids of Egypt, and the temples of Abyssinia, and of Jupiter Ammon.
In a work dedicated to Bonaparte, it was to be expected that our country and its inhabitants would be made subjects of abuse and invective: but nothing can be niore wretched of