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In Cincinnati, Chicago, Detroit, and Milwaukie, there were 92,932, being 17 per cent. of their number in the Western and Northwestern States, comprising Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Iowa. In the cities of St. Louis and Louisville, there were 50,858, being 43 per cent. of the number in the Southwestern States of Kentucky, Missouri, Tennessee, Mississippi, and Arkansas. In the cities of Baltimore, Richmond, Charleston, Mobile, and New Orleans, there were 94,924, being 54 per cent. of those in the Southern Atlantic States of Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Florida, and Louisiana.

An examination of the Census returns of 1850, will disclose these facts : That near 40 per cent. of the foreign population then in the State of New York, resided in the cities of New York and Albany; that over one-fourth of those in Massachusetts were in Boston ; that there were 40 per cent. of those in Rhode Island, in Providence; that about one-sixth of those in Connecticut, resided in the cities of Hartford and New Haven; that the city of Newark alone had one-fifth of those in New Jersey ; and Philadelphia about 40 per cent. of those in Pennsylvania. So in the Southern States. Mobile had about 60 per cent. of the foreign population of Alabama; New Orleans, over 70 per cent. of those in Louisiana ; Savannah, about 37 per cent. of those in Georgia; Charleston, considerably over one-half of those in South Carolina ; Louisville, near 40 per cent. of those in Kentucky; St. Louis, over one-half of those in Missouri; Nasbville and Memphis, over 40 per cent. of those in Tennessee; Baltimore, about 67 per cent. of those in Maryland ; and Wilmington, about one-third of those in Delaware. And the same may be said of the Western States Of those in Ohio, over one-fourth were in Cincinnati; of those in Illinois, over one-eighth in Chicago; of those in Michigan, about one-sixth in Detroit; and of those in Wisconsin, over one-ninth in Milwaukie.

A still further and more minute examination of the Census statistics of 1850, will disclose the fact, that of the 196,609 born in Ireland, residing in the New England States, there were over one-fourth of them in the cities of Boston, Portland, Providence, Portsmouth, Hartford, New Haven, and Manchester ; of the 525,926 residing in the States of New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, 224,685 of them were in the cities of New York, Philadelphia, Newark and Albany, being over 40 per cent.; and of those in the other non-slave-holding States, numbering 134,810, there were 26,594 in the cities of Cincinnati, Chicago, Detroit, and Milwaukie. Of the 104,374 in the slave States, 50,062 were in the cities of New Orleans, Baltimore, Charleston, Louisville, Savannah, Nashville, Memphis, Richmond, St. Louis, Washington, and Wilmington.

Of those from Ireland, residing in Massachusetts, nearly one-third

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were in Boston; of those in Maine, one-sixth were in Portland; of those in Rhode Island, about one-half were in Providence; of those in Connecticut, one-fifth were in Hartford and New Haven ; of those in New York, over 40 per cent. were in New York and Albany; of those in New Jersey, over one-sixth were in Newark; of those in Pennsylvania, nearly one-half were in Philadelphia ; of those in Ohio, over one-fourth were in Cincinnati ; of those in Illinois, near one-fourth were in Chicago; of those in Missouri, over two-thirds were in St. Louis ; of those in Michigan, near one-fourth were in Detroit; of those in Maryland, almost twothirds were in Baltimore; of those in Louisiana, over 80 per cent. were in New Orleans ; of those in Sonth Carolina, over one-balf were in

; Charleston ; of those in Alabama, two-thirds were in Mobile; of those in Kentucky, one-third were in Louisville; of those in Tennessee, nearly one-half in Nashville and Memphis; and of those in Georgia, one-half in Savannah.

The Germans in the New England and Middle States were also principally in the cities and towns. Of the 7,000 in New England, about 2,500 were in the cities of Boston, Hartford, New Haven, Providence, Portland, ånd Portsmouth ; of the 210,360 in the Middle States of New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, 85,859 were in the cities of New York, Philadelphia, Albany, and Newark; of those in the free States of the west, about one-fifth were in the cities of Cincinnati, Chicago, Detroit, and Milwaukie ; and of the 127,335 in the slave-holding States, over one-half were in the cities of Baltimore, Richmond, Washington, Wilmington, Charleston, Savannah, Mobile, New Orleans, St. Louis, Louisville, Memphis, and Nashville. Of those in Massachusetts, over 40 per cent. were in Boston ; of those in New York, about one-half were in New York city and Albany; of those in New Jersey, about one-third were in Newark; of those in Pennsylvania, about 30 per cent. were in Philadelphia ; of those in Ohio, about 30 per cent. were in Cincinnati ; of those in Illinois, about one-seventh were in Chicago ; of those in Missouri, about one-half were in St. Louis ; of those in Maryland, over two-thirds were in Baltimore; and of those in Kentucky, over one-balf were in Louisville; of those in Louisiana, near two-thirds were in New Orleans.

The English, Welsh and Scotch, were chiefly in the cities and towns. One-twelfth of the whole number of English and Welsh, and one-tenth of the Scotch, were in New York city.

The French, Spanish and Italians, were also chiefly in the cities and towns. Considerably over one-fourth of the French were in the cities of New York, Philadelphia, and New Orleans. There were 1,150 Spaniards in New Orleans, 303 in New York, 291 in Philadelphia, 144 in Mobile : making an aggregate in these four cities of 1,888, and considerably over one-half of the whole number in the country. Of the Italians, 708 were in New York, 658 in New Orleans, 236 in Philadelphia, 152 in Cincinnati, 134 in Boston, 112 in Louisville, and 101 in St. Louis : making an aggregate in these seven cities of 2,160, and more than one-half of their number in the Union.

A late California authority, quoted by Professor De Bow, in his Census report to Congress, in 1854, estimates the population of that State to be as follows: 215,000 Americans, 25,000 Germans, 25,000 French, 20,000 Spaniards, 17,000 Chinese, 5,000 other foreigners, 20,000 Indians, and 2,500 Negroes : making an aggregate of over 320,000, about one-third of whom are not natives of the United States. Of late years the Chinese immigration has increased immensely, and the number of these pagans is already so great in California as to prove the source of much difficulty, and to be a cause of considerable alarm to its inhabitants. According to a late report of Captain Heurtier, the number of immigrants from Hong Kong to California, up to the 30th of June, 1854, amounted to 45,000; to Australia (wives and children, included), to 15,000. From January 1st to June 30th, 1854, 10,496 immigrants left Hong Kong for California, and 4,341 for Australia.

Another subject worthy of more attention than it has yet received, is that of the Mormon immigration. In a few years more, Utah will be a flourishing and powerful State, a large majority of whose citizens will be foreigners who are not naturalized and owe no sworn allegiance to the United States. Some statistics have recently been collected concerning the amount of immigration from Great Britain alone to Utah, which has taken place within the last year past, and the aggregate will be somewhat surprising to those unacquainted with the extensive system of proselytizing which the Mormons have now organized throughout Europe. The following is the statement as published, dating from the 27th of November, 1854, to the 26th of April, 1855 :

...........................................

24

.....................................

9.....

SHIP.

SAILED.

NUMBER OF PASSENGERS. Clara Whoeler,......

.Nov. 27...

..................................................422 ........................ James Nesmith,.

...Jan. 7......
***............................................

440 Charles Buck, ....Jan. 17....

403 Rockaway,

.Jan.

6............. Neva,..........................

Jan. ...................................................13 Isaac Joans, .Feb. 3.......

.16

........................................ Siddons,...... Feb. 27..

.430 Juventa,.... Mar. 31

.573 Chimborazo,... .......... April 17..

.431

............................... 8. Curling................................... April 22 ............................................ 581 Wm. Stetson, .... April 26.....

.293 Total,

.....3,626

..........................................

................................

......... Of these, 874 were landed in New York, 1,450 in Philadelphia, and 1,302 in New Orleans, from which places they were forwarded to Salt Lake City; 1,127 of their number were indebted to the Perpetual Immi. grating Fund, for the means of immigrating.

A recent Census taken of Boston, shows the population of that city to be 162,629, being an increase since the year 1850, of 23,841 persons. Of this population, there are 86,336 foreigners, including their children under 21 years of age, being considerably over one-half of the entire population of the city proper, and an increase of the foreign population since the Census of 1850, of 22,870 persons. It thus appears that the foreigners ontnumber the natives, and that within the last five years, the disproportion in favor of the former has been augmented. It is estimated, however, that a portion of the business population of the city, to the number of 50,000, reside in the vicinity and neighboring towns; and as it is probable that a large majority of them are native born, the native element of the population of Boston still preponderates considerably over the foreign. Of this foreign population, 69,239 are Irish, 4,586 are German, and 12,511 from other countries.

In Wisconsin, according to the returns of the recent Census of that State, there has also been a large increase in the foreign population since the year 1850, especially in the city and county of Milwaukie, as the following table shows :

NATIVE.
FOREIGN

TOTAL.
In 1855........................

.17,638........................

.28,628.

..............

.....46,266 In 1850........................12,455.......... ....18,622...... ..........10,377

Increase..............5,183...................10,006...................15,189

It will be seen that, of every thousand of the population, 618 are of foreign, and but 382 of native birth. In the city, the population is 30,438; foreign 19,621, native 10,827—giving a foreign element of 643 per cent., or a clear foreign majority of 290 in every thousand votes polled.

The returns of the Census taken in New Jersey, during the summer of the year 1855, show the population of Newark, the largest city in the State, to be 50,711 persons, of whom 28,902 are white natives, 20,584 are foreigners, and 1,230 colored. In Jersey City, there are 12,283 native whites, 9,135 foreigners, and 291 colored natives, and 6 colored foreigners: making an aggregate population of 21,715 persons. Trenton has a population of 13,819, of whom there are 7,395 native adults, and 3,368 foreign adults. Thus we find in these three cities in New Jersey, with an aggregate population of 86,245 persons, no less than 33,087 foreigners, being nearly 40 per cent. of the entire population. In the sixth, seventh and eighth wards, in Newark City, with an aggregate population of 13,939 persons, including 456 colored, there are 8,594 foreigners, being very near two-thirds of the whole population.

CHAPTER II.

FOREIGN IMMIGRATION.

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The right of expatriation," observes the report of the Society established in New York, for the purpose of giving useful information to immigrants, “is a right acknowledged and practiced by all nations, from the earliest ages to the present time. It is a right indispensable to liberty and happiness, and ought never to be surrendered. The free States once established in Asia recognized it; Greece adopted it; the Romans avowed it, and vindicated the right in all its latitude, and the following declaration composed part of their code : 'Every man has a right to choose the State to which he will belong. It is a law of nature that we go whither we list to promote our happiness.” Without stopping here to inquire whether the right of expatriation is thus broadly and unqualifiedly recognized, even in the United States, it is entirely safe to adopt the opinion expressed by the Rev. D. R. Thomason, Secretary of the Philadelphia Immigrant's Friend Society, in his published " Hints to Immigrants,” and to say that “no man ought to quit his native land without just and cogent reasons. It is the land which gave him birth, the home of his fathers,' and the filial obligations which bind him to it are strong and sacred; they cannot be needlessly broken, and obligations to a foreign government contracted, without exposing to censure, and incurring a large share of criminality. That there are, however, circumstances which abundantly justify such a step, is sufficiently obvious, and the individual who can refer to them as his own, and plead them as reasons for self-expatriation, may be pitied as unfortunate, but cannot justly be charged with dereliction of duty."

Various reasons may be urged to exculpate self-expatriation, prominent among which is the want of honorable and remunerative employment, as a means of procuring an independent and adequate support. “When the parent is unable to make suitable provision for the offspring, it is time,' says Mr. Thomason, " that the needy children should quit the parental roof and seek elsewhere their daily bread;" and he well adds, " that this, at the present moment, is precisely the situation of the mother country, is undeniable." The most obvious and most fruitful cause of this calamity is, no doubt, as he observes, a disproportion between the population and the resources of maintenance. In Europe, there are more hands to labor than profitable labor to be performed, and a remedy for the evil can only be found in a diminution of population by immigration. This is a simple

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