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CRIME has also been enormously increased by immigration. According to De Bow's Census Compendium, the whole number of criminals convicted within the year preceding that the Census of 1850 was taken in all the States but California, was 26,679, of which number 12,988 were natives, and 13,691 were foreigners, being one conviction out of every fifteen hundred and eighty of the native, and one out of about every one hundred and sixty-five of the foreign population in the Uaited States at that time. In the free States there were 10,822 natives, and 12,789 foreign convictions, and in the slave States there were 2,166 natives, and 1,902 foreigners.
Of those in the free States, there were 10,279 in New York, being near one-half of the whole number, of whom 6,317 were foreigners, being two-thirds of the convicts in the State, and nearly one-half of the foreign convicts in the United States.
In Massachusetts, there were 7,250, of which there were 259 more than one-half foreigners, and more than one-fourth the whole number of foreign convicts in all the States. Taking the convictions in all the New England States, more than one-half were foreigners.
In Missouri, there were 908, of whom there were 666 foreigners, being more than two-thirds of the number in the State, and one-third of the whole number in the slave States.
In Connecticut the whole number of convictions was 850; and of these 545 were natives, and 305 foreigners.
In Illinois the whole number of convictions was 316; and of these 127 were natives, and 189 foreigners.
In Maine the whole number convicted was 744; and of these 284 were natives, and 460 foreigners.
In Pennsylvania the number of convictions was 1277; and of these 984 were natives, and 293 foreigners.
In Vermont the number convicted was 79, of whom 34 were natives, and 45 foreigners.
The statistics of State Prisons and Penitentiaries of 1850, as given in Professor De Bow's book, show that there were then 4,758 white inmates, of whom 1,499 were of foreign birth, being near one-third of the whole number. Of these there were in the free States 2,271 natives, and 1,129 foreigners, and in the slove States, 988 natives, and 370 foreigners.
Louisiana is the only Southern State with a large city, and has, of course, its State Prison filled. At the date of the annual report for 1854, there were 295 prisoners, 114 of whom were foreigners, being over threeeights of the number, 55 being Irishmen, 15 German, 12 French, 6 English, 3 Mexican, 3 Prussian, 3 Italian, and the remainder from other countries.
In California, a statement recently published gave the whole number admitted since the opening of the Penitentiary, to be 501 convicts, three fifths of whom were foreigners.
The Philadelphia Sketch Book for April, 1855, states that the number of persons in prison last year, according to the penitentiary reports, was 5,646. In other words, that of the offences committed during the year, one-fifth, or 5,646 of the aggregate cases, were sufficiently grave to incor à penitentiary punishment; while the remaining 20,899 cases were punished with ordinary jail and house of refuge incarceration. The following was the proportion to the whole number of cases in the four principal northern States :
Being over two-thirds of the entire number of cases in the four States named, of which 10,751 were foreigners, being more than one-half of the whole number.
A speech delivered in the United States Senate, January 25, 1855, by the Hon. JamES COOPER, of Pennsylvania, stated that in the conviction for capital offences the proportion of foreign to native born was startling, and that out of two hundred and twenty convictions which took place, in about eighteen months, in seven States, viz. : in New York, Pennsylvania, Missouri, Louisiana, New Jersey, Massachusetts, and Maryland, there were 138 of foreigners to 82 of natives.
In still further corroboration of the facts before recited, the following article from a New York journal of 1853, may be cited :
· Fitzgerland will be hung at the Tombs to-day for shooting his wife. Neary, sentenced to the same fate for a similar offence, is respited one week, in order that the sheriff's jury may determine whether he has lost his reason. If the latter execution takes place, it will make seven in this city within the last year! In all England and Wales, the whole number of executions during the year 1852, as appears by a parliamentary report, was only nine. The population of this city is 600,000—the population of England and Wales is 18,000,000. In other words, New
York, with a population of only one-thirteenth as large as England and Wales, hangs seven-ninths as many in the same space of time.
"The little we fail in point of number, however, is more than made up in the atrocity of the offences. Of the nine hung in England, one murdered bis wife, one her husband, one her mother-in-law, one his employer who had dismissed him, one his uncle, one a stranger on the highway, one his own illegitimate child, one the illegitimate child of his wife, one the illegitimate child of his paramour ; but of the seven, three murdered their wives -namely, Grunzig by poison, Fitzgerland by shooting, Neary by beating the brains out with a mallet and chisel ; Stookey murdered a negro, Clark murdered a policeman, and Saul and Howlett a watchman. Three of the English murders were of infants, but all of the New York murders were of full grown persons, three of whom sustained the most sacred of all relations to those who deprived them of life. But, in truth, New York of right has the precedence of all England and Wales on this score, even in regard to number. Doyle, who murdered the woman with whom he boarded in Pearl street, was sentenced to be hung, and ought to have been hung, and would have been hung in England, but was sent to the State prison for life. Sullivan, who killed the man in Cliff street, who endeavored to prevent his beating his wife, was found guilty of murder, and ought to have been hung, and would have been hung in England, but was sent to the State prison for life. Johnson, one of the condemned with Saul and Howlett, was sent to the State prison for life. There are now at the Tombs ten men awaiting trial for murder, one of whom, Carnell, the fiendish Dey street murderer, has already been convicted once, and is now awaiting a second trial. The whole number of arrests in this city for homicide, within the last year, has been, as near as we can ascertain, about thirty-five. The whole number of arrests in this city, during the year 1852, was about 35,000; the whole number of commitments in England and Wales, was 27,510. The whole number of arrests for offences committed upon the person in New York, in 1852, was 5,468 ; in England and Wales, the whole number of commitments for the same class of offences, during the same period, has been about 2,000. In England, last year, there were 13 convictions for burglary; in New York, 146 arrests for the same offence. During the last seven years, there were 66 convictions for this offence; in New York, during the same period, over 1,000 arrests. But this does not furnish the worst aspect of the case. The disparity between England and this city is yearly becoming greater--while crime is increasing there slightly, it is here increasing with fearful rapidity. The whole number of convictions for murder in England, in 1846, was 13; the whole number of arrests in New York, for murder, for the nine months preceding May 1, 1846, was 10. In England, the convictions of 1847, were 19 ; in New York,