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governor is the person who attends to the situation of the people, and I wish him to send a person to Alleghany, that I may inform him of the particulars of our situation, and to be authorised to instruct the white people in what manner to conduct themselves towards the Indians.

“ The government has told us that when any difficulties arose between the Indians and white people, they would attend to having them removed. We are now in a trying situation, and I wish the governor to send a person authorised to attend thereto, the forepart of ħext summer, about the time that grass has grown big enough for pasture.

“ The governor formerly requested me to pay attention to the Indians, and take care of them. We are now arrived at a situation that I believe Indians cannot exist, unless the governor should comply with my request, and send a person authorised to treat between us and the white people, the approaching summer.

I have now no more to speak."

Whether the government of Pennsylvania acted at all, or, if at all, what order they took, upon this pathetic appeal, our author does not state, But that an independent tribe of Indians should be taxed by a neighboring people, is absurd in the extreme; and we hope we shall learn that not only the tax was remitted, but a remuneration granted for the vexation and damage.

Corn-Plant was very early distinguished for his wisdom in council, notwithstanding he confirmed the treaty of Fort Stanwix of 1784 ; five years after, at the treaty of Fort Harmer, he gave up an immense tract of their country, and for which his nation very much reproached him, and even threatened his life. Himself and other chiefs committed this act for the best of reasons. The Six Nations having taken part with England in the revolution, when the king's power fell in America, the Indian nations were reduced to the miserable alternative of giving up so much of their country as the Americans required, or the whole of it. In 1790, Corn-Plant, Half-Town and Big-Tree, made a most pathetic appeal to Congress for an amelioration of their condition, and a reconsideration of former treaties, in which the following memorable passage occurs :

“ Father: we will not conceal from you that the great God, and not men, has preserved the Corn-Plant from the hands of his own nation. For they ask continually, Where is the land on which our children, and their children after them, are to lie down upon? You told us that the line drawn from Pennsylvania to Lake Ontario would mark it forever on the east, and the line running from Beaver creek to Pennsylvania would mark it on the west, and we see that it is not so; for, first one, and then another, come and take it away by order of that people which you tell us promised to secure it to us. He is silent, for he has nothing to answer. When the sun goes down, he opens his heart before God, and earlier than the sun appears, again upon the hills he gives thanks for his protection during the night. For he feels that when men become desperate by the injuries they

sustain, it is God only that can preserve him. He loves peace, and all he had in store he has given to those who have been robbed by your people, lest they should plunder the innocent to repay themselves. The whole season, which others have employed in providing for their families, he has spent in endeavors to preserve peace; and this moment his wife and children are lying on the ground, and in want of food.”

In President Washington's answer, we are gratified by his particular notice of this chief. He says, “The merits of the Corn-Plant, and his friendship for the United States, are well known to me, and shall not be forgotten; and, as a mark of esteem of the United States, I have directed the secretary of war to make him a present of two hundred and fifty dollars, either in money or goods, as the Corn-Plant shall like best."

There was, in 1789, a treaty held at Marietta, between the Indians and Americans, which terminated “ to the entire satisfaction of all concerned. On this occasion, an elegant entertainment was provided. The Indian chiefs behaved with the greatest decorum throughout the day. After dinner, we were served with good wine, and Corn-Planter, one of the first chiefs of the Five Nations, and a very great warrior, took up his glass and said, “I thank the Great Spirit for this opportunity of smoking the pipe of friendship and love. May we plant our own vines-be the fathers of our own children—and maintain them.'"

In 1790, an act passed the Legislature of Pennsylvania, for “ granting eight hundred dollars to Corn-Planter, Hall-Town and Big-Tree, in trust for the Seneca nation, and other purposes therein mentioned." In February, 1791, Corn-Plant was in Philadelphia, and was employed in an extremely hazardous expedition to undertake the pacification of the western tribes, that had already shown themselves hostile. The mission terminated unfavorably, from insurmountable difficulties. There were many, at this time, as in all Indian wars, who entertained doubts of the fidelity of such Indians as pretended friendship. Corn. Plant did not escape suspicion ; but, as his after-conduct showed, it was entirely without foundation. In the midst of these imputations, a letter written at Fort Franklin says, “I have only to observe that the Corn-Plant has been here, and, in my opinion, he is as friendly as one of our own people. He has advised me to take care; · for,' said he, * you will soon have a chance to let the world know whether you are a soldier or not. When he went off, he ordered two chiess and ten warriors to remain here, and scout about the garrison, and let me know if the bad Indians should either advance against me, or any of the frontiers of the United States. He thinks the people at Pittsburg should keep out spies towards the salt licks, for he says, by and by, he thinks, the bad Indians will come from that way.”

In 1772, the following advertisement appeared, signed by CornPlant: "My people having been charged with committing depredations on the frontier inhabitants near Pittsburg, I hereby contradict the aswertion, as it is certainly without foundation, and pledge myself to those inhabitants, that they may rest perfectly secure from any danger from the Senecas residing on the Alleghany waters, and that my people have been and still are friendly to the U. States.”

About the time Corn-Plant left his nation to proceed on his mission to the hostile tribes, as three of his people were travelling through a settlement upon the Genesee, they stopped at a house to light their pipes. There happened to be several men within, one of whom, as the foremost Indian stooped down to light his pipe, killed him with an axe. One of the others was badly wounded with the same weapon, while escaping from the house. They were not pursued, and the other, a boy, escaped unhurt. The poor wounded man, when nearly well of the wound, was bitten by a snake, which caused his immediate death.) When Corn-Plant knew what happened, he charged his warriors to remain quiet, and not to seek revenge, and was heard only to say, “ It is hard, when I and my people are trying to make peace for the whites, that we should receive such reward. I can govern my young men and warriors better than the thirteen fires can theirs.” How is it that this man should practise upon the maxims of Confucius, of whom he never heard ? (Do ye to others as ye would that they should do unto you;) and the monster in human form, in a gospel land, taught them from his youth, should show, by his actions, his utter contempt of them, and even of the divine mandate?

In 1816, the Reverend Timothy Alden, then president of Alleghany college, in Meadville, Pennsylvania, visited the Seneca nation. At this time, Corn-Plant lived seven miles below the junction of the Connewango with the Alleghany, upon the banks of the latter, “on a piece of first-rate bottom land, ä liitle within the limits of Pennsyl. vania." Here was his village, which exhibited signs of industrious inhabitants. He then owned thirteen hundred acres of land, six hundred of which comprehended his town. “ It was grateful to notice,” obscrves Mr. Alden, “the present agricultural habits of the place, from the numerous enclosures of buckwheat, corn and oats. We also saw a number of oxen, cows and horses; and many logs designed for the saw-mill and the Pittsburg market.” Corn-Plant had, for some time, been very much in favor of the Christian religion, and hailed with joy such as professed it. When he was apprised of Mr. Alden's arrival, he hastened to welcome him to his village, and wait upon him. And notwithstanding his high station as a chief, having many men under his command, he chose rather, “in the ancient patriarchal style,” to serve his visiters himself; he, therefore, took care of their horses, and went into the field, cut and brought oats for them.

The Western Missionary Society had, in 1815, at Corn-Plant's “urgent request," established a school at his village, which, at this time, promised success.

Corn-Plant received an annuity from the United States of two hundred and fifty dollars, besides his proportion of nine thousand dollars, divided equally among every member of the nation.

Gos-kuk-ke-wa-na-kon-ne-di-yu, commonly called the Prophet, was

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brother to Corn-Plant, and resided in his village. He was of little note, and died previous to 1816. Corn-Plant, we believe, was, when living, like all other unenlightened people, very superstitious. Not long since, he said the Good Spirit had told him not to have any thing to do with the whites, or even to preserve any mementos or relics they had from time to time given him; whereupon, among other things, he burnt up his belt and broke his elegant sword. He often mentions his having been at Braddock's defeat. Henry Obeal, his son, he sent to be educated among the whites. He became a drunkard on returning to his home, and is now discarded by his father. Corn-Plant has other sons; but he says no more of them shall be educated among the whites, for he says, “ It entirely spoil Indian.” And although he countenances Christianity, he does not do it, it is thought, from a belief of it, but probably from the same motives as too many whites do.

The following story, M. Bayard says, was told him by Corn. Planter. We have often heard a similar one, and as often a new origin; but never before that it originated with William Penn. How. ever, as our author observes, as we have more respect for truth than great names, we will relate it. Penn proposed to the Indians to sell him as much land as he could encompass with the hide of a bullock. They, supposing he meant only what ground would be covered by it, when it was spread out, and looking upon what was offered as a good price, consented to the proposition. Penn, like Didon, cut the skin into a line of immense length, to the astonishment of the venders, who, in silent indignation, religiously observed their contract. The quantity of land encompassed by the line is not mentioned; but, more or less, the Indians had passed their word, and they scorned to break it, even though they would have been justified by the discovery of the fraud. We do not vouch for the truth of this matter, nor do we believe William Penn ever practised a trick of the kind. No doubt some person did; and perhaps Corn-Planter had been told that it was Penn,

We have now to record the death of the venerable Corn-Plant. He died at his residence on the Seneca reservation, on the 7th of March last, 1836, aged upwards of one hundred years.

Teaslaegee, or Charles Corn-Planter, was a party of the treaty of Moscow, Ñ. Y., in 1823. He was probably a son of Koeentwahk, Gyantwaia.



Pipe, or Captain Pipe,* as he is usually called, from his having been a most conspicuous war-captain among the Delawares, during the period of the revolution, in particular, was chief of the Wolf tribe. His character is a very prominent one, in the memorable troubles among the frontier settlements, at the breaking out of the war. Situated as were the Delawares between the English of Canada and the Americans, it was hardly to be expected but that they should be drawn into that war. They could not well weigh its merits or demerits upon either side. A speech of the renowned Corn-Plant contains the best commentary upon this matter. The English stood much the best chance of gaining the Indians to their interest, inasmuch as they were profuse in their presents of what was useful to them, as well as ornamental, whereas the Americans required all their resources to carry on the war. The commanding officer at Detroit, believing that the Moravian Indians upon the Susquehanna favored the Americans, ordered them, dead or alive, with their priests, to be brought into Canada. The Iroquois agreed that it should be done, but, unwilling to do it themselves, sent messengers to the Chippewas and Ottawas, to intiina'e that, if they would do it, “ they should have them to make soup of." These two tribes, however, re used, and the HalfKing of the Hurons undertook it himself. He had been formerly very friendly to the believing Indians, and now pretended that he only concluded 10 seize upon them, to save them from destruction; and, Mr. Loskiel adds, seven the Half-King would certainly never have agreed to commit this act of injustice, had not the Delaware, Captain Pipe, a noted enemy of the gospel and of the believing Indians, instigated him to do it.” Pipe and his company of Delawares, joined by Hall-King and his warriors, and some Shawanese, held a war-least, roasted a whole ox, and agreed upon the manner of proceeding. The captains only of this expedition knew fully its destination. With such secrecy did ihey proceed, that the Moravian settlements knew nothing of their approach, until they were in their vicinity. They bore an English flag, and an English officer was among them. It was now August 10th, 1781. Hall-King sent in a message to Salem, requesting the inhabitants not to be alarmed, for they should receive no injury, and that he had good words to speak to them, and wished to know at which of the settlements they might hold a council with them. * For a description of this chief, see Chapter XVI. of lodian Biography.


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