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might be adduced, where these people have been destroyed by placing confidence in deceiving white men.
The night before the battle, the chiefs assembled in council, and some proposed attacking the army in its encampment, but the proposal was objected to by others; finally the proposition of fighting at Presqu'Isle prevailed.
In this battle all the chiefs of the Wyandots were killed, being nine in number. Some of the nations escaped the slaughter by not coming up until after the deseat. "This severe blow satisfied the western Indians of the folly of longer contending against the Americans; they therefore were glad to get what terms they could from them. The chiefs of twelve tribes met commissioners at Fort Greenville, August 3rd, 1795, and, as a price of their peace, gave up an extensive tract of country south of the lakes, and west of the Ohio; and such other tracts as comprehended all the military posts in the western region. The government showed some liberality to these tribes, on their relinquishing to it what they could not withhold, and as a gratuity gave them twenty thousand dollars in goods, and agreed to pay them nine thousand dollars a year forever; to be divided among those tribes in proportion to their numbers.*
DESTRUCTION OF DEERFIELD, AND CAPTIVITY OF REVEREND JOHN WIL.
LIAMS AND FAMILY, IN 1704.
Sometimes in a volume, and sometimes in a pamphlet, the narrative of this affair had often been given to the world previous to 1774, by one of the principal actors in it, whose name is at the beginning of this chapter, and which is doubtless familiar to every reader of New England legends. The edition of Mr. Williams's work, out of which I take this, was prepared by the renowned New England annalist, the Rev. Thomas Prince, and was the fifth, printed at Boston “ by John Boyle, next door to the Three Doves in Marlborough street, 1774." It was a closely printed 8vo. pamphlet of seventy pages.
It will be necessary to relate some important facts of historical value before proceeding with the narrative. As at several other times, the plan was laid early in 1703, in Canada, for laying waste the whole English frontier, but like former and later plans, laid in that region, this but partially succeeded. Though the eastern settlements from Casco to Wells were destroyed, and one hundred and thirty people killed and captivated, the summer before, yet the towns on the Connecticut had neglected their precautionary duty. And although Gov. Dudley, of Massachusetts, had but a little while before been notified of the French, yet it was impossible to guard the eastern coast against the attack. Deerfield had been palisaded, and twenty soldiers placed in it, but had been quartered about in different houses, and, entirely forgetting their duty as soldiers, were surprised with the rest of the town. The snow was deep, which gave the enemy an easy entrance over the pickets. The French were commanded by Hertel de Rouville, but the commanders of the Indians remain unknown.
* The terms of this tre were the same as were offered to them before the battle, wbich should be mentioned, as adding materially to our good feelings towards its authors. It is generally denominated Wayne's treaty. It is worthy of him.
Mr. Williams thus begins his narrative: “On Tuesday the 29th of February, 1704, not long before break of day, the enemy came in like a flood upon us our watch being unfaithful: an evil, whose awful effects, in a surprisal of our fort, should bespeak all watchmen to avoid, as they would not bring the charge of blood upon themselves. They came to my house in the beginning of the onset, and by their violent endeavors to break open doors and windows, with axes and hatchets, awakened me out of sleep; on which I leaped out of bed, and running towards the door, perceived the enemy making their entrance into the house. I called to awaken two soldiers in the chamber; and returning toward my bed-side for my arms, the enemy immediately broke into my room, I judge to the number of twenty, with painted faces, and hideous acclamations. I reached up my hands to the bed-tester, for my pistol, uttering a short petition to God, expecting a present passage through the valley of the shadow of death." Taking down my pistol, I cocked it, and put it to the breast of the first Indian who came up; but my pistol missing fire, I was seized by three Indians who disarmed me, and bound me naked, as I was, in my shirt, and so I stood for near the space of an hour." Meanwhile the work of destruction and pillage was carried on with great fury. One of the three who captured Mr. Williams was a captain, against whom, says our captive, “ the judgment of God did not long slumber; for by sun-rising he received a mortal shot from my next neighbor's house." This, though not a garrison, and containing but seven men, withstood the efforts of the three hundred French and Indians which now beset them. That house remains to this day, bearing upon its front door the marks of the hatchet.
After about two hours the enemy took up their march from the town, having plundered and burnt it, and put forty-seven persons to death, including those killed in making defence. Mrs. Williams having lately lain in, was feeble, which, without the scene now acting before her, rendered her case hopeless; but to this was added the most shocking murders in her presence--two of her children were taken to the door and killed, also a black woman belonging to the family.
“About sun an hour high,” continues the redeemed captive, “we were all carried out of the house for a march, and saw many of the houses of my neighbors in flames, perceiving the whole fort, one house excepted, to be taken!" “We were carried over the river, to the foot of the mountain, about a mile from my house, where we
found a great number of our Christian neighbors, men, women, and children, to the number of one hundred; nineteen of whom were afterward murdered by the way, and two starved to death near Coos, in a time of great scarcity, or famine, the savages underwent there. When we came to the foot of our mountain, they took away our shoes, and gave us Indian shoes, to prepare us for our journey." The army had left their packs at this place, and while they were getting ready to decamp, the few English that had escaped at the town, and a few from Hatfield, who had been notified of the fate of Deerfield by one or two, who had escaped there, pursued, and in a meadow between the town and the main body, met a party of the enemy, and a sharp fight ensued. The small band of Englishmen did not retreat until the main body under Rouville were about to encircle them, and then they left nine of their number slain. Such was the success of the English in the beginning of the fight, that, fearing a defcat, Rouville had ordered the captives to be put to death; but, fortunately, the bearer of the fatal message was killed by the way.
Three hundred miles of a trackless wilderness was now to be traversed, and that too at a season of all others the most to be dreaded; boughs of trees formed the beds of enciente women and little children for forty days, which was the time taken for the journey. The first day's journey was but about four miles, and although one child was killed, in general the children were treated well; probably, the historians say, that by delivering them at Canada, the Indians would receive a valuable ransom for them. Mr. Williams proceeds: “God made the heathen so to pity our children, that though they had several wounded persons of their own to carry upon their shoulders, for thirty miles before they came to the river, (the Connecticut, thirty miles above Deerfield,) yet they carried our children, incapable of travelling, in their arms, and upon their shoulders.”
At the first encampment some of the Indians got drunk with liquor they found at Deerfield, and in their rage killed Mr. Williams's negro man, and caused the escape of a Mr. Alexander. In the morning Mr. Williams was ordered before the commander-in-chief, (he considering him the principal of the captives,) and ordered to inform the other captives that if any more attempted to escape, the rest should be put to death. In the second day's march occurred the death of Mrs. Williams, the affecting account of which we will give nearly in the language of her husband. At the upper part of Deerfield mcadow it became necessary to cross Green river. The Indian that captured Mr. Williams was unwilling that he should speak to the other captives; but on the morning of the second day, that Indian captain being appointed to command in the rear, he had another master put over him, who not only allowed him to speak to others, but to walk with his wife, and assist her along. This was their last meeting, and she very calmly told him that her strength was failing fast, and that he would soon lose her. She spoke no discouraging words, or complained of the hardness of her fortune. The company soon came to a halt, and Mr. Williams's old master resumed his former station, and ordered him into the van, and his wise was obliged to travel'unaided. They had now arrived at Green river, as we have related. This they passed by wading, although the current was very rapid, (which was the cause, no doubt, of its not being frozen over,) and about two feet in depth. After passing this river, they had to ascend a steep mountain. “ No sooner," says Mr. Williams, “had I overcome the difficulty of that ascent, but I was permitted to sit down and be un. burthened of my pack. I sat pitying those who were behind, and entreated my master to let me go down and help my wife, but he refused. I asked each prisoner as they passed by me after her, and heard, that passing through the said river, she fell down and was plunged all over in the water; after which she travelled not far, for at the foot of that mountain the cruel and blood-thirsty savage who took her slew her with his hatchet at one stroke.” The historians have left us no record of the character of this lady, but from the account left us by her husband, she was a most amiable companion. She was the only daughter of Reverend Eleazer Mather, minister of Northampton, by his wife Esther, daughter of Reverend John Warham, who came from England in 1630.
The second night was spent at an encampment in the northerly part of what is now Bernardstown, and in the course of the preceding day a young woman and child were killed and scalped. At this camp a council was held upon the propriety of putting Mr. Williams to death, but his master prevailed on the rest to save his life; for the reason, no doubt, that he should receive a high price for his ransom. The fourth day brought them to Connecticut river, about thirty miles above Deerfield. Here the wounded, children, and baggage were put upon a kind of sleigh, and passed with facility upon the river. Every day ended the suffering and captivity of one or more of the prisoners. The case of a young woman, named Mary Brooks, was one to excite excessive pity, and it is believed, that had the Indians been the sole directors of the captives, such cases could hardly have occurred. This young woman, being enciente, and walking upon the ice in the river, often fell down upon it, probably with a burthen upon her, which caused premature labor the following night. Being now unfitted for the journey, her master deliberately told her she must be put to death. With great composure she got liberty of him to go and take leave of her minister. She told him she was not afraid of death, and after some consoling conversation, she returned and was executed! This was March 18.
At the mouth of a river since known as Williams's river, upon a Sunday, the captives were permitted to assemble around their minister, and he preached a sermon to them from Lam. i. 18. At the mouth of White river Rouville divided his force into several parties, and they took different routes to the St. Lawrence.
In a few instances the captives were purchased of the Indians, by the French, and the others were at the different lodges of the Indians.
During his captivity, Mr. Williams visited various places on the St.
Lawrence. At Montreal he was humanely treated by Governor Vaudreuil. In his interviews with the French Jesuits, he uniformly found them using every endeavor to convert him and others to that religion. However, most of the captives remained steady in the Protestant faith. And in 1706, fifty-seven of them were by a flag. ship conveyed Boston. A considerable number remained in Ca. nada, and never returned, among whom was Eunice Williams, daughter of the minister. She became a firm Catholic, married an Indian, by whom she had several children, and spent her days in a wigwam. She visited Deerfield with her Indian husband, dressed in Indian style, and was kindly received by her friends. All attempts to regain her were ineffectual. Rev. Eleazer Williams, late a missionary to the Green Bay Indians, is a descendant. He was educated by the friends of missions in New England.
In the History of Canada by Charlevoix, the incursions undertaken by the French and Indians are generally minutely recorded; but this against Deerfield he has unaccountably summed up in a dozen lines of his work. The following is the whole passage:
In the end of autumn, 1703, the English, despairing of securing the Indians, made several excursions into their country, and massacred all such as they could surprise. Upon this, the chiefs demanded aid of M. de Vaudreuil, and he sent them during the winter two hundred and fifty men, under the command of the Siear Hertel de Rouville, a reformed lieutenant, who took the place of his already renowned father, whose age and infirmities prevented his undertaking such great expeditions. Four others of his children accompanied Rouville, who in their tour surprised the English, killed many of them, and made one hundred and forty of them prisoners. The French lost but three soldiers, and some savages, but Rouville was himself wounded.
NARRATIVE OF THE LIFE OF LOGAN, A MINGO CHIEF-CRESAP'S WAR
BATTLE OF POINT PLEASANT-LOGAN'S FAMOUS SPEECH-THE GENUINENESS OF IT DOUBTED-CORNSTOCK-AIS HISTORY-MELANCHOLY DEATH OF LOGAN.
Logan was called a Mingo chief, whose father, Shikellimus, was chief of the Cayugas, whom he succeeded. Shikellimus was attached in a remarkable degree to the benevolent James Logan, from which circumstance, it is probable, his son bore his name. The name is still perpetuated among the Indians. For magnanimity in war, and greatness of soul in peace, few, if any, in any nation, ever surpassed Logam He took no part in the French wars which ended in 1760, except that of a peacemaker; was always acknowledged the friend of the white people, until the year 1774, when his brother and several others of his family were murdered, the particulars of which follow. In the spring of 1774, some Indians robbed the people upon the Ohio