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Chilicothe, on the Scioto. Here he made preparations for treating with the Indians. Before reaching this place he had received several messages from the Indians with offers of peace, and having now determined to comply, he sent an express to General Lewis with an order that he should immediately retreat. This was entirely disregarded by the general, and he continued his march until his lordship in person visited the general in his camp, and gave the order to the troops himself. Lewis's troops complied with great reluctance, for they had determined on a general destruction of the Indians.

A treaty was now commenced, and conducted on the part of the whites with great distrust, never admitting but a small number of Indians within their encampment at a time. The business was commenced by Cornstock in a speech of great length, in the course of which he did not fail to charge upon the whites the whole cause of the war, and mainly in consequence of the murder of Logan's family. A treaty, however, was the result of this conference; and this conference was the result of the far-famed speech of Logan, the Mingo chief, since known in every hemisphere. It was not delivered in the camp of Lord Dunmore, for, although desiring peace, Logan would not meet the whites in council, but remained in his cabin in sullen silence, until a messenger was sent to him to know whether he would accede to the proposals it contained. What the distance was from the treaty. ground to Logan's cabin we are not told; but of such importance was his name considered, that he was waited on by a messenger from Lord Dunmore, who requested his assent to the articles of the treaty. Logan had too much at heart the wrongs lately done him, to accede without giving the messenger to understand fully the grounds upon which he acceded; he therefore invited him into an adjacent wood, where they sat down together. Here he related the events of butchery which had deprived him of all his connections; and here he pronounced that memorable speech which follows:

“ I appeal to any white man to say if ever he entered Logan's cabin hungry, and he gave him not meat; if ever he came cold and naked, and he clothed him not.

“ During the course of the last long bloody war, Logan remained idle in his cabin, an advocate for peace. Such was my love for the whites, that my countrymen pointed as they passed, and said, Logan is the friend of white men.'

“ I had even thought to have lived with you, but for the injuries of one man; Colonel Cresap, the last spring, in cold blood, and unprovoked, murdered all the relations of Logan; not even sparing my women and children.

" There runs not a drop of my blood in the veins of any living creature. This called on me for revenge. I have sought it. I have killed many. I have fully glutted my vengeance. For my country, I rejoice at the beams of peace. But do not harbor a thought that mine is the joy of fear. Logan never felt fear. He will not turn on his heel to save his life. Who is there to mourn for Logan ?-Not one!"

When Mr. Jefferson published his “ Notes on Virginia,” the facts therein stated, implicating Cresap as the murderer of Logan's family, were by Cresap's friends called in question. Mr. Jefferson at first merely stated the facts as preliminary to, and the cause of, the “Speech of Logan,” which he considered as generally known in Vir. ginia; but the acrimony discovered by his enemies in their endeavors to gainsay his statement, led to an investigation of the whole transaction, and a publication of the result was the immediate consequence, in a new edition of the “ Notes on Virginia.”

There are perhaps still some who doubt of the genuineness of Logan's speech, and indeed we must allow that there are some cir. cumstances laid before us in Dr. Barton's Medical and Physical Journal for the year 1808, which look irreconcilable. Without impeaching in the slightest degree the character of Mr. Jefferson, such facts are there compared, and disagreements pointed out, as chanced to come in the way of the writer. It appears from the French traveller Robin, that, in the time of our revolution, a gentleman of Williamsburg gave him an Indian speech which bears great resemblance to the one said to be by Logan, but differing very essentially in date, and the person implicated in murdering the family of Logan. The work of Robin is entitled “ New Travels in America." It is possible that some mistakes may have crept into it, or that Robin himself might have misunderstood the date, and even other parts of the affair; however, the probability is rather strong that either the speech of Logan had been perverted for the purpose of clearing Cresap's character of the foul blot which entirely covered it, by wilfully charging it upon another, or that some old speech of his upon another occasion had been remodelied to suit the purpose for which it was used. Upon these questions we must leave the reader to decide. Robin has the name of the chief Lonan. Some Frenchmen may write it thus, but I have before me those that do not, and more probably some English pronounced it so, and so Robin heard it. The way he introduces the speech, if the introduction be fact, forever destroys the genuineness of the speech of Logan of 1774. It is thus:

“ Speech of the savage Lonan, in a general assembly, as it was sent to the Governor of Virginia, anno 1754.”

Now it is certain, if the speech which we will give below was de. livered in the assembly of Virginia in the year 1754, it could not have been truly delivered, as we have given it, to Lord Dunmore in 1774. That the reader may judge for himself, that of 1754 follows:

“ Lonan will no longer oppose making the proposed peace with the white men. You are sensible he never knew what fear is,-that he never turned his back in the day of battle. No one has more love for the white men than I have. The war we have had with them has been long and bloody on both sides. Rivers of blood have run on all parts, and yet no good has resulted therefrom to any. I once more repeat it,—let us be at peace with these men. I will forget our injuries; the interest of my country demands it. I will forget,-but difficult indeed is the task! Yes, I will forget-that Major Rogers


cruelly and inhumanly murdered, in their canoes, my wife, my chil. dren, my father, my mother, and all my kindred. This roused me to deeds of vengeance! I was cruel in despite of myself. I will die content if my country is once more at peace; but when Lonan shall be no more, who, alas, will drop a tear to the memory of Lonan!”

With a few incidents and reflections, we will close our account of events connected with the history of Cresap's war.

On the evening before the battle of Point Pleasant, Cornstock proposed to his warriors to make peace with General Lewis, and avoid a battle, but his advice was not accepted by the council. Well," said he, “since you have resolved to fight, you shall fight, although it is likely we shall have hard work to-morrow; but if any man shall flinch or run away from the battle, I will kill him with my own hand.” And it is said he made his word good by putting one to death who discovered cowardice during the tight, as has been mentioned.

After the Indians had retreated, Cornstock called a council at the Chilicothe town, to consult on what was to be done. Here he reflected upon the rashness that had been exercised in fighting the whites at Point Pleasant; and asked, “What shall we do now? The Long-Knives are coming upon us by two routes. Shall we turn out and fight them?” No answer was made. He then inquired, “Shall we kill all our squaws and children, and then fight until we shall all be killed ourselves ?" As before, all were silent. In the midst of the council-house a war-post had been erected; with his tomahawk in his hand, Cornstock turned towards it, and sticking it into the post, he said, “Since you are not inclined to fight, I will go and make peace;" and he forth with repaired to Dunmore's camp.

In respect to the speech of Logan, it would be highly gratifying if a few matters connected with it could be settled; but whether they ever will, time only can determine. From the statement of Dr. Barton, before cited, we are led to expect that he had other documents than those he at that time published, going to show that Cresap was not the murderer of Logan's family; but he never published them, as I can learn, and he has left us to conjecture upon such as we have. Another author, upon the authority of an officer who was at the time with Lord Dunmore, states that he heard nothing of Logan's charging Cresap with the murder of his kindred during the whole campaign, nor until a long time after. That it was not publicly talked of among the officers is in no wise strange, as Cresap himself was one of them; therefore, that this is evidence that no such charge was made by Logan, we think unworthy consideration.

Among other proofs that the chief guilt lay upon the head of Cresap of bringing about a bloody war, since well known by his name, Judge Innes of Frankfort, Kentucky, wrote to Mr. Jefferson, March 2d, 1799, that he was, he thought, able to give him more particulars of that affair than perhaps any other person; that in 1774, while at the house of Colonel Preston, in Fincastle county, Virginia, there arrived an express, calling upon him to order out the militia, “for the protection of the inhabitants residing low down on the north fork of

Holston river. The express brought with him a war-club, and a note tied to it, which was left at the house of one Robertson, whose family were cut off by the Indians, and gave rise for the application to Col. Preston." Here follows the letter or note, of which Mr. Innes then made a copy in his memorandum-book:

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“Captain Cresap, What did you kill my people on Yellow creek for? The white people killed my kin at Conestoga* a great while ago, and I thought nothing of that. But you killed my kin again on Yellow creek, and took my cousin prisoner. Then I thought I must kill too, and I have been three times to war since; but the Indians are not angry, only myself. (signed) CAPT. John Logan."

Not long after these times of calamities, which we have recorded in the life of Logan, he was cruelly murdered as he was on his way home from Detroit. For a time previous to his death he gave himself up to intoxication, which in a short time nearly obliterated all marks of the great man.

The fate of Cornstock is equally deplorable, although in the contemplation of which, his character does not suffer, as does that of Logan. He was cruelly murdered by some white soldiers, while a hostage among them. And there is as much, nay, far more, to carry down his remembrance to posterity, as that of the tragical death of Archimedes. He was not murdered while actually drawing geometrical figures upon the ground, but, while he was explaining the geography of his country by drawings upon the floor, an alarm was given, which, in a few minutes after, eventuated in his death. We will now go into an explanation of the cause and manner of the murder of Cornstock. It is well known that the war of the revolution had involved all, or nearly all, of the Indians in dreadful calamities. In consequence of murders committed by the Indians on the frontiers of Virginia, several companies marched to Point Pleasant, where there had been a fort since the battle there in 1774. Most of the tribes of the northwest, except the Shawanese, were determined to fight against the Americans. Cornstock wished to preserve peace, and therefore, as the only means in his power, as he had used his powerful eloquence in vain, resolved to lay the state of affairs before the Ameri. cans, that they might avert the threatened storm. In the spring of 1777, he came to the fort at Point Pleasant, upon this friendly mission, in company.with another chief, called Red-Hawk. After explaining the situation of things with regard to the confederate tribes, he said, in regard to his own, the Shawanese, “ The current sets (with the Indians) so strong against the Americans, in consequence of the agency of the British, that they (the Shawanese) will float with it, I fear, in spite of all my exertions.” Upon this intelligence, the commander of the garrison thought proper to detain him and Red-Hawk as hostages to prevent the meditated calamities. When Captain Arbuckle, the

* Alluding, I suppose, to the massacre of the Conestoga Jodians in 1763. commander of the garrison, had notified the new government of Vir. gink of the situation of affairs, and what he had done, forces marched into that country. A part of them having arrived, waited for others to join them under General Hand, on whom these depended for provisions.

Meanwhile the officers held frequent conversations with Cornstock, who took pleasure in giving them minute descriptions of his country, and especially of that portion between the Mississippi and Missouri. One day, as he was delineating a map of it upon the floor, for the gratification of those present, a call was heard on the opposite side of the Ohio, which he at once recognised as the voice of his son, Ellinipsico, who had fought at his side in the famous battle of Point Pleasant, in 1774, of which we have spoken. At the request of his father, Ellinip. sico came to the fort, where they had an affectionate meeting. This son had become uneasy at his father's long absence, and had at length sought him out in his exile here~prompted by those feelings which so much adorn human nature. The next day, two men crossed the Kanhawa, upon a hunting expedition. As they were returning to their boat after their hunt, and near the side of the river, they were fired upon by some Indians, and one of the two, named Gilmore, was killed, but the other escaped. A party of Captain Hall's men went over and brought in the body of Gilmore; whereupon a cry was raised, “ Let us go and kill the Indians in the fort.” An infuriated gang, with Captain Hall at their head, set out with this nefarious resolution, and, against every remonstrance, proceeded to commit the deed of blood. With their guns cocked, they swore death to any who should oppose them. In the mean time, some ran to apprise the devoted chiefs of their danger. As the murderers approached, Ellin. ipsico discovered agitation, which when Cornstock saw, he said, “My son, the Great Spirit has seen fit that we should die together, and has sent you to that end. It is his will, and let us submit.” The murderers had now arrived, and the old chief turned around and met them. They shot him through with seven bullets. He fell, and died without a struggle!



About the middle of July, 1782, seven Wyandots crossed the Ohio a few miles above Wheeling, and committed great depredations upon the southern shore, killing an old man whom they found alone in his cabin, and spreading terror throughout the neighborhood. Within a few hours after their retreat, eight men assembled from different parts of the small settlement, and pursued the enemy with great expedition. Among the most active and efficient of the party, were two brothers, Adam and Andrew Poe. Adam was particularly popular. In strength,

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