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after they had followed his direction through a tedious march of a whole day, they would find themselves obliged to return again to the same place.”

Such was the value of Ortiz in the expedition of Soto, as that miserable man conceived; but had not Soto fallen in with him, how different would have been the fate of a multitude of men, Spaniards and Indians. Upon the whole, it is hard to say which was the predominant trait in the character of Soto and his followers, avarice or cruelty.

At one time, because their guides had led them out of the way, Mocoso, the successor of Soto, caused them to be hanged upon a tree and there left. Another, in the early part of the expedition, was saved from the fangs of dogs, by the interference of Ortiz, because he was the only Indian through whom Ortiz could get information. It is difficult to decide which was the more superstitious, the Indians or the self-styled “Christian Spaniards;" for when Soto died, a chief came and offered two young Indians to be killed, that they might accompany and serve the white man to the world of spirits. An Indian guide, being violently seized with some malady, fell senseless to the ground. To raise him, and drive away the devil which they supposed was in him, they read a passage over his body from the Bible, and he immediately recovered.



On the 10th of February, 1076, came the Indians with great numbers* upon Lancaster: their first coming was about sun-rising. Hearing the noise of some guns, we looked out; several houses were burning, and the smoke ascending to heaven. There were five persons taken in one house; the father and mother, and a sucking child they knocked on the head; the other two they took and carried away alive. There were two others, who, being out of their garrison upon some occasion, were set upon; one was knocked on the head, the other escaped. Another there was, who, running along, was shot and wounded, and fell down; he begged of them his life, promising them money, as they told me, but they would not hearken to him, but knocked him on the head, stripped him naked, and split open his bowels. Another, seeing many of the Indians about his barn, ven. tured and went out, but was quickly shot down. There were three

* Fifteen hundred was the number, according to the best authorities. They were the Wamponoags, led by King Philip, accompanied by the Narragansetts, his allies, and also by the Nipmucks and Nashawas, whom his artiul eloquence had persuaded to join him.

others belonging to the same garrison who were killed; the Indians getting up upon the roof of the barn, had advantage to shoot down upon them over their fortification. Thus these murderous wretches went on destroying and burning all before them.*

At length they came and beset our house, and quickly it was the dolefulest day that ever mine eyes saw. The house stood


the edge of a hill;t some of the Indians got behind the hill, others into the barn, and others behind any thing that would shelter them; from all which places they shot against the house, so that the bullets seemed to fly like hail, and quickly they wounded one man among us, then another, and then a third. About two hours, according to my observation in that amazing time, they had been about the house before they prevailed to fire it, which they did with flax and hemp which they brought out of the barn; and there being no defence about the house, only two flankers at two opposite corners, and one of them not finished, they fired it at once, and one ventured out and quenched it, but they quickly fired it again, and that took. Now is the dreadful hour come that I have often heard of in time of the war, as it was the case of others, but now mine eyes see it. Some in our house were fighting for their lives, others wallowing in blood, the house on fire over our heads, and the bloody heathen ready to knock us on the head if we stirred out. Now might we hear mothers and children crying out for themselves and one another, “Lord, what shall we do!" Then I took my children, and one of my sisters (Mrs. Drew) took hers, to go forth and leave the house, but as soon as we came to the door and appeared, the Indians shot so thick that the bullets rattled against the house as if one had taken a handful of stones and threw them, so that we were forced to give back. We had six stout dogs belonging to our garrison, t' but none of them would stir, though at another time if an Indian had come to the door, they were ready to fly upon him and tear him down. The Lord hereby would make us the more to acknowledge his hand, and to see that our help is always in him. But out we must go, the fire increasing, and coming along behind us roaring, and the Indians gaping before us with their guns, spears, and hatchets to devour us. No sooner were we out of the

* Mr. Willard, in his History of Lancaster, says he cannot ascertain that attacks were made in more than two places previous to that upon Mr. Rowlandson's house; the first of which was Wheeler's garrison, at Wataquodoc hill, now southwest part of Bolton. Here they killed Jonas Fair. banks and Joshua bis son, fifteen years of age, and Richard Wheeler. Wheeler had been in town about fifteen years. The second was Prescott's garrison, near Poignand & Plant's cotton factory.. Ephraim Sawyer was killed here; and Henry Farrar and a Mr. Ball and bis wife in other places.

+ Mr. Rowlandson's house was on the brow of a small hill, on land now owned by Nathaniel Chandler, Esq., about a third of a mile southwest of the meeting-house, on the road leading from the centre of the town to the village called New Boston, about two rods from the road, which at that time ran near the house.

| Mr. Rowlandson's house was filled with soldiers and inhabitants, to the number of forty-two.

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house, but my brother-in-law* (being before wounded in defending the house, in or near the throat,) fell down dead, whereat the Indians scornfully shouted and halloocd, and were presently upon him, stripping off his clothes. The bullets flying thick, one went through my side, and the same, as would seem, through the bowels and hand of my poor child in my arms. One of my elder sister's children, named William, had then his leg broke, which the Indians perceiving, they knocked him on the head. Thus were we butchered by those merciless heathens, star ing amazed, with the blood running down to our heels. My eldest sistert being yet in the house, and sceing those woful sights, the infidels hauling mothers one way and children an. other, and some wallowing in their blood, and her eldest son telling her that her son William was dead, and myself wounded, she said, “ Lord, let me die with them;" which was no sooner said but she was struck with a bullet, and fell down dead over the threshola. I hope she is reaping the fruit of her labors, being faithful to the service of God'in her place. In her younger years she lay under much trouble upon spiritual accounts, till it pleased God to make that precious scripture take hold of her heart—2 Cor. 12, 9, “ And he said unto me, my grace is sufficient for thee.” More than twenty years after, have heard her tell how sweet and comfortable that place was to her. But to return: The Indians laid hold of us, pulling me one way and the children another, and said, “Come, go along with us.” I told them they would kill me; they answered, If I were willing to go along with them they would not hurt me.

Oh! the dolesul sight that now was to behold at this house! Come, behold the works of the Lord, what desolations he has made in the earth. Of thirty-sevenf persons who were in this one house, none escaped either present death or a bitter captivity, save only one, who might say as in Job 1, 15, “And I only am escaped alone to tell the news.' There were twelve killed, some shot, some stabbed with their spears, some knocked down with their hatchets. When we are in prosperity, oh the little that we think of such dreadful sights, to see our dear friends and relations lie bleeding out their heart'sblood upon the ground. There was one who was chopt in the head with a hatchet, and stript naked, and yet was crawling up and down. It was a solemn sight to see so many Christians lying in their blood, some here and some there, like a company of sheep torn by wolves; all of them stript naked by a company of hell-hounds, roaring, sing. ing, ranting, and insulting, as if they would have torn our very hearts out; yet the Lord, by his almighty power, preserved a number of us

* Thomas Rowlandson, brother to the clergyman.

+ Mrs. Kerley, wife of Captain Henry Kerley, to whom she was married in 1654.

| We have stated in a previous note that there were forty-two persons in the house, in wbich number are included five soldiers not reckoned by Mrs. Rowlandson.

Ephraim Roper, whose wife was killed in attempting to escape.

from death, for there were twenty-four of us taken alive and carried captive.

I had often before this said, that if the Indians should come, I should choose rather to be killed by them than taken alive, but when it came to the trial, my mind changed; their glittering weapons so daunted my spirit, that I chose rather to go along with those (as I may say) ravenous bears, than that moment to end my days. And that I may the better declare what happened to me during that grievous captivity, I shall particularly speak of the several removes we had up and down in the wilderness.

The First Remove.-Now.away we must go with those barbarous creatures, with our bodies wounded and bleeding, and our hearts no less than our bodies. About a mile we went that night, up on a hill, within sight of the town, where we intended to lodge. There was hard by a vacant house, deserted by the English before, for fear of the Indians ; I asked them whether I might not lodge in the house that night; to which they answered, “What, will you love Englishmen still?” This was the dolefulest night that ever my eyes saw. Oh the roaring, and singing, and dancing, and yelling of those black creatures in the night, which made the place a lively resemblance of hell. And miserable was the waste that was there made of horses, cattle, sheep, swine, calves, lambs, roasting pigs, and fowls, (which they had plundered in the town,) some roasting, some lying and burning, and some boiling, to feed our merciless enemies; who were joyful enough, though we were disconsolate. To add to the dolefulness of the former day, and the dismalness of the present night, my thoughts ran upon my losses, and sad, bereaved condition. All was gone, my husband gone, (at least separated from me, he being in the bay; and to add to my grief, the Indians told me they would kill him as he came homeward,) my children gone, my relations and friends gone, * our house and home, and all our comforts within door and without, all was gone, (except my life,) and I knew not but the next moment that might go too.

There remained nothing to me but one poor, wounded babe, and it seemed at present worse than death, that it was in such a pitiful condition, bespeaking compassion, and I had no refreshing for it, nor suitable things to revive it. Little do many think what is the savageness and brutishness of this barbarous enemy, those even that seem to profess more than others among them, when the English have fallen into their hands.

Those seven that were killed at Lancaster the summer before upon a Sabbath day, and the one that was afterward killed upon a week-day, were slain and mangled in a barbarous manner, by One-eyed John and Marlborough's praying Indians, which Captain Mosely brought to Boston, as the Indians told me.

The Second Remove.—But now (the next morning) I must turn

* No less than seventeen of Mr. Rowlandson's family were put to death or taken prisoners.

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my back upon the town, and travel with them into the vast and desolate wilderness, I know not whither. It is not my tongue or or pen can express the sorrows of my heart, and bitterness of my spirit, that I had at this departure; but God was with me in a wonderful manner, carrying me along and bearing up my spirit, that it did not quite fail. One of the Indians carried my poor wounded babe upon a horse: it went moaning along, “ I shall die, I shall die.” 1 went on foot after it with sorrow that cannot be expressed. At length I took it off the horse, and carried it in my arms, till my strength failed and I fell down with it. Then they set me upon a horse with my wounded child in my lap, and there being no furniture on the horse's back, as we were going down a steep hill, we both fell over the horse's head, at which they like inhuman creatures laughed and rejoiced to. see it, though I thought we should there have ended our days, overcome with so many difficulties. But the Lord renewed my strength still, and carried me along, that I might see more of his power, yea, 30 much that I could never have thought of, had I not experienced it.

After this it quickly began to snow, and when night came on they stopt. And now down I must sit in the snow, by a little fire, and a few boughs behind me, with my sick child in my lap, and calling much for water, being now, through the wound, fallen into a violent fever; my own wound also growing so stiff, that I could scarce sit down or rise up, yet so it must be, that I must sit all this cold, winter night upon the cold snowy ground, with my sick child in my arms, looking that every hour would be the last of its life, and having no Christian friend near me, either to comfort or help me. Oh, I may see the wonderful power of God, that my spirit did not utterly sink under my affliction; still the Lord upheld me with his gracious and merciful spirit, and we were both alive to see the light of the next morning

The Third Remove.-The morning being come, they prepared to yo on their way; one of the Indians got upon a horse, and they sai me up behind him, with my poor sick babe in my lap. A very wearisome and tedious day I had of it; what with my own wound, and my child being so exceeding sick, and in a lamentable condition with her wound, it may easily be judged what a poor, feeble condition we were in, there being not the least crumb of refreshing that came within either of our mouths from Wednesday night to Saturday night, except only a little cold water. This day in the afternoon, about an hour by gun, we came to the place where they intended, viz: an Indian town called Wenimesset, (New Braintrec) northward of Quabaug, (Brookfield.) When we were come, oh the number of Pagans, now merciless enemies, that there came about me, that I may say as David,

I Psal. 27: 13, I had fainted unless I had believed," &c. The next day was the Sabbath. I then remembered how careless I had been of God's holy time; how many Sabbaths I had lost and misspent, and how evilly I had walked in God's sight; which lay so close upon my spirit, that it was easy for me to see how righteous it was with God to cut off the thread of my life, and cast me out of his presence

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