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Hence, as the same actions and the same influence during the same period of time are ascribed to the eleventh little horn by Daniel and to the second beast by St. John, we are led, almost of absolute necessity, to identify the eleventh little horn of the one prophecy with the second beast of the other prophecy'. But, if the second beast symbolise the same Power as the eleventh little horn; then the second beast, which undoubtedly represents an Empire of some description, must represent a spiritual, and not a secular, Empire: for the eleventh little Roman horn, as we have already seen, typifies the spiritual domination of the Papacy, small originally, but afterward acquiring a look more stout than any one of its ten secular colleagues".
(2.) The voice of history directs us to the very same result, as abstract reasoning from the mere contexture of the prophecy.
That the ten-horned beast of Daniel and St. John is a symbol of the secular Roman Empire, from first to last, under all its different political forms, cannot for a moment be doubted. But no independent secular Empire has ever performed to the Roman Empire the part, which the two-horned apocalyptic beast performs to the ten-horned beast. Therefore the event itself has demonstrated, that the two-horned beast cannot typify a secular Empire. But, if it do not typify
Compare Dan. vii. 8, 11, 21, 25, 26, with Rev, xii. 5, 7, 12, 15, 16, 17. xix. 20.
? See above book iii. chap. 2. § IV. 2.
a secular Empire, it can only typify a spiritual Empire.
(3.) In fact, St. John himself, with abundant clearness and precision, sets forth the true political nature of the second beast.
He styles it a false prophet or a corrupt and erroneous teacher of religion". But, if such be its character, it must be a spiritual or ecclesiastical Empire.
2. Thus, under whatever aspect the matter be viewed, we are still brought to the same conclusion, that an ecclesiastical Empire is represented by the two-horned beast of the Apocalypse.
The question, then, is, what ecclesiastical Empire, contemporary with the secular Roman Empire, can be intended by the symbol of the two-horned beast.
Now, in history, no other consistent antitype can be discovered for the two-horned beast, save the ecclesiastical Empire of the Papacy; a conclusion, to which we have already been incidentally drawn when inquiring into the specific political nature of that beast : for, since the prosecution of this inquiry led us to identify the two-horned beast of the Apocalypse with the eleventh little horn of Daniel's ten-horned beast, and since the eleventh little horn of Daniel's ten-horned beast has been
Compare Rev. xiii. 12—17, with xix. 20. The false prophet, as Bp. Newton justly remarks, is a body or succession of men propagating false doctrines and teaching lies for sacred truths.
shewn' to symbolise the spiritual domination of the Roman Pontiff; the two-horned beast of the Apocalypse must doubtless symbolise the spiritual domination of the Roman Pontiff also.
On these grounds, I fully agree with Mr. Mede, that the false prophet or the two-horned beast of the Apocalypse represents the line of the Roman Pontiffs at the head of their clergy, or, in other words, the widely-extended spiritual Empire of the Latin Church as administered by the Pope at the head of his hierarchy'. For, in the present vision, we have a plain prediction of some ecclesiastical Power: which should come in the name of God, as a sound evangelical prophet or preacher, though in truth a false prophet; which should arrogate to itself the supremacy in all religious matters; which should coexist, upon the most friendly terms, with
Comment. Apoc. in loc. Some, I believe, have fancied, that Mohammed or Mohammedism is the false prophet in the Apocalypse.
This notion, upon a hasty and superficial view, may seem plausible: but it will not bear the severity of close examination.
To omit other points which might easily be specified, the marked dissimilitude in one single important particular is alone sufficient to demonstrate, that Mohammedism cannot have been intended by the false prophet or the two-horned beast of the Apocalypse. The two-horned prophetic beast is the intimate friend and ally and coadjutor of the ten-horned beast or the secular Roman Empire. But Mohammedism, both theologically and politically, has ever been the sworn and avowed foe of that Empire. Therefore Mohammedism cannot be the false prophet or the two-horned beast of the Apocalypse.
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the ten-horned secular Roman Empire, instigating the temporal princes of that Empire to persecute with fire and sword, during the space phetic months or 1260 natural years, all such as should dare to dispute its usurped domination; and which, in short, should solve the symbolical problem of two allied contemporary beasts, by exhibiting to the world the singular spectacle of a complete Empire within an Empire. Where we are to look for this Power, since the great secular Roman beast, in the fifth and sixth centuries, put forth his ten western horns, let the impartial voice of history determine : and that voice without hesitation will declare, that the Ecclesiastical Empire, of which the Pope is the allowed head, can alone answer to the prophetic description of such a Power. At its first rise, the Papal Monarchy appears in the vision of Daniel, only as an eleventh little horn springing out of the secular Roman beast : but that little horn is represented, as soon becoming very powerful, and as influencing the actions of all the other ten horns. Now, at this point of time, St. John takes
the subject. When, in the year 604, the saints were given into the hand of the little horn by the unanimous submission of all the ten horns : then the Ecclesiastical Kingdom of the Papacy became a well-compacted Ecclesiastical Empire. Hence, in the quality of an Ecclesiastical Empire, allied indeed to the Secular Empire, but claiming a complete independence upon it, the Papal Sovereignty is represented by St. John under the symbol of a
distinct wild-beast having a proper head and proper horns of its own.
3. Completely, however, to establish this interpretation of the present symbol, it will be necessary to consider, article by article, the several peculiarities which mark the prophetic character of the twohorned wild-beast.
(1.) The second beast of the Apocalypse sprang up from the earth : and it is described, as being another beast perfectly distinct from the first.
Abstractedly, the earth symbolises the territorial platform of any given Empire: whence, concretely, it denotes, throughout the Apocalypse, the territorial platform of the Roman Empire; because the Roman Empire is the Empire treated of throughout that prophecy! But the spiritual or ecclesiastical Power, represented by the second beast, springs up from the apocalyptic earth. Therefore the ecclesiastical Power in question must be sought for, as springing up within the limits of the Roman Empire.
To this geographical description the Ecclesiastical Empire of the Papacy minutely answers.
It sprang up within the limits of the Roman Empire : and the policy of its ruler has ever been, to separate it from the Secular Empire, to keep it perfectly distinct as an Empire within an Empire, and thus never to suffer it to lose its marked prophetic character of another beast. Hence originated the avowed maxim, that the clergy owe obedience to two sove
'See above book i. chap. 1. § II. 1. (1.)