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“ in the hieroglyphic writing the sun, moon, and stars,

were used to represent states and empires, kings, queens, and nobility; their eclipse and extinction, temporary disasters, or entire overthrow, &c. fo in . like manner the holy prophets call kings and empires " by the names of the heavenly luminaries; their mif“ fortunes and overthrow are represented by eclipses " and extinction ; stars falling from the firmament are

employed to denote the destruction of the nobility, &c. “ In a word, the prophetic style seems to be a speak“ing hieroglyphic. These observations will not only “ assist us in the study of the Old and New Testament, “but likewise vindicate their character from the illite“ rạte cavils of modern libertines, who have foolishly " mistaken that for the peculiar workmanship of the

prophet's heated imagination, which was the fober “ established language of their times, and which God “ and his Son condescended to employ as the properest

conveyance of the high mysterious ways of providence " in the revelation of themselves to mankind."

To St. Matthew's account St. Luke addeth, (XXỊ. 24.) And they shall fall by the edge of the sword, and Mall be led away captive into all nations; and Jerusalem Shall be troden down of the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled. The number of those who fell by the edge of the sword, was indeed very great. Of those who perished during the whole fiege, there were, as Jofephus (4) faith, eleven hundred thousand. Many were also Nain (5) at other times and in other places. By the command of Florus, who was the first author of the war, there were Nain at Jerusalem (6) three thousand and six hundred: By the inhabitants of Cæsarea (7) above twenty thousand : At Scythopolis (8) above thirteen thousand : At Afcalon (9) two thousand five hundred,

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(4) των δ' απολεμενων καλα σασαν the conclusion. Basnage's Hift. of the την πολιορκιαν, μυριάδες εκατον και δεκα. Jews. Β. 1. Chap. 8. Sect. 19. totius autem obsidionis tempora unde- (6) Joseph. ibid. Lib. 2. Cap. JA, cies centena hominum millia perierunt. Sect. 9. De Bell. Jud. Lib. 6. Cap. 9. Sect. 3: (7) Ibid. Cap. 18. Sect. 1. p. 1291. Edit. Hudfon.

(8) Ibid. Sect. 3. (s) Jutt. Lipfius de Constantia.

(9) Ibid. Sect. s: Lib. 2. Cap. 21, Vher's Annals in


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and at Ptolemais two thousand : At Alexandria, under Tiberius Alexander the president, (1) fifty thousand: At Joppa, when it was taken by Cestius Gallus, (2) eight thousand four hundred: In a mountain called Afamon near Sepphoris (3) above two thousand: At Damascus (4) ten thousand: in a battle with the Ro. mans at Afcalon (5) ten thousand: In an ambuscade near the fame place (6) eight thoufand: At Japha (7) fifteen thousand : Of the Samaritans upon mount Garizin (8) eleven thousand and fix hundred: At Jotapa (9) forty thousand: At Joppa, when taken by Vefpafian, (1) four thousand two hundred: At Tarichea (2) fix thousand five hundred, and after the city was taken twelve hundred : At Gamala (3) four thoufand flain, befides five thousand who threw themselves down a precipice: Of those who fled with John from Gifchala (4) fix thousand : Of the Gadarenes (5) fifteen thoufand slain, befides an infinite number drowned : In the villages of Idumea (6) above ten thousand flain : At Gerafa (7) a thoufand: At Machærus (8) feventeen hundred : In the wood of Jardes (9) three thousand: In the castle of Mafada (1) nine hundred and fixty: In Cyrene by Catullus the governor (2) three thoufand. Besides these many of every age, sex and condition, were slain in this war, who are not reckoned; but of these who are reckoned, the number amounts to above one million, three hundred fifty-seven thousand, fix hundred and fixty; which would appear almost incredible, if their own hiftorian had not so particularly enumerated them.

But besides the Jews who fell by the edge of the fword, others were also to be led away captive into all nations : and considering the numbers of the slain, the number of the captives too was very great. There were taken (1) Ibid. Sect. 8.

(2) Ibid. Cap. 9. Sect. 9, 10. (2) Ibid, Se&t. 10.

(3) Lib. 4. Cap. 1. Sest. 10. (3) Ibid. Sect. 11.

(4) Ibid. Cap. 2. Sect. 5. (4) Ibid. Cap. 20. Sect. 2.

(5) Ibid. Cap. 7. Sect. 5. (5) Lib. 3. Cap. 2. Sect. 8.

(6) Ibid. Cap. $. Sect. 1. (6) Ibid. Sect. 3.'

(7) Ibid. Cap. 9. Sect. 1. (7) Ibid. Cap. 7. Sect. 31:

(8) Lib. 7. Cap. 6. Sect. 4. (8) Ibid. Sect. 32.

(9) Ibid, Sect. 5. (9) Ibid. Seet. 36.

(1) Ibid. Cap. 9. Sect. I. Ibid. Cap. 8. Sect. 3.

(2) Ibid. Cap. 11. Sect, .. E 4


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particularly at Japha (3) two thousand one hundred and thirty: At Jotapa (4) one thousand two hundred: At Tarichea (5) fix thousand chofen young men were fent to Nero, the rest fold to the number of thirty thousand and four hundred besides those who were given to Agrippa : Of the Gadarenes (6) two thousand two hundred: In Idumea (7) above a thousand. Many besides these were taken at Jerusalemn, fo that as Jofephus him: felf (8) informs us, the number of the captives taken in the whole war amounted to ninety-seven thousand; the tall and handfome young men Titus reserved for his triumph; of the rest, those above seventeen years of age were sent to the works in Egypt, but most were diftributed through the Roman provinces, to be destroyed in their theatres by the sword or by the wild beasts; those under feventeen were sold for faves. Of these captives many underwent hard fate. Eleven thoufand of them (9) perished for want. Titus exhibited all forts of shows and spectacles at Cæfarea, and (1) many of the captives were there destroyed, fome being exposed to the wild beafts, and others compelled to fight in troops againft one another. At Cæfarea too in honor of his brother's birth-day (2) two thousand five hundred Jews were flain; and a great number likewise at Berytus in honor of his father's. The like (3) was done in other cities of Syria. Those whom he referved for 'his triumph (4) were Simon and John, the generals of the captives, and


(3) Lib. 3. Cap. 7. Sect. 31. vabat. Ex reliqua autem multitudine, (4) Ibid. Sect. 36.

annis XVII. majores vinctos ad me(5) Ibid. Cap. 9. Sect. 10. talla exercenda, in Ægyptum mifit; (6) Lib. 4. Cap. 7. Sect. 5. plurimos etiam per provincias distribuit (7) Ibid. Cap. 8. Sect. l.

Titus, in theatris ferro et beftiis cunsu18) Twvide vEWU Tas ist notates xan mentios. Quicunque vero infra XVII καλος επιλέξας ετηρει το θριαμβω. τα annum ætatis erant, lub corona venditi δε λοιπα πληθας τας υπερ έπλακαιδεκα funt.---Et captivorum quidem otanium, ετη δησας, επεμψεν εις τα κατ’ Αιγυπloν qui totius belli tempore capti funt, nuεργα, πλεισες δ' εις τας επαρχιας δει- meras erat ad nonaginta septem millia. δωρησατο Τιτις, φθαρησομενες εν τοις Lib. 6. Cap.9. Sect. 2 et 3. p. 1291. θεατρους σιδηρο και θηριους, οι δ' Pro EVEQ EVVevonxovla fcripisle Josephum szlexandena etov ingabroav.-Twv hev cenlet Villalpandus, tom. 3. p. 123. αιχμαλωτων παντων, όσα καθ' όλον (9) Ibid. Sect. 2. εληφθη τον πολεμον, αριθμος εννέα μυ. (1) Lib. 7. Cap. 2. Sect. 1. γιαδες και επλακισχιλιοι συνηχθη. ju. (2) Ibid. Cap. 3. Sect. 3, venes autem lectos, qui proceritate et (3) Ibid. Cap. 5. Sect. 1. forma cæteris præitarent, triumpho ser- (4) Ibid. Sedt, 3.


Feven hundred others of remarkable stature and beauty.

Thus were the Jews miserably tormented, and distributed over the Roman provinces; and are they not ftill distressed and dispersed over all the nations of the earth?

As the Jews were to be led away captive into all nations, fo Jerufalem was to be troden down of the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled. And accordingly Jerusalem has never since been in the potsession of the Jews, but hath conftantly been in subjection to some other pation, as first to the Roinans, and afterwards to the Saracens, and then to the Franks, and then to the Mamulues, and now to the Turks.

Titus, as it was related before, (5) commanded all the city as well as the temple to be destroyed : only three towers were left standing for monuments to posterity of the ftrength of the city, and so much of the wall as encompafled the city on the west, for barracks for the foldiers who were left there in garrison. All the rest of the city was fo totally demolithed, that there was no likelihood of its ever being inhabited again. The foldiers who were left there, () were the tenth legion, with fome troops of horse and companies of foot, (7) under the command of Terentius Rufus. When Titus (8) came again to Jerufalem in his way from Syria to Egypt, and beheld the fad devastation of the city, and called to mind its former fplendor and beauty, he could not help lamenting over it, and curling the authors of the rebellion, who had compelled him to the cruel necessity of destroying fo fine a city. Vespasian (9) ordered all the lands of the Jews to be fold for his own ute; and all the Jews, wherefoever they dwelt, to pay each man every year the same sum to the capitol of Rome, that they had before paid to the temple at Jerusalem. The desolation was fo complete, that Eleazar (1) faid to his country


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• the

men; What is become of our city, which was believed • to be inhabited by God? It is rooted up from the very · foundations, and the only monument of it that is left, is camp

of those who destroyed it, still pitched upon • its remains. Some unhappy old men fit over the aihes

of the temple, and a few women reserved by the enemy • for the baseft of injuries.

The first who (2) rebuilt Jerusalein, though not all exaAly on the fame spot, was the Roman emperor Ælius Adrian, and he called it after his own name Ælia, and placed in it a Roman colony, and dedicated a temple to Jupiter Capitolinus in the room of the temple of the true God. While he was visiting the eastern parts of the empire, he came to Jerusalem, as (3) Epiphanius informs us, forty-seven years after its destruction by Titus, and found the city all leveled with the ground, and the temple of God troden under foot, except a few houses: and he then formed the resolution of rebuilding it, but his design was not put in execution till towards the latter end of his reign. The Jews, naturally of a feditious fpirit, were inflamed (4) upon this occasion into open rebellion, to recover their native city and country out of the hands of heathen violators and oppreffors : and they were headed by a man called (5) Barchochab, a vile sobber and murderer, whofe name fignifying the son of a ftar, he confidently pretended that he was the person prophesied of bya Balaam in thofe words, (Numb. XXIV. 17.) There shall come a star out of Jacob, and a fceptre Jhall rise out of Israel. They were (6) fuccessful in their first enterprises through the negle& of the Romans: and it is probable, as the rebellion

τε τεμενες παρακαθηνται, και γυναικες Sect. 7. p. 1322. oλoγαι προς υβριν αισχισην υπο των αρ- (2) Dionis Caff

. Hist. Lib. 69. anpowy TETY POLLevelb. quid de ea fac- p. 793. Edit. Leunclav. Hanov. tum eft, quam Deum habitaffe cre- 1606. didimus? Radicitus ex fundamentis (3) Epiphan. de Manf. et Pond, evulsa est, et id folum ejus monumen- Cap. 14. p. 170. Vol. 2. Edit. Pa. tum relictum, caftra fcilicet illorum a tavii.. quibus excisa est jam reliquiis ejus (4) Dionis. Hift. ibid. imposita. Senes vero infelices templi (5) Eufeb. Ecclef. Hift. Lib. 4. cineribus aflident, et paucæ mulieres Cap. 6. Vide etiam Scaligeri Animad. ad turpissimam pudoris injuriam ab verf. in Eusebii Chron. p. 226. hoftibus reservatæ. Ibid. Cap. 8. (6) Dionis Hift. ibid.


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