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was raised for this purpose, that they made themselves masters of Ælia, or the new Jerusalem, and massacred or chased from thence the heathen inhabitants, and the Romans hesieged and took it again; for we read in several authors, in (7). Eusebius, in (8) Jerome, in (9) Chryfoftom, and in (1) Appian who lived at that time, that Jerusalem was again besieged by the Romans under Adrian, and was entirely burnt and consumed. - However that be, the Jews were at length subdued with a moft terrible flaughter; (2) fifty of their strongest castles, and nine hundred and eighty five of their best towns were facked' and demolished; five hundred and eighty thoufand men fell by the sword in battle, besides an infinite multitude who perished by famiu, and sickness, and fire, so that Judea was almost all desolated. The Jewish (3) writers themselves reckon, that doubly more Jews were slain in this war, than came out of Egypt; and that their sufferings under Nebuchadnezzar and Titus were not fo great as what they endured under the emperor Adrian. Of the Jews who survived this second ruin of their nation, (4) an incredible number of every age and sex were fold like horses, and dispersed over the face of the earth. The emperor completed his design, rebuilt the city, reestablished the colony, ordered the (5) ftatue of a hog in marble to be set up over the gate that opened towards Bethlehem, and (6) published an edict strictly forbidding any Jew upon pain of death to enter the city, or so much as to look upon it at a distance.

In this state Jerusalem continued, being better known

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(7) Eufeb. Demons. Evang. Lib. 2. Ægypio., Alius libro qui infcribitur Cap. 38. p.71. Lib. Cap. 18. p. 286. pitato, quem Drusius laudat in Edit. Paris. 1628.

Pæteritis, Non fic afflixise cos Nebuchad(8) Hieron. in Jerom XXXI. Col. nezarem neque Titum, ficut Hadrianus 679. in Ezek. V. Col. 725. in Dan. imperator. Mede’s Works. B. 3.p.443. IX. Col. 1117. in Joel I. Col. 1340. (4) Hieron. in Jerem. XXXI. Col. 'Vol. 3. Edit. Benedict.

679. in Zach. XI. Col. 1744. Vol. .3 (9) Orat. V. advers. Judæos. Vol. 1. Edit. Benedict. Chron. Alex. p. 596. p. 645. Edit. Benedia.

(5) Euseb, et Hieron. Chron. Ann. (1) Appian. de Bell. Syr. p. 119. 137, Edit. Steph. p. 191. Edit. Tollii. (6) Eufeb. Hift. Lib. 4. Cap. 6.

(2) Dionis Hift. ibid. p. 794. Hieron. in Il. VI. Col. 65. Vol. 3.

(3) Author libri Juchafin scribit Edit. Benediet. Justin. Mart. Apol. Hadrianum duplo plures Judæos in . Prim. p. 84. Edit. Par. p. 71. Edit. boc bello trucidase quam egrefli fint ex Thirlbii.

by by the name of Ælia, till the reign of the first christian emperor, Constantine the Great. The name of Jerufalem had grown into such disufe, and was fo little remembered or known, especially among the Heathens, that when (7) one of the martyrs of Palestine, who suffered in the perfecution under Maximin, was examined of what country he was, and answered of Jerusalem, neither the governor of the province, nor any of bis affiftants could comprehend what city it was, or where situated. But in Constantine's time it began to refume its ancient name; and this emperor enlarged and beautified it with so many stately edifices and churches, that (8) Eufebius faid more like a courtier than a bishop, that this perhaps was the new Jerufalen), which was foretold by the prophets. The Jews, who hated and abhorrell the Christian religion as much or more than the Heathen, (9) assembled again, as we learn from St. Chryfoftom, to recover their city, and to rebuild their temple; but the emperor with his foldiers repreffed their vain attempt; and having caused their ears to be cut off, and their bodies to be marked for rebels, he dispersed them over all the provinces of his empire, as so many fugitives and faves.

The laws of Constantine, and of his son and fucceffor Conftantius, were likewise in other respects very fevere against the Jews : but Julian, called the Apoftate, the nephew of Constantine, and fucceffor of Conftantius, was more favorably inclined towards them; pot that he really liked the Jews, but disliked the Christians, and out of prejudice and hatred to the Christian religion refolved to re-establish the Jewith worship and ceremonies. Our Saviour had said that Jerusalem fhould be truden down of the Gentiles; and he would defeat the prophecy, and restore the Jews. For this purpose he (1) wrote kindly to the whole body or community of the Jews, expressing his concern for their former ill treatment,

(7) Eufeb.

de Mart, Palæft. feb. de Vit. Const. Lib. 3. Cap. 33. Cap. 11.

(9) Chryfoftom. Orat. v. adverf. (8) Taxa de taveny your tou do Jud. Sect. 11. p. 645. Orat. Vi, espoontixwy JeotionAtay xe xmpuypeme Sect. 2. p. 651. Vol. I. Edit. Beneκαι νεαν Ιερεσαλήμ. atque haec forstan dist. fuerit recens illa ac nova Hierufalem, (1) Juliani Epift. 25. ludaww prophetarum vaticiniis prædicata. Eu- Xouvg. p. 396. Edit. Spanhemii.


and alluring them of his protection from future oppreffion; and concluding with a promise, that (2) if he was successful in the Persian war, he would rebuild the holy city Jerusalem, refore them to their habitations, live with them there, and join with them in worthipping the great God of the universe. His zeal even exceeded his promife; for before he set out from Antioch on his Persian expedition, he propofed to begin with (3) rebuilding the temple of Jerusalem, with the greateft magnificence. He afligned immenfe fums for the building. He gave it in charge to Alypius of Antioch, who had formerly been lieutenant in Britain, to superintend and haften the work. Alypius fet about it vigorously. The Governor of the province afsifted him in it. But horrible balls of fire bursting forth near the foundations, with frequent affaults, rendered the place inaccessible to the workmen, who were burnt several times : and in this manner the fiery element obstinately repelling them, the enterprise was laid aside. What a lignal providence was it, that this no more than the former attempts thould fucceed and prosper; and that rather than the prophecies should be defeated, a prodigy was wrought even by the testimony of a faithful heathen hiftorian? The interpofition certainly was as providential, as the attempt was impious: and the account here given is nothing more than what Julian himself and his own historian have teftified. There are indeed many witnefles to the truth of the fact, whom an (4) able critic hath well drawn together, and ranged in this order. “Ammianus “ Marcellinus an Heathen, Zemuch David a Jew, who “ confeffeth that. Julian was divinitus impeditus, hin: “ dered by God in this attempt : ,Nazianzen and Chry“ fostom among the Greeks, St. Ambrose and Rutlinus

(2) -iva xayw to two Nepowy wc eft expugnatum, instaurare fumptibus λεμον διορθωσαμενος, την εκ πολλων ετων cogitabat immodicis : negotiumque επιθυμαμενήν παρ' υμιν ιδειν ουκάμενης maturandum Αlypio dederat' Antiochσολιν άγιαν Ιερεσαλήμ, εμοις καματους enti, qui olim Britannias curaverat pro ανοικοδομησας οικησω, και εν αυτη δοξαν prefetiis. Cum itaque rei idem torδωσω μεθ' υμων το κρειτλονι.-9uo et

titer inftaret Alypins, juvaretque proipfe Persico bello'ex'animi sententia vinciæ rector, metuendi globi flammagesto, fanctam urbem Hierufalem, rum prope fundamenta crebris affitiquam multos jam annos habitatam vi- bus erumpentes, fecere locum exuftis dere defideratis, meis laboribus refec. aliquoties" operantibus inacceffum : tanı incolam, et 'una vobiscum in ea hocque modo elemento destinatius reoptimo Deo gratias agam. Ibid. p. 398. pellente, cessavit inceptum. Amm.

(3) Ambitiofum quondam apud Marcell. Lib. 23. Cap. 1. p. 350. Edit. Hierofolymam templuin, quod poft Valefii. 1681. multa et interneciva. certamina obli. (4) Whitby's general Preface. dente Vespasiano pofteaque Tito ægrè p. xxviii.


among the Latins, who florifhed at the very time " when this was done: Theodoret and Sozoinen ortho“ dox hiftorians, Philoftorgius an Arian, Socrates a fa

vorer of the Novations, who writ the story within the

space of fifty years after the thing was done, and whilst “ the eye-witnesses of the fact were yet surviving.” But the public hath lately been obliged with the best and fullest account of this whole transaction in Dr. Warburton's, Julian, where the evidence for the miracle is set in the strongest light, and all objections are clearly refuted, to the triumph of faith and the confusion of infidelity.

Julian was the last of the Heathen emperors. His fucceffor Jovian made it the business of his short reign, to undo, as much as was possible, all that Julian had done: and the succeeding emperors were generally for represling Judaism, in the fame proportion as they were zealous for promoting Christianity, Adrian's edict was (5) revived, which prohibited all Jews from entering into Jerusalem, or coming near the city; and guards were posted to enforce the execution of it. This was a very lucrative station to the soldiers; for the Jews (6) uted to give money for permisljon to come and see the ruins of their city and temple, and to weep over them, especially on the day whereon Jerusalem had been taken and destroyed by the Romans. It doth not appear that the Jews had ever the liberty of approaching the city, unless by stealth or by purchase, as long as it continued in subjection to the Greek emperors. It continued in fubjection to the Greek emperors, till this, as well as the neighbouring cities, and countries, fell under the dominion of the Saracens. Only in the former part of

(5) Auguftini, Serm. 4. Sect. 5. 2. p. 99. Edit. Elzevir. 1656. Tom. 5. p. 23. Edit. Benedict. (6) Hieron. in Sophon. I, Cole Antwerp. Sulpicii Severi Hift. Lib. 1655. Vol. 3. Edit. Benedict.


the seventh century after Chrift, and in the beginning of the reigu of the emperor Heraclius, it was (7) taken and plundered by Chofroes king of Persia, and the greatest cruelties were exercised on the inhabitants. Ninety thousand Christians are said to have been fold and facrificed to the malice and revenge of the Jews. But Heraclius foon repelled and routed the Persians, rescued Jerusalem'out of their hands, and banished all Jews, forbidding them, under the severelt penalties, to come within three miles of the city. ... Jerusalem was hardly recovered from the depredations of the Perfians, before it was exposed to a worfe evil by The conquering arms of the Saracens. It was in the beginning of the fame seventh century, that Mohamined began to preach and propagate his new religion : and this little cloud, which was at first no bigger than a man's hand, foon overspread and darkened the whole hemi{phere. Mohammed himself conquered some parts of Arabia. His fucceffor Abukeker broke into Palestine and Syria. Omar the next caliph was one of the most rapid conquerors, who ever spread desolation upon the face of the earth. His reign was of no longer duration than ten years and a half; and in that time he subdued all Arabia, Syria, Mefopotamia, Persia, and Egypt. His (8) army invested Jerufalem. · He came thither in perfon; and the Christians after a long fiege being reduced to the greatest extremities, in the year of Christ 637, surrendered the city upon capitulation. He granted them honorable conditions; he would not allow any of their churches to be taken from them; but only demanded of the Patriarch, with great modesty, a place where he might build a mosque. The patriarch thowed him Jacob's stone, and the place where the temple of Solomon had been built, which the Christians had filleci with ordure in hatred to the Jews. Omar began him

(7) Theoph. ad Heracl. p. 252, (8) Elmacini Hist. Saracen. Lib. I, &cc. Edit. Paris. p. 200, &c. Edit. p. 22, et 28. Edit. Erpenii. Herbelot. Venet. Cedren. ad Heracl, p. 408. Biblioth. Orientale. p. 687. Bafrages Edit. Paris. p. 322, &c. Edit. Venet. Hist. of the Jews. B. 6. Chap. 19. Balnage’s Hilt. of the Jews. Book 6. Sect. 2. Ockley's Hift. of the Saracens. Chap. 18. Sect. 7.

Vol. 1. p. 243, &c.


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