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self to cleanse the place, and he was followed in this act of piety by the principal officers of his army; and it was in this place that the first mosque was erected at Jerufa. lem. Sophronius the patriarch (9) faid upon Omar's taking poffeffion of the city, · This is of a truth the . abomination of defolation spoken of by Daniel the
prophet ftanding in the holy place.' Omar the conqueror of Jerusalem is by fome authors faid alfo to have died there, being stabbed by a slave at morning prayers in the mosque which he had erected. Abdolmelik the fon of Merwan, the twelfth caliph, (1) inlarged the mosque at Jerusalem, and ordered the people to go thither on pilgrimage instead of Mecca, which was then in the hands of the rebel Abdollah: and afterwards (2) when the pilgrimage to Mecca was by any accident interrupted, the Muffelmen used to repair to Jerusalem for the same purposes of devotion.
In this manner the holy city was transferred from the poffeffion of the Greek Christians into the dominion of the Arabian Muffelmen, and continued in subjection to the caliphs till the latter part of the eleventh century, that is above 400 years. At that time (3) the Turks of the Selzuccian race had made themselves mafters of Perfia, had ufurped the government, but fubmitted to the religion of the country; and being firmly feated there, they extended their conquests as far as Jerusalem, and farther. They drove out the Arabians, and also despoiled the caliphs of their power over it; and they kept poffeffion of it, till being weakened by divisions among themselves, they were ejected by the caliph of Egypt. The caliph of Egypt, perceiving the divisions and weakness of the Turks, advanced to Jerusalem with a great army; and the Turks expecting no fuccour, prefently surrendered it to him. But though it thus changed mafters, and passed from the Arabians to the Turks, and from the Turks to the Egyptians, yet the religion professed there was still the same, the Mohammedan being authorized, and established, and the Christian only tolerated upon payment of tribute.
(9) Theophanes p. 281. Edit. Paris. (2) Herbelot Bib. Orient. p. 270. p. 224. Edit. Venet. Bafnage, ibid. (3) Elmacini Hift. Saracen. Lib. 3. Ockley, p. 249,
p. 267-287. Abul Pharajii Hift. (1) Elmacin. Hift. Sar. Lib. 1. Dyn. 9. p. 243. Vers. Pocockii. Her. p. 58. Ockley, Vol. 2. p. 299. belot Bib. Orient. p. 269.
The Egyptians enjoyed their conquests but a little while; for in (4) the same year that they took possession of it, they were dispofleffed again by the Franks as they are generally denominated, or the Latin Christians. Peter the hermit of Amiens in France went on a pilgrimage to Palestine, and there having feen and shared in the distresses and miseries of the Christians, he represented them at his return in such pathetic terms, that by his preaching and instigation, and by the authority of pope Urban II. and the Council of Clermont, the west was stirred up against the east, Europe against Asia, the Christians against the Musselmen, for the retaking of Jerusalem, and for the recovery of the holy land out of the hands of the infidels. It was the epidemic madnefs of the time; and old and young, men and women, priests and soldiers, monks and merchants, peasants and mechanics, all were eager to assume the crois, and to set out for what they thought the holy wars. Some affert that the number of those who went out on this expedition amounted to above a million. They who make the lowest computation affirm, that there were at least three hundred thousand fighting men. After some lofles and some victories the army sat down before Jerufalem, and after a fiege of five weeks took it by storm, on the fifteenth of July in the year of Christ 1099; and all, who were not Christians, they put to the sword. They maffacred above seventy thousand Muflulmen; and all the Jews in the place they gathered and burnt together; and the spoil that they found in the mosques was of inestimable value. Godfrey of Boulogne, the general, was chosen king; and there reigned nine kings in succellion; and the kingdom fubfifted eighty-eight years, till the year of Christ 1187, when the Mutfulmen re
(4) Abul Pharajii Hist. Dyn. 9. Knolles and Ricaut. Vol. 1. p. 12, &c. P: 243. Vers. Pocockii Elmacini Hist.
Voltaire's Hilt. of Europe, of the Cru. Saracen. Lib. 3. p. 293. Herbelot. Bib. fades. Blair's Chronol. Tables. . Orient. p. 269. Savage’s Abridg. of VOL. II.
gained their former dominion, and with scarce any interruption have retained it ever since.
At that time the famous Saladin, having subverted the government of the caliphs, had caused bimself to be proclaimed fultan of Egypt. Having also fubdued Syria and Arabia, he formed the (5) delign of besieging Jerusalem, and of putting an end to that kingdom. He marched against it with a powerful and victorious army, and took it by capitulation on Friday the 2d of Octoher, after a fiege of fourteen days. He compelled the Christians to redeem their lives at the price of ten piecesof gold for a man, five for a woman, and two for a boy or girl. He restored to the oriental Christians the church of the holy fepulchre; but forced the Franks or western Christians to depart to Tyre or other places, which were in the poffeffion of their countrymen. But though the city was in the hands of the Muflulmen, yet the Christians had still their nominal king of Jerusalem; and for fome time Richard I. of England, who was one of the moft renowned crusaders, and had eminently distinguished himself in the holy wars, gloried in the empty title. The city however (6) did not remain so afsured to the family of Saladin, but thirty years after bis nephew Al Moadham, sultan of Damascus, was obliged to demolish the walls, not being able to keep it himself, and fearing left the Franks, who were then again become formidable in those parts, thould establith themselves again in a place of luch strength. Afterwards in the year 1228, (7) another of Saladin's family, Al Kamel, the fultan of Egypt, who after the death of his kinsman Al Muadham enjoyed part of his estates, to secure his own kingdom, made a treaty with the Franks, and yielded up Jerusalem to the emperor Frederic II. upon condition that he 1hould not rebuild the walls, and that the mosques should be reserved for the devotions of the Musulmen. Fre
(5) Elmacin. ibid. p. 293. Abul. and Savage p. 94. Voltaire ibid. Pharaj. ibid. p. 273, 274. Herbelot (7) Abul Pharaji ibid. p. 305. ibid. p. 269 et 743. Knolles and Sa- Herbelot ibid. p. 269 et 745. Knolles vage, p. 54. Voltaire ibid. Blair's and Savage p. 81. Voltaire ibid. and Chronol. Tables.
Annals of the Empi:c. Ann. 1229. (6) Herbelot ibid. p. 269. Knolles 6
deric was accordingly crowned king there, but foon returned into Europe. Not many years intervened before (8) the Christians broke the truce; and Melecsalah, sultan of Egypt, being greatly offended, marched directly towards Jerusalem, put all the Franks therein to the sword, demolished the castle which they had built, facked and rased the city, not even Iparing the sepulchre of our Saviour, which till that time had never been violated or defiled; and (9) before the end of the fame century, the crusaders or European Christians were totally extirpated out of the holy land, having lost in their eastern expeditions, according to fome accounts, above two millions of persons.
Before this time the Mainalucs or the foreign flaves to the Egyptian sultans had ufurped the government from their masters: and foon after this (1) Kazan the chan of the Mogul-Tartars made an irruption into Syria, routed Al Naser the Sultan of Egypt, had Da
mascus surrendered to him, and ordered Jerusalem to • be repaired and fortified. But being recalled by great
troubles in Persia, he was obliged to quit his new conquests, and the Mamaluc sultan of Egypt foon took poffeffion of them again. In like manner (2) when the great Timur or Tamerlane, like a mighty torrent, overwhelmed Asia, and vanquished both the Turkish and Egyptian sultans, he went twice in passing and repassing to visit the holy city, gave many presents to the religious persons, and freed the inhabitants from fubfidies and garrisons. But the ebb was almost as sudden as the flood. He died within a few years, and his sons and grandfons quarreling about the succession, his vast empire in a little time mouldered away; and Jerusalem with the neighbouring countries reverted to the obedience of the Mamalucs again. It was indeed in a ruined and desolate ftate, as Chalcocondylas (3) describes it, and
(8) Herbelot ibid. p. 269. Knolles and Savage, p. 138, &c. and Savage, p. 83.
(3) Τον δε ταφον Ιησε κ. τ. λ. Sepul(9) Knolles and Savage, p. 95. chrum Jesu lub potestate iftius regis in Voltaire, ibid.
Palestina situm est, unde plurimum lu. (1) Pocockii Supplemn, ab Abul. criei accidit.Situm in urbe HierufaPharaj. p. 2. Knolles and Savage, p. 96. lem, quæ devastata est cum inaritimis
(2) Chalcocondylas de rebus Turc. regionibus. Chalcocond. ibid. p:750 Lib. 9. 3. Herbelot, p. 877, &c. Knolles Edit. Paris. p. 59. Edit. Venet.
the Christians paid.large tribute to the sultans of Egypt for access to the fepulchre of Jesus. And in the fame ftate it continued, with little variation, under the dominion of the Mamalucs, for the space of above 260 years, till at length this with the other territories of the Mamalucs fell a prey to the arins of the Turks of the Othman
It was about the year 1516 that (4) Selim the ninth emperor of the Turks turned his arms against Egypt.; and having conquered one sultan, and hanged another, he annexed Syria, Egypt, and all the dominions of the Mamalucs to the Othman empire. In his way to Egypt, he did as Kazan and Tamerlane had done before him; he (5) went to visit the holy city, the feat of fo many prophets, and the fcene of fo many miracles. It lay at that time mifcrably deformed and ruined, according to the (6) account of a contemporary historian, not inhabited by the Jews who were banished into all the world, but by a few Christians who paid large tribute to the Egyptian sultans for the posseflion of the holy sepulchre. Selim offered up his devotions at the monuments of the old prophets, and presented the Christian priests with as much money as was sufficient to buy them provisions for six months; and having stayed there one night, he went to join his army at Gaza. From that time to this the Othman emperors have (7) pofleffed it under the title of Hami, that is of protectors, and not of masters; though they are more properly tyrants and oppressors. Turks, Arabians, and Christians of various fecis and nations dwell there out of reverence to the place; but very few Jews; and of those the greatest part,
(4) Pocockii Supplem. ad Abulo orbe extorres in admilli sceleris
pænam, Pharaj. p. 29, 30, 49. Herbelot Bib. nec sedem nec patriam habent, led a Orient. p. 802. Knolles and Savage, paucis Chriltianis incolebatur. Ii cum p. 240, &c. Prince Cantemir’s Hist. ignominia et gravi admodum contuof the Othman empire, in Selim I. melia Chriftiani nominis, ob concessam
(5) Pauli Jovii Hift. Lib. 17. Her- venerandi fepulchri possessionem, grave belot ibid. Knolles and Savage, p. tributum Ægyptiis regibus perfol. 243. Prince Cantemir ibid. Sect. 21.
(7) et ses successeurs l'ont por. (6) Paulis Jovius ibid. Ea tunc fedée ju qu'a present fous le titre miferabili faci arum l'uinarum' defor. de Hani, c'est-a-dire, de protecteurs, mitate inculta atque deserta, non a et non pas de maitrus, Herbelot, Judæis veteribus incolis, qui tunc toto