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(3) That this committeo consist of the following gentlemen:

Charles W. Eliot, president of Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. chair


William T. Harris, Commissioner of Education, Washington, D. C.
James B. Angell, president of the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich.
Jolın Tetlow, lead master of the girls' high school and the girls' Latin school,

Boston, Mass.
James M. Taylor, president of Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, N. Y.
Oscar D. Robinson, principal of the high school, Albany, N. Y.
James H. Baker, president of the University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo.
Ricları H. Jesso, president of the University of Missouri, Columbia, Mo.
James C. Mackenzie, head master of tho Lawrenceville school, Lawrenceville,

N. J.

Henry C. King, professor in Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio. These recommendations of the conference were adopted by the National Council of Education on tho 9th of July, and the council communicated the recommendations to the directors of the National Educational Association, with the further recommendation that an appropriation not exceeding $2,500 be made by the association toward the expenses of these conferences. On the 12th of July the directors adopted a series of resolutions under which a sum not exceeding $2,500 was made available for this undertaking during the academic year 1892-93.

Every gentleman named on the above committee of ten accepted his appointment; and the committeo met, with every member present, at Columbia College, New York City, from the 9th to the 11th of November, 1892, inclusive.

In preparation for this meeting a table had been prepared by means of a prolonged correspondence with tho principals of selected secondary schools in various parts of the country, which showed the subjects taught in 40 leading secondary schools in the United States, and the total number of recitations, or exercises, allotted to each subject. Nearly 200 schools were applied to for this information; but it did not prove practicable to obtain within threo months verified statements from more than 40 schools. This tablo proved conclusively, first, that the total number of subjects tanght in these secondary schools was nearly 40, 13 of which, however, wero found in only a few schools; secondly, that many of these subjects were taught for such short periods that littlo training could be derived from them; and thirdly, that the time allotted to the same subject in the different schools variel widely. Even for the older subjects, liko Latin and algebra, there appeared to be a wide diversity of practice with regard to the time allotted to them. Since this table was comparative in its nature-that is, permitted comparisons to be made between different schools and coulil bo easily misunderstood and misapplied by persons who had small acquaintance with school programmes, it was treated as a confidential documeut; and was issued at first only to members of the committee of ten and the principals of the schools mentioned in the table. Later, it was sont-still as a confidential paper-to the members of the several conferences organized by the committee of ten.

The committee of ten, after a preliminary discussion on November 9, decided on November 10 to organize conferences on the following subjects: (1) Latin; (2) Greek; (3) English; (4) other modern languages; (5) mathematics; (6) physics, astronomy, and chomistry; (7) natural history (biology, including botany, zoology, and physiology); (8) history, civil government, and political economy; (9) geography (physical geography, geology, and meteorology). They also decided that each conference should consist of ten members. They then proceeded to select the members of each of these conferences, having regard in the selection to the scholarship and experience of the gentlemen named, to the fair division of the members between colleges on the one hand and schools on the other, and to the proper geographical distribution of the total membership. After selecting 90 members for the nine conferences, the committee decided on an additional number of names to be used as substitutes

for persons originally chosen who should decline to serve, from two to four substitutes being selected for each conference. In the selection of substitutes the committeo found it difficult to regard the geographical distribution of the persons selected with as much strictness as in tho original selection; and, accordingly, when it became necessary to call on a considerablo number of substitutes, the accurate geographical distribution of membership was somewhat impaired. The lists of the members of the several conferences were finally adopted at a mceting of the committeo on November 11; and tho chairman and secretary of a committee were then empowered to fill any vacancies which might occur.

The committeo next adopted the following list of questions as a guide for the discussions of all the conferences, and directed that the conforences be called together on the 28th of December:

(1) In tho school course of study extending approximately from the age of 6 to 18 years—a course including the periods of both elementary and secondary instructionat what age should the study which is the subject of the conference be first introduced ?

(2) After it is introduced, how many hours a week for how many years should be devoted to it?

“(3) How many hours a week for how many years should be devoted to it during the last four years of tho completo course; that is, during the ordinary high school perio?

“(4) What topics, or parts, of the subject may reasonably be covered during the whole course?

“(5) What topics, or parts, of the subject may best be reserved for the last four years?

“(6) In what form and to what extent should the subject enter into college requirements for admission! Such questions as the sufficiency of translation at sight as a test of kuowledge of a language, or the superiority of a laboratory examination in a scientific subject to a written examination on a text-book, are intended to be suggested under this head by the phrase 'in what form.'

(7) Shoull tho subject be treated differently for pupils who are going to college, for those who are going to a scientific school, and for those who, presumably, aro going to neither!

(8) At what stage should this differentiation begin, if any be recommended :

"(9) Can any description bo given of the best method of teaching this subject thronghout the school course?

(10) Can any description be given of the best mode of testing, attainments in this suloject at collego admission examinations?

“(11) For those cases in which colleges and universities permit a division of the admission examination into a preliminary and a final examination, separated by at least a year, can the best limit between the preliminary and final examinations be approximately clefined ?”

The committee further voted that it was expedient that the conferences on Latin aud Greek meet at the samo place. Finally, all further questions of detail with regard to the calling and the instruction of the conferences were referred to the chairman with full power.

During the ensuing six weeks, the composition of the nine conferences was determined in accordance with the measures adopted by the committee of ten. Seventy persons originally selected by the cominittee accepted the invitation of the committee, and 69 of theso persons were present at the meetings of their respective couferences on the 28th of December. Twenty substitutes accepted service, of whom 12 were persons selected by the committee of ten, and 8 were selected under the authority granted to the chairman and secretary of the committee in emergencies. One of these 8 gentlemen was selected by a conference at its first meeting. Two gentlemen who accepted servico-one of the original members and one substitute-absented themselves from the meetings of their respective conferences without giving any

notice to the chairinan of the committee of ten, who was thereforo unable to fill their places. With these two exceptions, all the conferences inet on December 28 with full membership.

Tho places of meeting were as follows: For tho Latin and Greek conferences, the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich.; for tho English conference, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, N. Y.; for the conference on other ino«lern languages, the Bureau of Education, Washington, D. C.; for the conference on mathematics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.; for the conference on physics, astronomy, and chemistry, and on natural history, the University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill.; for the conference on history, civil government, and political economy, the University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis.; for the conference on geography, the Cook County normal school, Englewood, Ill. Tho committee of ten and all the conferences enjoyed the hospitality of the several institutions at which they met, and the members were made welcomo at private bouscs during the sessions. Through the exertions of Mr. N. A. Calkins, chairman of the trustees of the National Educational Association, important reductions of railroad fares were procured for some members of the committee and of tlio conferences; but tho reluctions obtainable were less numerous and considerable than the National Council of Education had loped. In filling a few vacancies of which notice was received slıortly before December 28, it was necessary to regard as one qualification nearness of residence to the appointed places of meeting; but on the whole the weight and effectiveness of the several conferences were not impaired by the necessary replacement of 20 of the members originally selected by the committee of ten. The list of the members of the consorences on the 28th of December was as follows:

1. LATIN. Prof. Charles E. Bennett, Cornell University, Ithaca, N, Y. Frederick L. Bliss, principal of the Detroit high school, Detroit, Mich. John T. Buchanan, principal of the Kansas City high school, Kansas City, Mo. William C. Collar, head master of the Roxbury Latin school, Roxbury, Mass. Jolu S. Crombie, principal of the Adelphi Academy, Brooklyn, N. Y. Prof. James H. Dillard, Tulane University, New Orleans, La. Rev. William Gallagher, principal of Williston Seminary, Easthampton, Mass. Prof. William G. Halo, University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill. Prof. John C. Rolfe, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. Julius Sachs, principal of the Collegiate Institute for Boys, 38 West Fisty-ninth

street, New York City.


E. W. Coy, principal of the Hughes high school, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Prof. Martin L. D'Ooge, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich.
A. F. Fleet, superintendent of the Missouri Military Academy, Mexico, Mo.
Ashley D. Hurt, head master of the high school, Tulane University, New Orleans, La.
Robert D. Keer, principal of the Free Academy, Norwich, Conn.
Prof. Abby Leach, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, N. Y.
Clifford H. Moore, Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass.
William II. Smiiey, principal of the high school, Denver, Colo.
Prof. Charles F. Smith, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tenn.
Prof. Benjamin I. Wheeler, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y.


Prof. Edward A. Allen, University of Missouri, Columbia, Mo.
F. A. Barbour, Michigan State normal school, Ypsilanti, Mich.
Prof. Frank A. Blackburn, University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill.
Prof. Cornelius B. Bracíley, University of California, Berkeley, Cal.
Prof. Francis B. Gummere, llaverford College, Pa.

Prof. Edward E. Halo, jr., University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa.
Prof. George L. Kittredge, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.
Charles L. Loos, jr., high school, Dayton, Ohio.
W. H. Maxwell, superintendent of schools, Brooklyn, N. Y.
Samuel Thurber, master in the girls' high school, Boston, Mass.


Prof. Joseph L. Armstrong, Trinity College, Durham, N. C.
Thomas B. Bronson, Lawrenceville school, Lawrenceville, N. J.
Prof. Alphonse N. van Daell, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass.
Charles H. Grandgent, director of modern languago instruction in the public

schools, Boston, Mass.
Prof. Charles Harris, Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio.
William T. Peck, high school, Providence, R. I.
Prof. Sylvester Primor, University of Texas, Austin, Tex.
John J. Schobinger, principal of a private school for boys, Chicago, Ill.
Isidore H. B. Spiers, William Penn Charter School, Philadelphia, Pa.
Prof. Walter D. Toy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N. C.


Prof. William E. Byerly, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.
Prof. Florian Cajori, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, Colo.
Arthur H. Cutler, principal of a private school for boys, New York City.
Prof. Henry B. Fine, College of New Jersey, Princeton, N. J.
W. A. Greeson, principal of the high school, Grand Rapids, Mich.
Andrew Ingraham, Swain Free School, New Bedford, Mass.
Prof. Simon Newcomb, Johns Hopkins University, and Washington, D. C.
Prof. George D. Olds, Amherst College, Amherst, Mass.
James L. Patterson, Lawrenceville school, Lawrenceville, N. J.
Prof. T. H. Safford, Williams College, Williamstown, Mass.


Prof. Brown Ayers, Tulane University, New Orleans, La.
Irving W. Fay, The Belmont School, Belmont, Cal.
Alfred P. Gage, English high school, Boston, Mass.
George Warren Kral), manual training school, Washington University, St. Louis, Mo.
Prof. William W. Payne, Carleton College, Northfield, Minn.
William McPherson, jr., 2901 Collin wood avenno, Toledo, Ohio.
Prof. Ira Remsen, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md.
Prof. James H. Shepard, South Dakota Agricultural College, Brookings, S. Dak.
Prof. William J. Waggener, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo.
George R. White, Phillips Exeter Academy, Exeter, N. H.



Prof. Charles E. Bessey, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebr.
Arthur C. Boyden, normal school, Bridgewater, Mass.
Prof. Samuel F. Clarke, Williams College, Williamstown, Mass.
Prof. Douglas H. Campbell, Leland Stanford Junior University, Palo Alto, Cal.
President John M. Coulter, Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind.
Principal S. A. Merritt, Helena, Mont.
W. B. Powell, superintendent of schools, Washivgton, D. C.
Charles B. Scott, high school, St. Paul, Minn.
Prof. Albert H. Tuttle, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va.
0. S. Westcott, principal of the North Division high school, Chicago, Ill.


President Charles K. Adams, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis.
Prof. Edward G. Bourne, Adelbert College, Cleveland, Ohio.
Abram Brown, principal of the Central high school, Columbus, Ohio.
Prof. A. B. Hart, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.
Ray Greene Huling, principal of the high school, New Bedford, Mass.
Prof. Jesse Macy, Iowa College, Grinnell, Iowa.
Prof. James Harvey Robinson, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.
Prof. William A. Scott, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis.
Henry P. Warren, head master of the Albany Academy, Albany, N. Y.
Prof. Woodrow Wilson, College of New Jersey, Princeton, N. J.


Prof. Thomas C. Chamberlin, University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill.
Prof. George L. Collie, Beloit College, Beloit, Wis.
Prof. W. M. Davis, Harvarıl University, Cambridge, Mass.
Delwin A. Hamlin, master of the Rice Training School, Boston, Mass.
Prof. Edwin J. Houston, Central high school, Philadelphia, Pa.
Prof. Mark W. Harrington, the Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C.
Charles F. King, Dearborn School, Boston, Mass.
Francis W. Parker, principal of the Cook County Normal School, Englewood, Ill.
G. M. Philips, principal of the State normal school, West Chester, Pa.
Prof. Israel C. Russell, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich.

The 90 members of the conferences were divided as follows: Forty-seven were in the service of colleges or universities, 42 in the service of schools, and 1 was a Government official formerly in the service of a university. A considerable number of the collego men, however, had also had experience in schools. Each conference, in accordance with a recommendation of the committee of ten, choso its own chairman and secretary; and these two officers prepared the report of each conference. Six of the chairmen were college men and 3 were school men, while of the secretaries 2 were college men and 7 school men. The committee of ten requested that the reports of tho conferences should be sent to their chairman by the 1st of April, 1893— three months being thus allowed for the preparation of the reports. Seven conferences substantially conformed to this request of the committee; but the reports from the conferences on natural history and geography were delayed until the second week in July. The committee of ten, being of course unable to prepare their own report until all the reports of the December conferences had been received, were prevented from presenting their report, as they had intended, at the education congress which met at Chicago July 27-29.

All the conferences sat for three days. Their discussions were frank, earnest, and thorough; but in every conference an extraordinary unity of opinion was arrived at. The nine reports are characterized by an amount of agreement which quite surpasses the most saugnine anticipations. Only two conferences present reports, namely, the conference on physics, astronomy, and chemistry, and the conference on geography; and in the first case the dissenting opinions touch only two points in the report of the majority, one of which is unimportant. In the great majority of matters brought before each conference the decision of the conference was unani

When one considers the different localities, institutions, professional experi. ences, and personalities represented in each of the conferences, the unanimity developed is very striking, and should carry great weight.

Before the 1st of October, 1893, the reports of the conferences had all been printed, after revision in proof by the chairmen of the conferences, respectively, and had been distributed to the members of the committee of ten, together with a preliminary draft of a report for the committee. With the aid of comments and suggestions received from members of the committee a second draft of this report was made


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