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committee found strong reasons for postponing bifurcation and making the subjects. of the first two years as truly representative as possible. Secondly, inasmuch as. many boys and girls who begin the secondary school course do not stay in school more than two years, the committee thought it important to select the studies of the first two years in such a way that linguistic, historical, mathematical, and scientific subjects should all be properly represented. Natural history being represented by physical geography, the committee wished physics to represent the inorganic sciences of precision. The first two years of any one of the four programmes. presented above will, in the judgment of the committee, be highly profitable by themselves to children who can go no further.
* In any school in which Greek can be better taught than a modern language, or in which local public opinion or the history of the spliool makes it vesirable to teach Greek in an ample way, Greek inay Le substituted for German or French in thu second year of the classical programme.
French (or German).
Latin or German or French...... 4 p.
S algebra .. 21
geometry 2 )
p. Astronomy å yr. and meteorology 3 p. Astronomy : yr.and meteorology 3 p. r.
as in the Latin-scien;
English as in others 37
French (or German).
Latin or German or French. 4 p.
as in classical 2
4 p. English
4 p. Chemistry Chemistry
3 p. Trigonometry and biglier algebra 3 p. Trigonometry an lagher algebra 3) History
3 p. Geologs er physiography.. $yr.
$ yr. Anatomy, physiology, and hygiene
Although the committee thought it expedient to include among the four programmes one which included neither Latin nor Greek, and one which included only one foreign language (which might be either ancient or modern), they desired to affirm explicitly their unanimous opinion that, under existing conditions in the United States as to the training of teachers and the provision of necessary means of instruction, the two programmes called respectively modern languages and English nust in practice be distinctly inferior to the other two.
In the construction of the sample programmes the comunittee adopted twenty as the maximum number of weekly periods, but with two qualifications, namely, that at least five of the twenty periods should be given unpreparoil work, and that laboratory subjects should have donble periods whenever that prolongation should be possible.
The omission of music, drawing, and elocution from the programmes offered by the committee was not intended to imply that these snbjects ought to receive no systematic attention. It was merely thought best to leave it to local school autlıorities to determine, without suggestions from the committee, how these subjects should be introduced into the programmes in addition to the subjects reported on by the couferences.
The committee were governed in the constrnction of the first three programmes by the rule laid down by the languago conforences, namely, that two foreign languages should not be begun at the same time. To oboy this rulo is to accept strict limitations in the construction of a four years' classical programme. A five years' or six years' programme can be made much moro casily under this restriction. The coinmittee were anxious to givo five weekly periods to every foreign language in the year when it was first attacked, but did not find it possible to do so in every case.
The four programmes can bo carried out economically in a single sehool, because, with a few inevitablo exceptions, the several subjects occur simultaneously in at least three programmes and with the same number of weekly periods.
Numerous possible transpositions of subjects will occur to every experienced teacher who examines theso specimen programmes. Thus, in somo localities it would be better to transpose French and German; the selection and order of science subjects might be varied considerably to suit the needs or circumstances of different schools, and the selection and order of historical subjects admit of large variety.
Many subjects now familiar in secondary school courses of study do not appear in Table III or in the specimen programmes given above, but it must not be supposed that the omitted subjects are necessarily to be neglected. If the recommendations of the conference were carried out, some of the omitted subjects would be better dealt with under any one of the above programmes than they are now under familiar high school and academy programmes in which they figure as separate subjects. Thus, drawing does not appear as a separate subject in the specimen programmes, but the careful reader of the conference reports will notice that drawing, both mechanical and free-land, is to be used in the study of history, botany, zoology, astronomy, meteorology, physics, geography, and physiography, and that the kind of drawing recommended by the conference is the most useful kind, namely, that which is applied to recording, describing, and discussing observations. This abundant use of drawing might not prevent the need of some special instruction in drawing, but it ought to diminish the number of periods devoted exclusively to drawing. Again, neither ethics nor economics, neither metaphysics nor ästhetics appear in the programmes, but in the large number of periods devoted to English and history there would be some time for incidental instruction in tho elements of these subjects. It is through the reading and writing required of pupils, or recommended to them, that the fundamental ideas on these important topics are to be inculcated. Again, the industrial and commercial subjects do not appear in these programmes, but bookkeeping and commercial arithmetic are provided for by the option for algebra designated in Table III; and if it were desired to provide more amply for subjects thought to have practical importance in trade or the useful arts, it would be easy to provide options in such subjects for some of the sciences contained in the third and fourth years of the “English” programme.
The committee of ten think much would be gained if, in addition to the usual programme hours, a portion of Saturday morning should be regularly used for laboratory work in the scientific snbjects. Laboratory work requires more consecutive time than the ordinary period of recitation affords; so that an hour and a half is about the shortest advantageous period for a laboratory exercise. The committee venturo to suggest further that, in addition to the regular school sessions in the morning, one afternoon in every week shoulıl be used for out-of-door instruction in geography, botany, zoology, and geology, these afternoon and Saturday morning exercises being counted as regular work for the teachers who conduct them. In all laboratory and field work, the committeo believe that it will be found profitable to employ as assistants to the regular teachers-particularly at the beginning of laboratory and field work in each subject--recent graduates of the secondary schools who have themselves followed the laboratory and field courses; for at the beginning the pupil will need a large amount of individual instruction in the manipulation of specimens, the use of instruments, and the prompt recording of observations. One tcacher without
assistants can not supervise effectively the work of 30 or 40 pupils, either in the laboratory or in the field. The laboratory work on Saturday mornings could be maintained throughout the school year; the afternoon excursions wonld of course be difficult, or impossible, for perhaps a third of the school year.
In general, tho committee of ten have endeavored to emphasize the principles which should govern all secondary school programines, and to show how the main recommendations of the several conferences may be carried out in a variety of feasible programmes.
One of the subjects which the committee of ten were directed to consider was requirements for admission to college, and particularly they were expected to report on uniform requirements for admission to colleges, as well as on a uniform secondary school programme. Almost all the conferences have something to say about the best mode of testing the attainments of candidates at college admission examinations, and some of them, notably the conferences on history and geography, make very explicit declarations concerning the nature of college examinations. The improvements desired in the mode of testing the attainments of pupils who have pursued in the secondary schools the various subjects which enter into the course will be found clearly described under each subject in the several conference reports, but there is a general principle concerning the relation of the secondary schools to colleges which the committee of ten, inspired and guided by the conferences, feel it their duty to set forth with all possiblo distinctness.
The secondary schools of the United States, taken as a whole, do not exist for the purpose of preparing boys and girls for colleges. Only an insignificant percentage of the graduates of these schools go to colleges or scientific schools. Their main function is to preparo for the duties of life that small proportion of all the children in the country-a proportion small in number, but very important to the welfare of the nation—who show themselves able to profit by an education prolonged to the eighteenth year, and whose parents are able to support them while they remain so long at school. There are, to be sure, a few private or endowed secondary schools in tho country which make it their principal object to prepare students for tho colleges and universities, but the number of these schools is relatively small. A secondary school programmo intended for national use must therefore be made for those children whose education is not to be pursued beyond the secondary school. The preparation of a few pupils for college or scientific school should in the ordinary secondary school be the incidental and not the principal object. At the same time, it is obviously desirable that tho colleges and scientific schools should be accessible to all boys or girls who have completed creditably the secondary school course. Their parents often do not decide for them, four years before the college age, that they shall go to college, and they themselves may not, perhaps, feel the desire to continue their education until near the end of their school course. In order that any successful graduate of a good secondary school should be free to present himself at the gates of the collego or scientific school of his choice, it is necessary that the colleges and scientific schools of the country should accept for admission to appropriate courses of their instruction the attainments of any youth who has passed creditably through a good secondary school course, no matter to what group of subjects he may bave mainly devoted himself in the secondary school. As secondary schoul courses are now too often arranged, this is not a reasonable request to prefer to the colleges and scientific schools, because the pupil may now go through a secondary school course of a very feeblo and scrappy naturo-studying a little of many subjects and not much of any one, getting, perhaps, a little ir formation in a variety of fields, but nothing which can be called a thorough training.
Now the recommendations of the nine conferences, if well carried out, might fairly be held to make all the main subjects taught in the secondary schools of equal rank for the purposes of admission to college or scientific school. They would all be taught consecutively and thoroughly, and would all be carried on in the same
spirit; they would all be used for training the powers of observation, memory, expression, and reasoning; and they would all be good to that end, although differing among themselves in quality and substance. In preparing the programmes of Table IV, the committee had in mind that the requirements for admission to colleges night, for schools which adopted a programme derived from that table, be simplified to a considerable extent, though not reduced. A college might say: We will accept for admission any groups of studies taken from the secondary school programme, provided that the sum of the studies in each of the four years amounts to sixteen, or eighteen, or twenty periods a week-as may be thought best-and provided, further, that in each year at least four of the subjects presented shall have been pursued at least three periods a week, and that at least threo of tho subjects shall have been pursued three years or more. For the purposes of this reckoning, natural history, geography, meteorology, and astronomy might be grouped together as one subject. Every youth who entered college would have spent four years in studying a few subjects thoroughly; and, on the theory that all the subjects are to be considered equivalent in educational rank for the purposes of admission to college, it would make no difference which subjects he had chosen for tho programme—he would have had four years of strong and effective mental training. The conserences on geography and modern languages make the most explicit statement to the effect that college requirements for admission should coincide with high-school requirements for graduation. The conference on English is of opinion “that no student should be admitted to college who shows in his English examination and his other examinations that he is very deficient in ability to write good English.” This recommendation suggests that an ample English course in the secondary school should be required of all persons who intend to enter college. It would of course be possible for any college to require for admission any one subject, or any group of subjects, in the table and the requirements of different colleges, while all kept within tho table, might differ in many respects; but the committee are of opinion that the satisfactory completion of any one of the four years' courses of study embodied in the foregoing programmes shonld admit to corresponding courses in colleges and scientific schools. They believe that this close articulation between the secondary schools and the bigher institutions would be advantageous alike for the schools, the colleges, au the country.
Every reader of this report and of the reports of the nine conferences will be satisfied that to carry out the improvements proposed more highly trained teachers will be needed than are now ordinarily to be found for the service of the elementary and secondary schools. The committee of ten desire to point out some of the means of procuring these better trained teachers. For the further instruction of teachers in actual service, threo agencies already in existence may be much better utilized than they now are. The summer schools which many universities now maintain might be resorted to loy much larger numbers of teachers, particularly if some aid, such as the payment of tuition fees and traveling expenses, should bo given to teachers who are willing to devote lalf of their vacations to study, by tho cities and towns wbich these teachers serve. Secondly, in all the towns and cities in which colleges and universities are planted, theso colleges or universities may usefully give stated courses of instruction in the main subjects used in the elementary and secondary schools to teachers employed in those towns and cities. This is a reasonable service which the colleges and universities may render to their own communities. Thirdly, a superintendent who has himself become familiar with the best mode of teaching any one of the subjects which enter into the school course can always be a very useful instructor for the whole body of teachers under his charge. A real master of any one subject will always havo many suggestions to make to teachers of other subjects. The same is true of the principal of a high school, or other leading teacher in a town or city. In every considerable city scliool system the best teacher in each department of instruction should be enabled to give part of his time to helping the otber