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time president of the New York Teachers' Association, J. W. Bulkley, and James Cruikshank, were representatives of the New York Teachers' Association.

Two of these fonnilers, viz, D. B. Hagar, who prepare the original call and drew up the coustitutio , William E. Sheldon, who, with the speaker, are the only members present to-day, were representatives of the American Institute of Instruction, and of the Massachusetts Status Tea hors' Association. Three of them were representatives of eclucational work in Pennsylvania, viz, J. P. Wickersham, William Roberts, and Erward Brooks. One, C. S. Pennell, was from Missouri; one, J. D. Gedulings, was from South Carolina; and oue, the writer, Z. Richards, from the District of Columbia, who was also a representative of the American Institute of 1n-truction and of the American Assoriation for the Advancement of Education, Five of this number, viz, T. W. Valentine, J. W. Bulkley, William Roberts, J. D. Geddings, and J.P. Wickersham have closed their educational work on cartlı to enter upon a ligher and nobler employment.

As aboia intimate, T. W. Valentine, then president of the New York Teachors' Association, the oldest State teachers' association in our country, wis the first to suggest the fornuation of the National Teachers' Association. After consulting with D. B. Hagar, of Massachusetts, and with others, he requester Mr. Hagar to preparo a call for it convention of the presidents of the various State teachers' associations, with a few other prominent elncators at that time.

Mr. Ilagar prepared the call, and Mr. Valentine sont copies to the officers and workers in the teachers' associations of the whole country, asking for their cooperation; but only ten presidents respoudel, or consenteil to attach their names to the ca). Some: vieweil the call with suspicion, some as visionary, and some with indifference. The call wils as follows: To the Teaches of the United States :

The eminent enccess which has attended the establishment and operations of the sereral teachers' associations in the Stutter of this country is the source of mutual congratulations among all friend of popular education. To the dir et agency anıl the diffused infineuce of these associations, more, perbajo, than to any other cause, are done the manifest improvement of schools in all their relations, the rapiei antellectnal and social elevation of tearhers as a class, and the vast development of public interest in all that concerns the education of the young.

That the Stato associations have already accomplished great gooil, and that they are destined to exert a still broader and more beneficent influence, no wire observer will deny.

Believing that what has been accomplished for the States by State associaiions may be done for the whole country by a national association, we, th: undersiyned, invite our fellow-teachers throughout the Unit d States to assemble in Philalelphia on the 26th day of August next for the purpose of organizing a National Teachers' Association.

We cordially extend this invitation to all practical teachers in the North, the South, the East, and the West, who are willing to mite in a general effort to promote the general w lfare of our country by concentrating the wisilom and power of numerous minds and by distributing among all the accu. mulated experiences of all; who are ready to dovote their energies and their moins 10 advance the dignity, respectability, and usefulness of their calling; and who, in fine, believe that the timu has come when the teachers of the varion shonld gather into one grea' educational brotherhood.

As the permanent success of any a-sociation depends very much upon the auspiceattending its
establi-hment, and the cliaracter of the organic laws it adopt, it is hoped that all parts of the Union
will be largely represented at the inauguration of the proposed enterprise.
Signed by-

T. W. VALENTINE, President of the New York Teachers' Association.
D. B. HAGAR, President of te Massachusetts Teachers' Association.
W. T. LUCKY, President of the Missouri Teachers' dsociation.
J. TENXY, President of the New Hampshire Teachers' Association,
J.G. MAY. Pr-sident of the Indiana Teachers A88)ciation.
W. ROBERTS, President of the Pennsylvania Tea herr' Association.
C. PEASE, President of the l'ermont Teachers Ansociation.
D. FRANKLIN WELLS, Presid nt of the Town Teachers' Association.
A.C. SPICER, President of the icon in Teachers' As8 ciation.
S. WRIGHT, President of ihe Illinois Teachers' Association.

In accordance with the above call many teachers of the United States assembled at the Atheneum Building, in Philadelphia, at 10 o'clock a. m., August 26, 18.57.

Tho meeting was calloul to order by T. W. Valentine, of New York, who read the call and made the following statement, in substance:

We assenible h 're to-day under circumstances of more than ordinary interest. It is true that our meeting is not large in numbers, as o ir coming together hasn't be n publicly announcel in Haming advertis: ments. We have not expectel that the quiet gathering of a body of teachers in this great city would creato sic i a sensation as a political or commercial convention representing merely material interests miglit do, yet in its results upon the great cause of educa ion directly, and upon tho well-being of the couniry ultimately, this meeting may prove as important as many of those of a more pretentions character.

We can not always see the end from the beginning. That noble band of patriots who, more than eighty years ago, sent forth to the world, from this city, the immortal Declaration of Independore, could scarcely have realized the mighty influence which their action was calculated to exert upon our country and the world. All experience, as well as the word of inspiratioc, admonislics us not to dispise the day of small things."

Twelve years ago, in the Empire State, the first Stato association of teachers in this country was formell. Some of us now here, who were instrumental in its formation, can well remember the lear and trembling with which that enterprise was commenced. Previous to this organization teachers everywhere were almost entirely unacquainted with each other. But what a mighty change a few years have wrought! Besides many minor organizations, there are now not less than twenty-threo Stato teachers' associations, each doing good work in its own ^phere of labor, anil to day I trust wo shall proceed to raise the capstone which shall binil all together in one solid substantial structure.

In our proposed organization we shall liavo no antagonisms with any of the State associations, for they have their peculiar local work, or with the venerable Ainorican Institute of Instruction, for its field has always been New England, nor with the American Association for the Advancement of Education, which was not designed to be specifically an association of teachers.

What we want is an association that shall embrace all the teachers of our whole country, which sliall hold ity meeting at such central points as shall accommodate all sections and combine ill interests. And we need this not merely to promote the interests of our own profession, but to gather up il arrange the flucational statistics of our country, so that the people may know what is really our Government will have its educational department just as it now has ono for Agriculture, for the Interior, for the Navy, eti'.

We need such an organization as shall bring the teachers of this country more together, and disseminato as well as collect etlucational intelligence.

Such an effort is imperatively demauded of us, and I trust we shall now go forward and devise measures to acconiplisli these great objects.

After the close of Mr. Valentine's address, Mr. James L. Enos, of Iowa, was mado chairmau pro tempore, and Mr. William E. Sheldon, of Massachusetts, secretary pro tempore.

After prayer by Rev. Dr. Challen, of Indiana, Mr. Ilagar, of Massachusetts, offered the following resolutions:

Resolved. That in the opinion of the teachers now present as representatives of various parts of the United States it is expedient to organize a national teachers' association.

Reso'ved, That a committee of three be appointed by the chair to prepare a constitution adapted to Buch an association.

After a full and free discussion of the resolutions they were adopted unanimously, and the chair appointed Messrs. Hagar, of Massachusetts; Cann, of Georgia, and Challen, of Indiana, to prepare and report a constitution.

The conventiou then engaged in a general discussion upon the condition of edn. cational systems and methods in different parts of our country. In the afternoon the committee on a constitution reported.

On motion of T. W. Valentine, à committee of one from each State and district represented in the convention was appointed by the chair to nominate a list of offi. cers at the evening session.

The following persons were appointed, viz:

William Roberts, of Pennsylvania; J. F. Cann, of Georgia; James Cruikshank, of New York; D. B. Hagar, of Massachusetts; James L. Enos, of Iowa; N. R. Lynch, of Delaware; J. R. Challen, of Iniliana; Thomas Granger, of Illinois; E. W. Whelan, of Missouri; J. W. Barnett, of Illinois; 2. Richards, of the District of Columbia, and J. D. Geddings, of South Carolina.

At the opening of the evening session, Chairman Enos presiding, Mr. T. W. Valentino was called upon to reall i be specially prepared and valuable address.of Prof. William Russell, of Massachusetts, whose ill-health prevented his attendance.

This address set forth the importance of this convention to organize an association of professional teachers that shall be national in its character:

First. As regards wider and juster views of education, and corresponding methods of instruction.

Second. As giving an opportunity for the establishing of a national society of teachers, from which we may expect great national benetits. (See Professor Russell's address, in full, in Barnaril's Journal of Education, Vol. IV, new series, 1861.)

After the reading of the address, the committee on nomination of the first officers made thu following report:

NOMINATIONS.

For president, Z. Richards, of Washington, D. C.
For vice-presidents, T. W. Valentme, New York; D. B. Hagar, Massachusetts;
William Roberts, Pennsylvania; J. F. Cann, Georgia; J. L. Enos, Iowa; T. C. Tay-
lor, Delaware; .. R. Challen, Indiana; E. W. Whelan, Missouri; P. F. Smith, South
Carolina; D. Wilkins, Illinois; T. Granger, Indiana, and L, Andrews, Ohio.

For secretary, J. W. Bulkley, New York.
For treasurer, T. M. Cano, Delaware.

For counselors, William E. Sheldon, Massachusetts; James Cruikshank, New York; P. A. Cregar, Pennsylvania; N. R. Lynch, Delaware; William Morrison, Maryland; 0. C. Wight, District of Columbia; William S. Bogart, Georgia; William T. Luckey, Missouri; A. J. Stevens, Iowa; William H. Wills, Illinois.

This inangaral meeting was barmonions, enthusiastic, and characteristic of the founders, the future workers, and the future meetings of the association.

At a meeting of the directors after adjournment, they resolved to hold the first annual meeting in Cincinnati, Ohio, on the second' Weinesday in August, 1858, at 10 o'clock a. in. After making full arrangements for the next meeting, and expressling their harmonious purposes, the directors adjourned.

THE FIRST AXXCAL MEETING,

of the thirty-eight signers of the constitution at the time of its adoption only five were present at the first annual meeting. Appropriate arrangements, however, had been made by Mr. A. J. Rickoff, superintendent of the Cincinnati public schools, as chairman of the local committee, for tho reception of a large delegation.

When the time came for calling the meeting to order it was found that only five of the constituent members were present, viz.,

the president, the first vice-president, the secretary, and two counselors.

These few members, however, were heartily welcomed by a very large audience, who were then, and have always been, in blissful ignorance of the small representation of actual members.

After the usual welcome by tho dignitaries of Cincinnati, the president called his four coadjutors into servico by keeping the secretary by his side on the platform, and by assigning special duties to the three other members, who were located in different parts of the large audience.

Upon the motion of one of these members the secretary was called upon to read the constitution of the association for the information of those present who might be disposed to become members.

After the reading of the constitution and some explanatory remarks by the president, another of these members moved that an opportunity be given for any person to become a member. The opportunity was granted, of course. The secretary and, in the absence of the treasurer, one of the three others acting as treasurer, were kept busy for some time iu receiving fees and in recording names of applicants, until the number of new members had reached about seventy-five.

This movement, fortunately, furnished a good working, body, and prepared the way for other additions. Tho president, thus being relieved from apprehended embarrassment in consequence of the small number of members, at first proceeded to deliver his inaugural address, in which he pointed out the causes and the demands for forming a national teachers' association, and urged the following important ends to be aimed at in its future work:

First. The union of all teachers, North, South, East, and West, in friendly associated action, for strengthening thó cause of education.

Second. To create and permanently establish a teachers' profession by methods usually adopted by other professions.

Third. To secure the examination of all teachers, by making the examining boards to consist of competent, practical teachers.

Fourth. To increase the number of normal schools, and establish departments of pedagogics in connection with all schools which send out persons to teach.

During the sessions of this first anniversary there was a full attendance, a deep interest and close attention to all the exercises of the programme.

Among the large number of representative teachers and educators present, besides the officers, were the following persons: Hon. Horace Mann, Supt. J. D. Phil. brick, John Hancock, A. J. Rickoff, I. W. Andrews, William Russell, W. E. Crosby, John Ogden, C. E. Hovey, Rev. J. N. MacJilton, Prof. Daniel Read, Anson Smyth, 0. C. Wight, and others.

LICTURES AND PAPERS.

First. The inaugural address of the president.

Second. “The educational tendencies and progress of the past thirty years," by Prof. Daniel Read.

Third. “The laws of nature,” by Prof. John Young.
Fourth. “On.moral education," by Supt. John D. Philbrick.
Fifth. “The teacher's motives," by Hon. Horace Mann, of Massachusetts.

ELECTION OF OFFICERS.

For president, Andrew J. Rickoff, Cincinnati, Ohio.

For vice-presidents, T. W. Valentine, New York; D. B. Hagar, Massachusetts; B. M. Kerr, Pennsylvania; J. F. Cann, Georgia; J. S. Adams, Vermont; B. T. Hoyt, Iowa; C. E. Hovey. Illinois; I. W. Andrews, Ohio; A. Drury, Kentucky; Daniel Read, Wisconsin; J. N. MacJilton, Maryland; Thomas Bragg, Alabama.

For secretary, J. W. Bulkley, New York.
For treasurer, C. S. Pennell, Missouri.

For counselors, James Cruikshank, New York; William E. Sheldon, Massachnsetts; S. R. Gummere, New Jersey; J. D. Yeates, Maryland, s. I. C. Swezy, Alabama; J. B. Dodd, Kentucky; N. D. 'Tirrel, Missouri; C. C. Nestlerode, Iowa; L. C. Draper, Wisconsin; Isaac Stone, Illinois; E. P. Cole, Indiana; R. W. McMillan, Ohio; 0.c. Wight, District of Columbia; HC. Hickok, Pennsylvania; C. Pease, Vermont.

One of the most prominent questions discussed at this first annual meeting was that of “Parochial schools." Tho leading thought of the discussion was that "moral training, without sectarianism, is necessary."

The inspiring influence of woman in our educational meetings was welcomed and emphasized by the association.

After the adjournment of tho association, the board of directors met and agreed to hold the next annual meeting in the city of Washington, D. C., and appointed Mr. Z. Richards, of Washington, as chairman of the local committee, to make all local arrangements.

As proof of the genuine national spirit of the originators of this association, wo may refer to one of the first resolutions, passed at the time of its organization, as follows:

Resolved, That thero shall be sis lecturers appointed for the next meeting-two from the Southern, two from the Western, one from the Middle, and one from the Eastern States.

As this resolution was offered by a true-blue New Englander, it shows the characteristic modesty of the Eastern States in not assuming honors which belong equally to the other States. This liberal spirit has at all times characterized the operations of this association. It started out with high patriotio purposes, and to its honor it may be recorded that there has never been a single manifestation in any of its official operations of a spirit of sectionalism or of partisanship. Its officers and its managers have generally been selected, first, from its most faithful and best qualified workers, which should always be the case; and, second, as representatives of all sections of our country.

Its friends have worked assiduously for the general cause of public and universal education, and not for peeuniary advantage, nor for office, nor for personal honor.

NAME AND PLAN OF ORGANIZATION CHANGED.

At the Cleveland meeting, in 1870, the constitution was so amended as to admit cooperation and conıbination with two other educational associations: First, the American Normal Association, which was organized in 1861; second, the National Superintendents' Association, organized in 1865. At the same time the constitution was so amended that other departments could be organized, and immediately two other departments were organized, viz, the department of higher instruction and the department of primary or elementary instruction. A full set of subordinato officers, viz, a president and secretary for each department, was chosen, who were to provide their own programme of exercises for their annual meetings.

Until 1870 all the educational topics were discussed before the whole association as a body. While this method of performing educational work has many superior advantages, it would be hazardous either to abandon the plan of departments or to proportionately extend the length or number of sessions so that tho whole membership could have an opportunity to listen to all papers and discussions.

In 1875 the industrial department was organized and admitted under the constitutional provision.

In 1880 the National Council of Education was organized as a departmont, but under a constitution of its own which required its sixty or more members to be choson from the gendral association and from the several departments."

Very fow persons are aware of the important work performed by the National Council of Education, unless they attend its sessions or read its papers and discussions from year to year.

But its meetings and deliberations were to be held so as not to interfere with the general association and the department meetings.

During the first twenty years of its operations its officers were often obliged to put their hands down deep into their own pockets to meet the annual cnrrent expenses. This had to be done in addition to the regular membership fee and the often very heavy traveling expenses.

But in 1884 a new era dawned upon the association. It is true that the enlargement of the association's field of labor in 1870, at the Cleveland meeting, by engrafting upon itself tho more specific work of the departments of superintendents of normal schools, of higher instruction, and of elementary training, besides providing constitutionally for creating other departments, has dono much to broaden the sphere of its work and inspire contidence in its plan of operations.

But no organization in this age of the world can work or exist long without money. Many of the real friends of this association found that the constant draining of their pockets to keep the ponderous wheels in motion was also draining their patience and weakening their faith in its perpetuity.

* See the constitution of the National Council of Education for 1891, pp. 1508-1510

Some of the hopeful members had heard of an Eastern man who had come to the rescue of the American Institute of Instruction when it was almost ready to perish, This man was made j'resident of the institute, and he made a grand rally, which gathered to rether such a multitude of educators at the White Mountains of New Hampshire that the increaseil income has been sufficient to keep that institute in a prosperous condition ever since.

This gratifyin z encce-s inspired some of the almost despairing members of the National Educational Association to call to its leadership the lion. Thomas W. Bicknell, of Massachusetts. The grand success of the Madison meeting, in Wisconsin, in 1884, inaugnrated a new financial era by largely increasing the number of members. Since then, by making the annual meetings attractive, and by lessening the expense of attending them, the membership has so increaseil that the funds of our treasury, now safely invested in interest-bearing bonds, are sufficient, with prudent managerneut, to forever insure the association against financial embarrassment.

This financial security serves to increase the usefulness of the association, and to guarantee its permanency. At the close of the Madison meeting Hon. E. E. White offered the following resolution, which shows how highly the association appreciated the services of President Bicknell. The resolution was passed unanimously:

Resolver, That the unparalleled success of this meeting is chiefly due to the energy, devotion, and organizing ability of Hon. T. W. Bicknell, the president of this association, whose wise and compre. hensive plang, enthusiastic and self sacrificing efforts, and directing hand have inspired and guided the great undertaking from its inception to its present triumphant close, and no formal words can properly express our thankful appreciation.

Historically, let it be adiled, that not one dollar of these funds has ever been added to the emolunent of an officer, nor furnished him any “booille" for speculation.

In 1884 three new departments were organized and entereil upon their peculiar work. These were the Froebel or kindergarten, the art, and the music departments. In 1885 the department of secondary education was added to the list, making the whole number ten.

INCORPORATION OF THE ASSOCIATION.

At a meeting of the board of directors of the National Educational Association, hel at Saratoga Springs, N. Y., July 14, 1885, the following resolution was passed :

Resolved, That a committee of three be appointed to secure articles of incorporation for the National Educational Association, under United States or State laws, as speedily as may be.

N. A. Calkins, of New York, Thomas W. Bicknell, of Massachusetts, and Eli T. Tappan, of Chio, were appointed ench committee.

Under the anthority of the resolution quoted above, and with the approval of the committee, and by competent legal advice, the chairman obtained the following:

CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION.

We, the undersignea, Norman A. Calkins, John Eaton, and Zalmon Richards, citizens of the United States, and two of them citizens of the District of Columbia, do hereby associate ourselves together, pursuant to the provisions of the act of general incorporation, class thiril, of the reviseıl statutes of the District of Coluobi:r, under the name of the National Educational Association, for the full period of twenty years, the purpose anıl objects of which are to elevate the character and advance the inter. ests of the profession of tearhing, and to promote the cause of popular education in the United Statos. *

To secure the full benefit of said act, we do here oxecute this our certificate of incorporatior: as said act provides.

In witness whercof wo novorally set our hands and seals this 24th day of February, 1886, at Washington, D. C.

NORMAN A. CALKIXS. (L. B.)
JOHN EATON.

L. S.

ZALMON RICHARDS. L. 8.) Duly acknowledged before Michael P. Callan, notary public in and for the District of Columbia, and recorded in Liber No. 4, acts of incorporation for the District of Columbia.

The action of the committee on incorporation was submitted to the board of directors at Topek:t, Kans., July 13, 1886, and the act of incorporation was duly approveil by thò board of virectors.

A committee was appointed to prepare the changes in the constitution necessary to meet the requirements of the charter. At the meeting of the National Educational Association hell at Topeka, July 15, 1886, the chairman-E. E. White, of Ohio--presented the report of the committee on amendments to the constitution, and the report was unanimously adopted."

These departments are all legitimate children, though two of them have been adopted and are older than their parent. But they are a harmonious, hard working, and a thriving family. If anyone neeils to be convinced of the truth of this statenient, let him undertako to read and thoroughiy digest ovou one of the lato volumes

1 The constitucion of the National Educational Association may be found on pp. 1503-1508.

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