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encouraged. Perhaps there are only four persons in the entire nation interested in some special topic. The National Association, with its facilities for cheap transportation and cheap board, furnishes the best opportunity each year for the meeting of these four persons, or any other similarly interested four persons. Perhaps the attraction of the particular interest would not bo sufficient to draw together the four specialists. But the National Association adds a host of other attractions, and in the aggregate these are strong enough to prevail.

We wish to produce as many growing teachers as possible-as many as possible who each year have found fresh leads and have distaneed their former selves.

It seems to me, therefore, quite doubtful whether the division of the National Association into sectional associations, with which it alternates biennially, would not be rather a step backward. It would perhaps break the continuity which is essential as a kind of background on which the specialization which we have discussed can best take place. It will certainly make the familiar faces that meet us from year to year, coming from a great distance-as in the present meeting, from Colorado and Texas-it will make these faces less familiar to us, and different sections of the Union will be in less direct sympathy than formerly.

If I havo studied aright this problem, it is not the general association that is in need of reform, but only the departments. These departments, instead of breaking away from the type of the general association, as they should do, are imitating its organization when they ought to devote themselves to developing and fostering voluntary subcommittees or round tables devoted to special work.

The general association, with its wide scope, its great masses, its distinguished personalities, its cheap fares, its entertaining tours, and its spectacle of great combination, and, lastly, with the great interest and substantial tributes of respect which it elicits from the business men of all parts of the country, and from the world in general outside the scholastic field-the general association, with these reasons for being, should continuo as it is.

CONSTITUTION OF THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION, 1886-1891.

PREAMBLE.

To elerate the character and advance the interests of the profession of teaching, and to promote the canse of popular education in the United States, we, whose names are subjoined, agree to adopt the following

CONSTITUTION.

ARTICLE I.- Name.

This association shall be styleil the National Educational Association.

ARTICLE II.-Departments. SECTION 1. It shall consist of nine departments: The first, of school superintendence; the second, of normal schools; the third, of elementary schools; the fourth, of bigher instruction; tho fifth, of industrial education; tho sixth, of art education; the seventh, of kindergarten instruction; tho eightli, of music education; the ninth, of secondary education; and a national council of education. SEC. 2. Other departments may bo organized in the manner prescribed in this constitution.

ARTICLE III.- Membership. SECTION. 1. Any person in any way connected with the work of education, or any ednicational association, shall be eligible to membership. Such person or association may become a member of this association by paying two dollars and signing this constitution, and may continue a member by the payment of an annual fee of two dollars. On neglect to pay such fee, the membership will cease.

SEC. 2. Each department may prescribe its own conditions of membership, provided that no person be admitted to such membership who is not a member of the general association.

SEC. 3. Any person cligible to membership may become a life member by paying at once twenty dollars.

ARTICLE IV.- Oficers. SECTION 1. The officers of this association shall be a president, twelve vice-presidents, a secretary, a treasurer, one director for each State, district, or Territory represented in the association, and the presiding oflicers of the several departments and a board of Trustees to bo constituted as bereinafter provided. Any friend of education may become a life director by the donation of one hundred dollars to the association at one time, either by himself or on his behalf; and any educational association may secure a perpetual directorship by a like donation of one hundred dollars, the director to be appointed annually or for life. Whenever a life meinber desires to become a life director, he shall be credited with the amount he has paid for his life membership.

SEC. 2. The president, vice-presidents, secretary, treasurer, directors, life directors, president of the council, and presiding officers of their respective departments shall constitute the board of directors, and, as such, shall have power to appoint such committees from their own number as they shall deem expedient.

SEC. 3. The elective officers of the association shall be chosen by ballot, unless otherwise ordered, on the second day of each annual session, a majority of the votes cast being necessary for a choice. They shall continue in office until tho close of the annual session subsequent to their election, and until their successors aro chosen, except as liereinafter provided.

SEC. 4. Each department shall be administered by a president, vice-president, secretary, and such other offioers as it shall deemn necessary to conduct its affairs; but no person shall be elected to any office of any department, or of the association, who is not, at tho time of the election, a member of tho association.

SEC. 5. The president shall preside at all meetings of the association and of the board of directors, and shall perform the duties usually devolving upon a presiding officer. In his absenco, the first vicepresident in order who is present shall preside; and in the absence of all vice-presidents, a pro tem. pore chairman shall be appointed on nomination, the secretary putting the question.

Sec.6. The secretary shall keep a full and accurate report of the proceedings of the general meetings of the association and all meetings of the board of directors, and shall conduct such correspondence as the directors may assign, and shall have his records present at all meetings of the association and of the board of directors. The secretary of each department shall, in addition to performing tho duties usually pertaining to his oflice, keep a list of tho members of his department.

SEC. 7. The treasurer shall receive and under the direction of the board of trustees hold in safekeeping all moneys paid to the association; shall expend the same only upon the order of said board; shall keep an exact account of his receipts

and expenditures, witli vouchers for the latter, which accounts, ending the first day of July each year, he shall render to the board of trustees, and, when approved by said board, he shall report the same to the board of directors. The treasurer shall give snch bond for the faithful discharge of his duties as may be required by the board of trustees; and ho shall continue in office until the first meeting of the board of directors held prior to the annual meoting of the association next succeeding that for which he is elected.

SEC. 8. The board of directors shall have power to fill all vacancies in their own body; shall have in charge the general interests of the association excepting those herein intrusted to the board of trustees; sball make all necessary arrangements for its meetings, and shall do all in its power to mako it a useful and honorable institution. Upon the written application of twenty members of the association for permission to establish a new department, they may grant such permission. Such now department shall in all resprota be entitled to the same rights and privileges as the others. The for. mation of such department shall in efiect be a sufficient amendment to this constitution for the inser. tion of its name in Article II, and the secretary shall make the necessary alterations.

SEC. 9. The board of trustees shall consist of four members, cleoted by the board of directors for a term of four years, and the president of the association, who shall be a member ex officio during his term of office. At the election of the trustees in 1886, one trustee shall be elected for one year, one for two years, one for three years, and one for four years, and annually thereafter, at the first meeting of the board of directors held prior to the annual meeting of the association, one trustee shall be elected for the term of four years. All vacancies occurring in said board of trustees, whother by resignation or otherwise, shall be filled by the board of directors for the unexpired term; and tho absence of a trustee from two consecutive annual meetings of the board shall forfeit his membership therein. The board of trustees thus elected and constituted shall bo the executive financial officers of this association, as a body corporate, as conferred by the certificate of incorporation under the provisions of the act of general incorporation, class third, of the Revised Statutes of the District of Columbia, dated the twenty-fourth day of Febrnary, 1886, at Washington, D. C., and recorded in Liber No. 4, "Acts of incorporation for the District of Columbia."

Sec. 10. It ahall be the duty of the board of trustees to provide for safe keeping and investment of all funds which the association may receive from life-directorships, or from donations; and the income of such invested funds shall be used exclusively in paying the cost of publishing the annual volume of proceedings of the association, excepting when donors shall specify otherwiso. It shall also be tho duty of the board to issue orders on the treasurer for the payment of all bills approved by the board of directors, or by the president and secretary of the association acting under the authority of the board of directors; and, when practicable, the trustees shall invest all surplus funds exceeding ono hundreil dollars, that may remain in the hands of the treasurer after paying the expenses of the association for the previous year.

ARTICLE V.-Meetings. SECTION 1. The annual meeting of the association shall be held at such time and place as shall be determined by the board of directors.

SEC. 2. Special meetings may be called by the president at the request of five directors.

SEC. 3. Any department of the association may hold a special meeting at such time and place as by its own regulations it shall appoint.

SEC. 4. The board of directors shall hold their regular meetings at the place, and not less than two hours before the assembling of the association,

SEC, 5. Special meetings may be held at such other times and places as the board or the president shall determine.

SEC. 6. Each new board shall organize at the session of its election. At its first meeting a committee on publication shall be appointed, which shall consist of the president and the secretary of the association for the previous yoar, and one member from each department.

ARTICLE VI.-By-laws. By-laws, not inconsistent with this constitution, may bu adopted by a two-thirds vote of the association.

ARTICLE VII.-Amendments. This constitution may be altered or amended at a regular meeting by the unanimous vote of the members present, or by a two-thirds vote of the members present, provided that the alteration or amendment has been substantially proposed in writing at a previous meeting.

BY LAWS. 1. At each regular meeting of the association there shall be appointed a committee on nominations, one on honorary members, and one on resolutions.

2. The presiđent and secretary shall certify to the board of trustees all bills approved by the board of directors.

3. Each paying member of the association shall be entitled to a copy of its proceedings. 4. No paper, lecture, or address shall be read before the association or any of its departments in the absence of its author, nor shall any such paper, lecture, or address be published in tho volume of proceodings without the consent of the association, upon approval of the executive committee.

5. It shall be the duty of the president, secretary, and treasurer of the association, to appoint anna. ally some competent person to examine the securities of the permanent fund held by the board of trustees, and his certificate showing the condition of the said fund shall be attached to the report of the board of trustees.

The following amendment to Article III of the constitution has been considered by a committee, and recommended for adoption by the association:

Amend Article III by adding as follows: Section 4. Any association may securo a perpetual membership by the payment of thirty dollars, and shall be entitled to one representativo each year for every thirty dollars so paid.

NATIONAL COUNCIL OF EDUCATION.

CONSTITUTION.

PREAMBLE.

Tho National Council of Education shall have for its object the consideration and discussion of edacational questions of general interest

and public importance, and the presentation through printed reports of the substance of the discussions and the conclusions formulated. It shall be its object to reach and disseminate correct thinking on educational questions, and for this purpose it shall be the aim of the council in conducting its discussions to define and state with accuracy the diferent views and theories on the subject under consideration, and, secondly, to discover and represent fairly the grounds and reasons for each theory or view, so far as to show as completely as possible the genesis of opinion on the subject. It shall be thoduty of the council in pursuance of this object to encourage froni all its members the most careful statement of differences in opinion, together with the com. plotest statement of grounds for the same. It shall further require from the chairmen of its committees the careful preservation and presentation of the individual differences of opinion whenever grounds have been furnished for the same by members of their committees. It shall'invite the freest discussion of the reports of its committees, and whenever said reports are not so amended as to embody the new suggestions developed by such discussion, any member making such suggestion or objection may put in writing his view and the grounds therefor, and furnish the same to the secretary for the records of the council. It sball prepare through its president, with the aid of the chairmen of the several committees, an annual report to the National Association, setting forth the questions considered by the council during the previous year and placing before the association in succinct form the work accomplished. It shall embody in this report a survey of those educational topics which seem to call for any action on the part of the association. The council shall appoint out of its own number committees representing the several departments of education, and thereby facilitate the exchange of opinion among its members on such special topics as demand the attention of the profession or of the public.

ARTICLE I.- Membership. 1. The National Council of Education shall consist of sixty members, selected out of the member. ship of the National Educational Association. Any member of the association identified with odu. cational work is eligible to membership in the council, and after the first election such membership shall continue for six years, except as hereinafter provided.

2. In the year 1885 the board of directors shall elect eight members-four members for six years, two for four years, and two for two years; and the council shall clect eight members-five members for six years, two for four years, and one for two years; and annually thereafter tho board of directors shall elect five members and the council five members, each member, with the exception hereinafter provided for (section 5), to serve six years, or until his successor is elected.

3. The annual election of inembers of the council shall be held in connection with the annual meetings of the association. If the board of directors shall fail, for any reason, to fill its quota of members annually, the vacancy or vacancies shall be filled by the council.

4. The term of service of the several members of the council, chosen at the first election, shall be arranged by the executive committee of the council.

5. The absence of a member from two consecutive annual meetings of the council shall be considered equivalent to resignation of membership, and the council shall fill vacancies caused by absence from the council as herein defined, as well as vacancies caused by death or resignation, for the unexpired term. All persons who have belonged to the council ehall, on the expiration of their membership, become honorary members, with the privilege of attending its regular sessions, and partici. pating ir its discussions. No State shall be represented in tho council by more than eight memberg.

ARTICLE II.-Fees.

Thero shall be no fee for membership in the council of education, but each member of it shall secure a membership in the National Educational Association by becoming a life member of the same, or by paying to the treasurer of the association the annual membership fee of two dollars.

ARTICLE III.- Meetings.

There shall be a regular annnal meeting of the council held at the same placo as the meeting of the National Association, and at least two days previous to this meeting. There may be special meetings of the council, subject to the call of the executive committee, but the attendance at these mectings shall be entirely voluntary. The regular meeting of the committees shall take place on the days provided for the annual meeting of the council. Meetings of committees may be called at any time by the chairmen of the respective committees, but attendance at such special meetings shall be entirely voluntary. A majority of the council shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business at any meeting, whether regular or called; but any less number, exceeding eight members, may consti. tute a quorum for the transaction of business at the regular annual meeting, as defined in this article.

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ARTICLE IV.-Committees. The general management of the affairs of the council shall be vested in an executive committeo composed of the president, vice-president, and secretary of the council, and four

other members, all of whom are to be elected by the council at its annual meeting. There shall be twelve standing committees, cach consisting of tive members. They shall be appointed by the executive committee, and be named as follows:

1. Committee on State school systems.
2. Committee on city school systems.
3. Committee on higher education.
4. Committee on secondary education.
5. Committee on elementary education.
6. Committee on normal education.
7. Committee on technological education.
8. Committee on pedagogics.
9. Committee on moral education.
10. Committee on school sanitation, hygiene, and physical training.
11. Committee on psychological inquiry.
12. Committee on educational reports and statistics.

ARTICLE V.-Duties of standing committees.

The committees of the council shall consider the topics assigned to them, and report on the samo; they may select for their deliberations such other questions belonging to their departments as they deem proper to discuss.

Whenever called upon, the committees shall continue the deliberative work of the association on topics assigned

to them, or prepare questions to be submitted to that body. It shall be the duty of the standing committees to observe the new educational experiments and original inrestigations within the scope of their assigned topics, and report the same from time to time to the president of the council.

ARTICLE VI.— Duties of members of the committees. The members of the council shall render active service and assistance in the work of the committee to which they have been assigned, and further the general work of the council as much as is in their power. They shall give their attention to the questions submitted to them, and communicate their conclusions in writing to the chairman of the committee.

Meeting of committecs for special work.-A half day at each annual session shall be set apart for "Ronnd-table" discussions, and each standing committee may conduct its own meeting soparately, inviting, at its pleasure, experts, original investigators, or other persons to present their experience or theoretical views before it, for discussion.

ARTICLE VII.-- Duties of the chairmen of committees.

The chairman of each committee shall communicate the questions which are to be discussed to each of the members of his committee, and send them such other communications as may assist them in their work. He shall arrange a suitable plan for an exchange of opinion, and embody the conclusions arrived at in a brief report. He shall, from time to time, inform the secretary of the council of the progress made by his committee. He shall, with the consent of the other members of his committee arrange special meetings at a convenient time and place. He shall see that the communications, sent in turn to each member of his committee, are promptly forwarded. He shall state distinctly (in the form of questions, when feasible) the topics on which he desires to have a brief expression of opinion from the members of his committee, and embody the substance of their answers in his report.

ARTICLE VIII.The work of the committees. The work of the committees of the council shall be carried on in the regular meetings provided for abore, and in such special meetings as can be arranged from time to time, according to the pleasure of the committee, and principally in writing, by an exchange of briefly expressed opinions. It shall be the duty of each chairman to devise a plan for the latter. Each member may be required to report on a part of the subject; or the whole topic may be submitted to each member, together with the opinion of the other members that have considered the topic before.

ARTICLE IX.-Dutics of the council. It shall be the duty of the council to further the objects of the National Association, and to use its best efforts to promote the cause of education in general. The council shall assigd work to each committee, and receive a report on the same; it shall cause to be published such reports of committees, or part of the same, as in its judgment should be brought to general notice; it shall present, through ihe president of the council, an annual report of its work to the National Educational Association.

Arrangement of annual programme. The president, in making up the annual programme of exor. cises, may select any of the twelve standing committees which will, in his opinion, prepare work for the council of the most timely and vital character, and he shall not be limited in his choice by considerations of routine.

The committee thus reporting may introduce before the council such specialists, experts, original investigators or inventors of new methods as they may deem essential to present effectively their subject matter before the council for discussion.

ARTICLE X.- Amendments. This constitution may be altered or amended, at a regular meeting of the council, by a two-thirds vote of the members present, and any provision may be waived at any regular meeting, by unanimous consent.

By-laws, not in violation of this constitution, may be adopted by a two-thirds vote of the council.

BY-LAWS.

1. Each active member of the council shall pay annually two dollars, to defray the expenses of the council.

2. The socretary shall act as treasurer of the conneil.

The Vational Teachers' and the Vational Educational Association.

ORGANIZATION, MEETINGS, AND OFFICERS.

[The National Teachers' Association was organized at Philadelphia, Pa., 1837. James L. Enos, of

Iowa, was chosen chairman, and William E. Sheldon, of Massachusetts, secretary.]

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1 Cincinnati, Ohio... 1858 Z. Richards, D. C.... J. W. Bulkley, N. Y. A. J. Rickoff, Ohio. 2 Washington, D. C. 1859 A. J. Rickoff, Ohio.

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C. S. Pennell, Mo. 3 Buffalo, N. Y. 1860 J. W. Bulkley, N. Y. Z. Richards, D. C..... 0. C. Wight, D. C. No sessions in 1861

and 1862. 4 Chicago, ni. 1863 J. D. Philbrick, Mass. J. Cruikshank, N. Y. Do. 5 Ogdensburg, N. Y. 1864 W. H. Wells, M. D. N. Camp; Conn.... Z. Richards, D.C. 6 Harrisburg, Pa.. 1865 S. S. Greene, R.I. W. E. Sheldon, Mass. Do. 7 Indianapolis, Ind. 1866 | J.P. Wickersham, Pa. S. H. White, nl....... S. P. Bates, Pa.

Nosession in 1867. 8 Nashville, Tenn. 1868 J. M. Gregory, Mich.. L. Van Bokelen, Md. J. Cruikshank, N. Y.

Trenton, N.J 1869 L. Van Bokelen, Md.. W.E. Crosby, Ohio.. A. L. Barber, D.C. 10 Cleveland, Ohio.. 1870 D. B. Hagar, Mass. A. P. Marble, Mass. W. E. Crosby, Ohio. 11 St. Louis, Mo. 1871 J. L. Pickard, Il.. W.E. Crosby, Ohio... John Hancock, Ohio. 12 Boston, Mass. 1872 E. E. White, Ohio. S. H. White, II.

Do. 13 Elmira, N. Y. 1873

B. G. Northrop, Conn. .do 14 Detroit, Mich 1874 S. H. White, Ill. A. P. Marble, Mass. Do. 15 Minneapolis, Minn 1875 W. T. Harris, Mo.. W. R. Abbot, Va.. A.P. Marble, Mass. 16 Baltimore, Md... 1876

W.F. Phelps, Minn.. W.D. Henkle, Ohio.. Do. 17 Louisville, Ky. 1877 M. A. Newell, Md... .do

J.O. Wilson, D.C. No session in 1878. 18 Philadelphia, Pa.. 1879 John Hancock, Ohio.. .....do

Do. 19 Chautauqua, N. Y. 1880 J. O. Wilson, D. C.... ..do

E. T. Tappan, Ohio. 20 Atlanta, Ga.. 1881 Jas. H. Smart, Ind.. ..do

Do. 21

Saratoga Springs.. 1882 Gustavus Orr, Ga. W.E. Sheldon, Mass. H. S. Tarbell, Ind. 22 Saratoga Spa. 1883 Eli T. Tappan, Ohio.. ..do

N. A. Calkins, N. Y 23 | Madison, Wis. 1884 T. W. Bicknell. Mass. H. S. Tarbell, R.I..

Do. 24 Saratoga Spa.. 1885 F. L. Soldan, Mo... W. £. Sheldon, Mass..

Do. 25 Topeka, Kans. 1886 N. A. Calkins, N. Y.. .do

E. C. Hewett, Ill. 28 Chicago, ni.. 1887 W.E. Sheldon, Mass. Jas. H. Canfield, Kans

Do. 27 San Francisco, Cal. 1888 Aaron Gove, Colo...

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Do. 28 Nashville, Tenn... 1889 A. P.Marble, Mass.

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Jo. 29 St. Paul, Minn. 1890 Jas. H. Canfield, Kans W.R. Garrett, Tenn.

Do. 30 Toronto, Canada.. 1891 W. k. Garrett, Tenn. E. H. Cook, N.J. J. M. Greenwood, Mo. 31 Saratoga Springs.. 1892 E. H. Cook, N.J. R. W.Stevenson, Kans

Do. 32 Chicagoa.

1893 33 Asbury Park 1894 A. G. Lane, Ill.. Irwin Shepard, Minn. Do.

International Congress of Education at Chicago in 1893, W. T. Harris, l'nited States Commissioner of Education, chairman of committee of National Educational Association, in general charge; Dr. James B. Angell, presiding chairman.

Membership. The following table gives by States the number of members registered at each annual meeting from 1884 to 1894, inclusive:

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