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longer. In Sweden it is nine or ten years; in Spain, seven years; in Italy and Holland, six years; in Austria, Russia, Portugal, and several universities of Great Britain, five years; in Germany, four and a half years. In Canada the required period is four years.

The required period of study at the medical department of the Johns IIopkins University, where a full year of collegiate training with laboratory work in physics, chemistry, and biology is required for admission, is, according to European standards, at least five years.

Four years ofundergraduate medical study in a medical school, each year being the usualacademic year of about eight months, are as much as can reasonably be demanded in this country at the present time. This length of time is sufficient if the student enters with a satisfactory preliminary training, especially if, as is often the case, le supplements the undergraciuate course with a year or a year and a half in a hospital or a year of special graduate study.

Only those medical schools which have good laboratory and hospital facilities are warranted in establishing a four years' obligatory course. It would be absurd for some medical schools, with their pathetically meager outfit, to require the student to remain with them four years.

AMERICAN AND GERMAN MEDICAL STUDENTS.

Dr. F. B. MALLORY in Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, July 5, 1891. The latter, after about nine years of hard drill in the gymnasium, which covers most of the ground of the American preparatory school and college, is ready at the age of about 19 years to enter the university, the most democratic institution of the Old World, for every professor and privat docent is wholly independent, and may give such instruction as he will. The German State system of universities has many advantages over the independent institutions in our own country: The requirements of all are the same, and they are run interchangeably, so that the students form a vast Boating population in the university towns. They can hear the best men in the various subjects or in the samo subject. They can spend their winters in the large cities like Berlin and Vienna, and their summers in towns liko Heidelberg or Freiberg, where the surrounding mountains and forests offer opportunities for delightful tramps. Thus they see more of the world and obtain broader views than they can from living in one place all the time, for no one university can get the best men in every subject. They can also elect the university at which they will take their examination.

TIIE AMERICAN AND GERMAN GRADUATE IN MEDICINE.

Doctors of medicine in Germany are, as body, better educated than our men at home. They have all been through the gymnasium, and have spent at least five years in the study of medicine. They are ready to enter practice (if they do not go into hospital work) at about the age of 24. Our men at home who have been through Harvard College and then four years in the medical school liave undoubtedly received a broader training_than the men liere, but they are not ready to enter practice until about the age of 27.

The reason our college men enter the medical school about four years later (at the age of 23) than the men here is probably due in part to the following causes: They cover more ground than is gone over in the gymnasium. Their education previous to entering college has consumed more time than was necessaryAmerican independence slows itself at a disadvantago at present in her educational instituitions. There is a lack of harmony and of uniformity between them, even between the colleges and universities. Each has its own ideas, aims, and standards. The public schools especially are run with too littlo reference to tho requirements of the higher educational institutions of the country. They seek to furnish in themselves a complete education of a certain degree. The desire or the possibility of attending college is often realized for the first time when this early education is nearly completed, and valuable time has been lost in learning what was mecessary for this or that college, and more time must be spent in getting up the extra work required.

The proposition is being at present agitated in Germany of allowing students who are going into medicine to study French, English, and the natural sciences in the gymnasium, instead of tho classics as heretofore, i step similar to the broader one already taken at llarvaril.

Of the four and a half years that a German student spends in the study of medicine the first two years are devoted to six subjects-chemistry, physics, botany, zoology, anatomy, and physiology. That leaves three years for the rest of his medical education, the same lengtli of time devoted in the Harvard Medical School to

the same branches, namely, pathology, clinical medicine, etc. It is proposed, however, to make the course for M. D. in the German universities six years instead of five (the last year to be devoted to practical work), in order to raise the age of the medical graduates.

With regard to the study of medicine the German universities possess the great advantage that both the universities and the hospitals are State institutions. Consequently the medical department and the hospital are very closely identified and work in perfect harmony. The visiting staff of the hospital are the clinical instructors of the medical school. The pathological institute likewise stands in the closest relationship to the hospital; indeed, forms a very important part of it. Its duty is to solve all problems that are doubtful clinically, to correct errors of diagnosis, and to render clear the cause and nature of every diseasel process, so that it may be treated intelligently. The pathological department of a hospital thus conducted becomes of inestimable advantage, alike to the patients and to those whose mission it is to heal them.

CHAPTER VIII.

EDUCATION IN THE VARIOUS STATES.

ALABAMA.

AN EDUCATIONAL CAMPAIGN.

In the spring of 1893 an organized and systematic effort was made by the State superintendent of public instruction, Hon. J. G. Harris, to interest more fully the people of Alabama in the subject of general and popular education. Under his energetic lead a vigorous campaign was inaugurated. A programme was arranged for the holding of five public meetings in each county in the Stato by the county superintendent of education, to which meetings all the white people were invited. The meetings wero designed to be emphatically nonpolitical and nonsectarian. The design was to gather together all classes and creeds and political parties, for the purposo of exchanging views and opinions in reference to the public school question. The 1st of September was appointed as a day for holding a mass meeting at the court-house of each county, to close up the canvass.

“I suggest,” said State Superintendent Harris, in a circular to the county superintendents, “that you enlist, at an early day, every teacher in your county in behalf of this movement. In consultation with the teachers and citizens, select the most suitable places for holding these meetings, and insist on the people providing a basket dinner, that they may spend the entire day in considering the various educational interests. Encourage all the people to come out and join in the important work. You will call on your editors and newspaper men, and secure their cooperation.”

These meetings were for the white people. It is proposed to hold at another time, conventions for the colored people.

In order that those who took part in the campaigu might have some idea of the scope and nature of the subject to be treated, the State superintendent prepared the following list of topics for discussion :

(1) The duty of the State to provide ways and means for the support of the public schools.

(2) The obligation of the citizens to the State iu promoting and sustaining public schools,

(3) The education of the people the surest protection to constitutional government.

(4) The natural anel moral duty of the parent to educate the child to the extent of his ability.

(5) The right of the child to an education commensurate with his surroundings, (6) The character of the teacher socially, morally, and intellectually. (7) Male and female teachers, their success in the schoolroom. (8) The right and duty of the teacher to govern and discipline his pupils. (9) The importance of goorl school buildings with the modern improvements. (10) Coeducation; should it be encouraged ?

(11) Ought the State to provide by law for local or general taxation, or either, for the support of public schools.

(12) Is it the State's duty to see that the children are educated ? (13) What should be the qualifications of a State and county superintendent of education?

(14) Duties of the county board of education as to the examination and licensing of teachers, and its vital importance.

(15) Duties of township trustees and the responsibilities resting upon them; ought there to be one or more for each township?

(16) The importance and beneficial results of well-regulated teachers’ institutes.

(17) The duty of parents to supplement the public fund, thereby lengthening the school term. ED 93-103

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(18) Should the State adopt a uniform series of text-books for public schools for either Stato or county?

(19) Ought not the salaries of county superintendents be increased, that they may give more time to school work?

(20) Do the public school laws of the State need revising and should the constitution be amended in reference thereto?

(21) Ought industrial departments for both sexes be attached to public schools?

The following address of the State superintendent was read at every meeting in conrrection with the other exercises:

AX ADDRESS TO THE PEOPLE OF ALABAMA, BY HON. JOHN. (. ILARRIS, STATE SUI'ER

INTENDENT OF EDICATION.

“LADIES AND FELLOW CITIZENS: Though absent in person, I am with you in spirit and interest.

"The occasion that has called you together is one of supreme importance. You havo lest your homes and como to this gathering for a purpose. It is a social, friendly, business mass meeting, composed of our own citizens, who love their country, and whose ain and object is to improve the condition of our people and promote the welfare this grand old Commonwealth, by discussing important educational questions, which pertain to our future prosperity and happiness.

“Profoundly impressed with the educational necessities and demands of Alabama, and believing as wo do that all children in the State should be to some extent educated, you have come to talk over these matters, take a full survey of the sitnation, discuss the various duties and responsibilities resting upon the State, the parent, the people, and set in motion as best you can such measures as will, in your judgment, better our condition, augment our educational facilities, and adı to our progress and higher development in government, in morals, and in mind.

“The main purposo of this meeting is to excite a deeper interest in the minds and consciences of our people regarding general education, and to exchange and interchange views, impressions, and opinions on the various questions that pertain to our public-school system. In order to determine intelligently and accurately what are the best measures to adopt in carrying out any department or policy of goverument, it is proper that the whole people to consulted, and every contlicting argument and opinion given its proper weight, that a just conclusion may bo reached.

“There is scarcely any question of ethies, of science, or government but wbat has two sides to it, and each side its supporters and adlierents. Men may differ very widely in their conclusions of what is right, and the proper remedies to correct à wrong, and at the same time be conscientious and patriotic in their differences.

“This is a government which guarantees to every man an undisturbed right to form his own opinions and express liis own views. Jien may indorso the theory and principle of any system of government, and at the same time ditier as to the prac. tical operations of such government, the machinery that controls and directs. To simplify this assertion, we say, individuals and parties may be strictly conscientious in their views and convictions of this or that policy, and maintain such views with veheinence and unswerving fidelity, and at tho samo time bein error. Neither men, parties, nor governments aro infallible. There is an admixture of error runuing through all human plans. Hence, as citizens, honestly and earnestly striving to arrive at just conceptions of law, and system, and iluties, and the best means through which the greatest, highest, and most beneficial results may be accomplished, it is eminently proper that all classes and professions and vocations should be heard, and have their opinions duly weighed and considered.

"Every citizen in this Commonwealth, however obscure or luumbile, las rights that must be serupulously regarded and respected. Every voter is a component part of the Stato government, and has some part in the control and inanagement of the coordinate branches of the same. Jle has a right to his opinions, and may maintain them in argument or at the ballot box. Such being the form of govenment under which wo live, and the people being the support and maintenance of it, it is but the part of wisdom that every citizen should have the privilege to express his views in coming to a proper solution of all disputed questions of Stato or federal policy. Acting upon this principle, and guided by a sense of justice and right, meetings have been called all over this State to discuss the public school question and education in general, and to get our people fully aroused anal enlighteneil on these subjects. All polities, partisanship, and sectarianism must be severely ignored. The good of the children, the good of the State, the well-being of society, and the perpetuation of our Government are the aims and purposes of your meeting to-lay:

“It is said, “that in the multitude of counsel there is safety. If this wise maxim be true, it occurs to me that in no way can wo better secure safety and protection from error and mistakes, than in a free, full, fraternal, and patriotic discussion of the various questions submitted for your investigation.

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“Let no one bo criticised for holding to this or that theory, but in proper respect let argument answer, not harsh denunciation. My views may be impracticable and totally at variance with the spirit of our public schools, yet they are my views, my convictions, and it I am in error, let solid argument, uttered in kindness and generousness, be invokeil to convince me of such error. Let us hear every side, every argument, that wo may finally arrive, if possible, at a just conclusion of every question, every theory:

“No sane maņ will deny this fact, that onr children are the central thought and object of our secular and social life, and of right ought to be. God in his wisdom has intrusted them to our care, and the highest duty we owe to humanity is to care for, properly train, and educate these God-given jewels. To disregard these solemn obligations, parental care and sacred devotion to our loved ones, is to fall below thio beasts of the field and the fowls of the air; for they care for and nurture their young, and carry out the instincts which God planted in their breasts. If this lo true of the lower animals, how much more should it be true of man, created as he is in the image and likeness of his Maker.

"In view of this fact, when all nations fostering the principles of civilization are moro or less demanding the developinent of the human mind of all the people, onld it not be the part of wisdom, patriotism, and statesmanship for ns to pause and ask the vital question, What are we doing to educate the children of our land, the children of the State?' I do not advocate compulsory laws. Our people can not be driven, but they can be persuaded by legitimate argument. I have but little respect for that people who have to be forced by pain and penalties to perform so great a moral and natural duty. While it is true twenty-seven States of this Union have on their statnte books compulsory laws requiring every parent to educate his child to a certain degree in the elementary branches, the State paying for the tuition, yet I am not sure this system is in keeping with the character, the temper, the genius of the genuine American citizen, or the principles of our system of government. I sincerely trust that the people of Alabama will nerer so far forget their duty to their children as to require penal statutes to force them to comply with parental duties. I have an abiding confidence in the integrity, patriotism, and loyalty of the people of this state. All we demand is to show us our duty and we will faithfully discharge it.

"A short while ago, I think in May last, at a meeting of the Farmers' Alliance in Shelby County, the committee on education made a report in which they used these significant words: “We must earnestly insist upon the necessity of educating the masses of the peoplo, believing that the uneducated aro always at the mercy of the better informed, and we insist that the brotherlood should take more interest in the cause of education, so that by means of their own efforts they secure to their children the blessings of education.'

“The amendment to the constitation, as proposed by the last general assembly, and will be submitted to the voters at the next general election, provides for local taxation for public schools. Before we can have such taxation, this amendment, or one similar to it, must be passed. It makes ample provision for the passage of such laws as will give the relief desired by our people. In the cities, towns, and villages under municipal regulations the authorities haro power to raise revenue for the support of public schools. The people in the townships, in the county, have no such power, and can not havo it unless the constitution is amended so as to delegate this anthority to them. This done, and they can raise a revenue by which their schools will be kept in operation for nine months. Such is the aim and purpose of the Hundley amendment, and which, if passeil, will secure all the advantages that can bo desired.

“Our system is a good one, with some exceptions that can be easily corrected by legislation. More money, longer school period, more trained teachers, and better schoolhouses, with proper equipments, and we will soon be in the forefront of progress. The day dawn of a new educational era is breaking in upon us, and the time is near at hand when illiteracy will be a thing of the past and our civilization will continue to rise higher in the scale of enlightenment.”

In a report made to the governor of Alabama, under date of November 13, 1993, the State superintenilent announces that more than 100,000 people attended the meetings, and over 800 speeches wero maile on the subject of eclucation. In one county alone six mass meetings were held. More general interest was manifested in the country districts than ever before, and the schools of the State opened with a larger attendance than in any previous year, notwithstanding the pressure of hard times; also more school buildings wero erected than at any previous period.

To reap the fruits growing out of this enterprise the State superintendent intimates that “it is necessary that the campaign, so auspiciously inangurated, be carrieil on annually in some form or other, opening new avenues of thought, creating new methods and systems by which to reach a greater degree of success. It is the inost important work in the State. It is not routine work, as some suppose, it

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