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When a word has more than one meaning or is used figuratively, the definition given is the one that will aid in the direct interpretation of the text. The numbers given refer to the page in the text on which the word is found.
RIP VAN WINKLE
1. Kaatskill, the old Dutch spelling for "Catskill”; 2. Peter Stuyve. sant, the last Dutch governor of New Netherlands (New York); 2. termagent, scolding; 3. pestilent, vexatious; 3. patrimonial, inherited; 4. galligaskins (găl-li-găs'-kins), loose breeches, usually of leather ; 6. virago (vì-rä'-go), a scold; 7. jerkin, a jacket or short coat; 13. phlegm, stolidity; 13. Babylonish jargon, see Genesis XI.
A MOUNTAIN HUNT
24. Beetling, overhanging; 24. snapple, a bridle bit having a joint to be placed in the mouth, and rings and check pieces at the ends but no curb; 27. plebeian, inferior; 30. vermilion, red paint; 31. lethargy, stupor; 32. pungent, sharp; 32. repartee (rèp'är-tē'), a ready and witty reply.
JENNY LIND IN AMERICA
(P. T. Barnum served his fellow men in many ways other than merely to offer them a “show.” In this last his was an exceptionally satisfactory service. He was a philanthropist; a financier; a philosopher. There was nothing selfish about a nature that would turn over to charity the proceeds of the first great concert.)
36. Meyerbeer, a famous German composer of the eighteenth century; 36. Der Freischutz, a celebrated opera by Weber ; 38. The Daughter of the Regiment, Donizetti's best-known opera; 39. Andersen, famous author of children's stories, conspicuously of fairy tales ; 43. beau monde, the fashionable world. New York has always striven to set fashion standards for other American cities. And in this she has always succeeded. Even quaint old Boston, and energetic Chicago, follow meekly the lead of Gotham in this particular. The theatrical artist has never won fame for himself until New York critics allow him good. Barnum well knew a New York success for his protégé meant nation-wide approval. 43. parterre, the pit of the theater—the parquet. Undoubtedly the author means the entire body in attendance. It may easily be inferred how such a tremendous reception, howsoever cordial in nature, would tend to unsettle the nerves of a strong man, even. Why wonder that a mere child, in a foreign land, should be temporarily disturbed ? The wonder is that she could so easily regain her composure. 45. roulades, smoothly running passages of short notes sung to one syllable. Handel's oratorios abound in such.
THE HOUSE BY THE SIDE OF THE ROAD
The author was born in New Hampshire in 1858, graduated from Brown University, became public librarian at Somerville, Massachusetts, published several volumes of verse, and died February 26, 1911. It is said he received his inspiration for this poem from an old New England farmer neighbor who, having a spring of cool water on his farm, piped it down to the roadway, constructed containers from which tired beasts could refresh themselves, also a fountain for the people, then often, in his enjoyment of the project which afforded so much comfort to tired wayfarers, seated himself near by under a shady tree and handed out ripe apples to all passers-by. The selection should be mer
nemorized, as it contains a liberal philosophy of life.
49. Fellowless, without fellows or human companionship; 50. ban, edict,
April 23, 1789, was the date of Washington's arrival. The inauguration ceremonies occurred one week later. The Battery was at that time a fortified position at the foot of lower Broadway, near where the Customs House now stands. There are few more inspiring sights than that presented by an old ship of the line displaying the colors of all nations. The various flags, attached to small ropes, are hoisted along the larger cables which support
the masts; and the bright-colored emblems, together with hundreds of other miniature flags and pennants attached to every part of the rigging, give the ship the appearance of a great sea bird with its gaudy plumage Auttering in the breeze. John Jay later became the first chief justice of our great supreme court. He had rendered brilliant service as a foreign diplomat. Many other notable men waited Washington's coming. Hamilton, the renowned head of the artillery corps of the patriot army, was there—frequently in the presence of sturdy old Henry Knox-both of whom were to enter the cabinet of the new president. Thousands of patriot veterans honored the gathering. The pathos of the scene differed little from that of a few years before when the Father of His Country returned his sword to the Continental Congress. Grief from recollections of the great suffering endured for a cause nobly won was beneath the joy. The encroachments of years upon his physical strengt doubtless prompted Washington to consider whether his duty to his country still further demanded his services, or whether he should not rather consider his personal comfort. He wisely gave his decision in favor of the young Republic. Broad ideas of simple democracy such as we know to-day had not taken firm hold on the people. In arranging a program suitable to the occasion naturally the people liken the ceremonies to those attendant upon the coronation of a king. It ought not to be inferred that Washington was incapable of dignified, forceful, literary expression. His private correspondence shows him to have been a master of brilliant diction and convincing logic. It has sometimes been suggested that Hamilton fashioned Washington's Farewell Address—one of the greatest state papers of all time; but there is no documentary evidence to support the contention. James Schouler, author of this selection, is a well-known American historian.
52. Coxswain, the steersman of a boat, a petty officer; 52. propitiously, favorably ; 56. transparencies, pictures painted on thin cloth or glass to be viewed by natural or artificial light which shines through it; 57. culling, gathering
Not all of Riley's poems were in verse. The selection here studied is quite as true poetry as many others of his justly famous verses. In the heart of many a street urchin runs a vein of chivalry and innate goodness which Riley seeks here to record. In the back alleys, on the obscure corner, in dirty box cars, within unthinkable apartments which are his only home at night, the irresponsible urchin-hailing from nowhere and going no place-presents a phase of city life both pathetic and interesting. Riley knew many such-loved them all. Jamesy's record is typical. Let this selection be read in silence two days before a word is said about it. Then let a pupil read it entire—still without a word of comment. The third day, discuss Jamesy—the teacher illustrating his traits as developed in the discussion by reading brief descriptions from the story. This is a real life story; do not destroy its character-building attributes by seeking to have irrelevant answers to immaterial questions.
58. Trend, bent, direction; 58. acrid, bitter, sharp; 58. chariness, reluctant; 58. stereotyped, fixed, unchanged; 62. fabrication, invention, falsehood; 62. comatose condition, in a stupor ; 62. “unknelled,” etc., from Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, by Lord Byron ; 63. covert, stolen ; 71. dereliction, neglect, omission; 79. behemoth (bē'-hē-mõth), a large animal, probably the hippopotamus, described in Job XL. 15-24; 80. squabby, short and thick, like squab or young pigeon; 81. luminous, full of light; 82. tumultuously, wildly.
98. Monseigneur (mõn-sěn'yễr), literally, “my lord,” a title in France given to a person of high rank; 98. hotel, in France, the mansion or town residence of a person of rank or wealth; 98. emulative, envious; 98. escutcheon, the surface of a shield, on which armorial bearings are displayed; 99. impressible, sensitive; 99. Merry Stuart, Charles II ; 99. “the earth and the fullness,” etc., an illusion to Psalms XXIV, 1; 100. Notre-Dame (Nõ'tr-däm'), a famous cathedral in Paris ; 100. foisted, forced; 101. devotees (děv--tē'), worshipers; 101. cataleptic, affected with catalepsy or fits; 102. Monsieur (mö-sēr'); 105. marquis (mär'-kwis) ; 108. postilions, men who ride on the first pair of horses drawing a coach, to guide them; 108. impeachment, reproach, calling to account; 108. cinderous, a word coined by the author ; 109. propitiate, plead, soften ; 113. flambeau, flaming torch; 115. imperturbable, incapable of being disturbed; 117. ominous, threatening; 118. poniarded (põn'-yerd-ed), run through with a poniard or dagger; 119. comportable, consistent; 121. culminating, crowning ; 122. diabolic, devilish.
THE KING OF THE GOLDEN RIVER
132. Maledictions, curses; 133. refractory, disobedient; 133. concerto (kon-sēr'to), a musical composition; 141. Rhenish, Rhine wine; 142. effervescent, bubbling; 142. crucible, melting-pot; 143. pertinacious, resolute to obstinacy; 147. castellated, having peaks and towers.
158. Down, sandy tract; 158. Danish barrows, hillocks made by the early Danes; 158, fluke, the part of an anchor that fastens in the ground; 161. osier, a kind of willow; 162. offing, that part of the sea that is at a good distance from shore, the deep water; 165. feverous, a variant of feverish; 169. garth, an old form of yard; 169. conies, rabbits or hares; 170. prone, sloping ; 171. lithe, limber; 171. tawny, a dull yellow brown; 172. fain, gladly; 175. strowing, a seldom-used form of strewing; 177. convolvuluses, a genus of plants with twining stems, like the bindweed; 180. holt, a woody hill; 180. tilth, ground that has been tilled; 185. enow, an old form of enough.
REPLY TO MR. CRAM
The eloquent speech here studied is from the famous Seneca Indian chief, Red Jacket. During the American Revolution he was a consistent friend of the British, fighting with all his influence every treaty for the cession of Indian lands to the United States government. During the War of 1812, however, he gave the Americans valuable information about British plans. In his last years he became a confirmed drunkard and vigorously opposed the introduction of education and religion among his people, though he had favored this step in earlier years. The strong religious nature of the Indians has frequently been noted by writers upon the habits of the aborigines. It appeared to have been based upon the conception of fear and not upon the idea of love. Certainly Red Jacket made a pertinent inquiry concerning religion. Strong men to-day ask the same question. The horrors of war have found their most violent expression in the religious wars of history. The whole life purpose of Jesus is found in the statement of the chronicler—“He went about doing good.”