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Ion. Or, perhaps, because they

had been accustomed to let the P. I told you in the last lesson Romans fight for them. that Britain was inhabited by a P. These were the causes, I dare people who might have become a say, for the Romans once sent an fine nation if the Romans had not army to help them. But, when left them. Let us see why they this army had gone, the Scots came sent for the Saxons.

again, so the Britons begged for You may remember, that in one help once more. They sent a very of Mr. Young's letters, he told you humble letter, calling themselves of a large stone wall in Northum- 4 wretched Britons," and saying, berland. He said it was built by that “the barbarians drove them the Romans, to keep out the Picts into the sea, and the sea forced and Scots, who lived in the north them back to the swords of the country.


'- so that they could Some of these people were as only choose between being drowned savage as the barbarians in Europe. or murdered. The Roman genera) They watched for the departure of was, however, too basy fighting with the Romans ; and, I have read that the fierce ATTILA, the king of the they rushed upon the Britons like Huns, and had no soldiers to spare. hungry wolves upon a sheepfold. lon. Then, I can see now why

The Romans had taught the they sent to the Saxons — they Britons that the proper way to

wanted their help. guard the wall was to place sol- P. That was the reason. And diers on it as “sentinels,” and to the Saxons were very gład. They relieve one another by turns ; but, had often thought of the beautiful instead of paying attention to this, island of Britain ; and, how they they allowed their guards to remain could enjoy themselves there. Well, on the wall for several days and they agreed! They would soon nights. So, when the Scots came, come and help the Britons, and they found them so benumbed with then they would help themselves. the cold, that they pulled many So, not many days after they of them down with hooks, dashed had their invitation, three “long them in pieces, and climbed over ships,” containing 1,600 men, came the wall, into Britain.

sailing near the coast of England. l'he Britons could not even save These men were commanded by themselves by flight; great num- two brave chiefs, called HENGIST bers were killed-their cattle and and HORSA. The British king, sheep were stolen-their villages VORTIGERN, went out to meet them, burned — their fields were plun- and promised that if they would dered and laid bare for many miles. drive away the Scots, ke would Why could not they defend them- give them the little island of Thanet selves ?

a place on the coast of Kent, W. Because, papa, you said that near the part which we now cali the strongest young men had been Margate. sent to Rome, to fight those dread- The Saxons found the Piets and ful Goths.

Seots almost in the middle of L. And, perhaps, because those England, near Lincolnshire. They who remained couldn't agree. soon defeated them, and drove





them back again. As they passed and, driving the Britons into the through the country, however, they mountains of Scotland, formed the noticed how fertile and rich it was, kingdom of Northumberland. and then, they determined to re W. Then there were seven kingmain. When they returned to the doms, papa ; but, did not the Briisland of Thanet, they quarrelled tons try to prevent the Saxons with the people of “Cantia," and from coming ? drove them away. They next quar P. Yes. During all this time relled with Vortigern, and killed there was the horror of continual him. They then took possession fighting. One British prince, named of Cantia, and formed a Saxon KING ARTHUR, opposed them for kingdom, which they called KENT. a long time, and caused dreadful This was about the year 460, or 30 slaughter. So brave was he, that years after the time of the Romans. it is said, he once killed more than

Now, when the other fierce Ger 400 Saxons with his own hand; man tribes, in the cold northern and defeated them in twelve great countries, heard of this, they fitted battles. out more long ships,” and came But, one brave king was not over quickly. Then came other sufficient to drive back so many tribes, then more, then more again new tribes. England was now -ship-load after ship-load ; and, filled with all sorts of Germans. for the next hundred years, there The Saxons were followed by the were continually fresh arrivals of Angles, Jutes, Danes, Prussians, visitors, who came to destroy, to Rugians, Friezlanders, and many steal, and to kill.

other people with strange names. You shall hear some of their Their manner of fighting was, names : ELLA and his three sons I have read, even worse than that came with a large army; they of the Goths and Huns, who deseized a broad tract of country, stroyed Rome. They were not and founded the kingdom of the satisfied with anything but comSouth Saxons.

plete and utter destruction. They CERDIC and KENRIC landed with gazed and wondered at the fine some other German tribes; and, cities left by the Romans, and felt seizing another great piece in the thirsty to destroy them. Not only west of England, they founded the did they kill the Britons, but pulled kingdom of the West Šaxons. down towns and villages, palaces

Å fierce commander, called and churches, until they fell in UFFA, came next; he seized the ruins on the heads of the murdered counties of Cambridge, Suffolk, and inhabitants, and made one im. Norfolk, and formed the kingdom mense heap! The few wretched of the East Angles.

people who could not escape, and Some others then seized Essex were left behind, were brought to and Middlesex, and founded the a state of humble slavery, and all kingdom of the East Saxons.

was miserable desolation. Others fought their way across Thus, they cared nothing for the the country to the middle of Bri trade or the civilisation of the Rotain, and founded the kingdom of mans. The language and religion Mercia.

of the island were forgotten ; and, And others sailed to the land at in the course of 150 years from the the north of the River Humber; 1 time of their coming, the country

had gone back to its former state. i left Britain, great numbers of the England was again a land of barba- barbarous Scots climbed over the rians who did not know Christ, and northern wall, rushed down upon her religion was darkness and the Britons, killed them, and plunfables.

dered their country. W. Poor Britons, papa! They might well be sorry when the Ro asked the Romans to help them, but

(14.) The Britons, therefore, mans left them, for now they were obliged to leave the country them

They were engaged in fighting the

northern barbarians. selves. Where did those who es

They then

sent to a tribe of these barbarians, caped go to ?

who were called Saxons. P. Some went to the Highlands of Scotland-others went to Ire

(15.) The SAXONS, who were land - a great number went to very brave and fierce, were glad Wales, and some sheltered them to come from their cold country selves in Cornwall, which is the

to Britain. They drove away the very corner of England. A few of Picts and Scots, and sent for other them fled, in ships, to a part of barbarous tribes, who helped them France, and called the place Brit

to drive out the Britons also. So tany, in remembrance of their poor

that after 150 years' contest, the old country.

Island belonged to the Saxons.


INVASION ended a little before (13.) As soon as the Romans had | A.D. 600.

Who fed me from her gentle breast,
And hush'd me in her arms to rest,
And ou my cheek sweet kisses press'd?

My Mother.
When sleep forsook my open eye,
Who was it sung sweet lullaby,
And soothed me that I should not cry?

My Mother.
Who taught my infant heart to pray,
And love God's holy book and day,
And taught me wisdom's pleasant way?

My Mother.
And can I ever cease to be
Affectionate and kind to thee,
Who wast so very kind to me,

My Mother?
Ah, no! the thought I cannot bear;
And if God please my life to spare,
I hope I shall reward thy care,

My Mother.

7th Week.


Object Lesson

It has a pe


M. And I must tell you someW. Here is the Salt-cellar, mam thing else about it, which I am not ma. Please let me give papa some able to show you now. If you put Salt for his egg, and we will keep it in the fire, or make it very hot, the rest for our lesson.

it will melt. Salt is like sugar in two things. Ion. Then, mamma, we may call Ist, You can dissolve it in water, it fusible. I remembered that word. so it is soluble. 2ndly, It has little Now, I will say the qualities we grains, so it is granulous; but it has have found. Salt is granulous, not the same colour-it is white. soluble, and white.

Ion. And it has a different taste. culiar flavour called saline ; it is a What do you call the taste of Salt, mineral, and it is fusible. mamma?

M. These are all good qualities M. We say that its taste is saline. in the Salt. Do you think that the This flavour, “saline,” is only found Salt would be improved, if any of in Salt-so, as it belongs to Salt, these qualities were taken away and not to anything else, you may from it ? call it a peculiar flavour.

W. I don't know, mamma. PerW. Then I will say, “It has a haps it would be better if it were peculiar flavour called saline.” not soluble ; because, it is very

L. Just as Sugar has a peculiar awkward, sometimes, when I put flavour called sweet.

a little Salt on the edge of my Ion. And just as Rhubarb has a plate, it slips down into the gravy, peculiar taste called bitter.

and then I lose it. W. No; I don't think that bitter M. Well, Willie, let us see if it is a peculiar taste-for bitter Al- would be better. When I was a monds are bitter; and so are Alo little girl, I saw more than fifty monds and Myrrh.

men who were busy salting pieces Ion. Still the taste, “bitter," is of beef, and putting them in casks. peculiar, because there is no other They cut slits in the pieces of beef taste like it.

and rubbed the salt in between; W. Then the taste sour is a pe- then they rubbed the Salt all round culiar taste; for it is not like the the outside of the beef. I asked taste bitter, or sweet, or salt. one of the men, “What are you

There are many sour things, such doing that for ?“ and he showed as Vinegar, Apples, Gooseberries, me that the juice the beef disand many fruits.

solved the grains of Salt. “But, Ion. I should call these tastes, what is the use of its being disprincipal tastes. So we shall have solved ?” I said. Why, miss, four principal tastes-Saline, Sweet, said the man, now that it is disBitter, and Sour. And the taste of solved, it soaks through to the midmeat is very different. I wonder dle of the beef, and keeps it from what that is called.

turning bad, you see. Thi; salt M. But you are forgetting the beef will be put on board ship, and Salt, and you have not found out be taken to hot countries. In such many of its qualities yet. You know places it would soon be not fit to that it has not any life, nor any eat; but the Salt keeps it, preserves organs ; so, what is it called ? it. You know what that means, W. A mineral substance, mamma.


“And, if you ever go to Yar- | heads. Nobody could imagine so mouth, in Norfolk-my town, miss much Salt, they must see it. Yet, - you would see some people salt- I have heard of all this large quaning and curing thousands, and thou- tity of Salt being consumed in sands, and thousands of bloaters, England in one year.

Now, stop to prevent them from turning and think; suppose that Salt was bad. Or, miss, if you'd like to go not soluble-was like sand ? in a ship to Newfoundland, you W. Why, people wouldn't use it. might see the fishermen salting very or they wouldn't use half so much, large white fish-cod fish-for peo- perhaps. They couldn't salt their ple to eat on Ash Wednesday.” meat with it!

W. And other days, if they like, M. Then, Willie, you may see I suppose.

what a great difference one little M. “You see, miss, all this li- quality makes. As I told you once quor in the casks. This is water before, how much we have to thank with Salt dissolved in it. We call God for the qualities he puts in it brine;' and I am going to salt things! all these large lumps of beef in it.” W. Yes, mamma. And there is

Since I was a girl, Willie, I have something else which must be a very learned that nearly five hundred good quality—a capital quality. thousand tons-ah, but you cannot M. What quality are you thinkthink of so much at once, can you? ing of, Willie ? Do you know how much a pound W. One which I did not notice of Salt is ?

at first-the quality which preserves Ion. Yes; Jane bought three the meat. What do you call it, pounds for the kitchen last month. because it preserves things ?

M. Then, think how much three M. It is called conservative. hundred pounds must be. But three Ion. Then we may say, mamma, hundred tons would be much more, “ Because it is soluble and confor one ton alone is as much as servative, it is useful to preserve 2,240 pounds.

meat." I wonder whether there is Ion. Oh, mamma!

any reason for its having the other M. But now try and think of qualities—for its being white, granFIVE HUNDRED THOUSAND tons ! | ulous, saline, and fusible ? They contain 1,120,000,000 pounds. M. I dare say there is. We will Oh, you can never put an idea of try and find out the use of these 60 large a quantity into your little l qualities in the next lesson.


How lovely shines the liquid pearl,

Which, trickling from the eye,
Pours in a suffering brother's wound

The tear of sympathy!
Then give me, Heaven, the soul to feel,

The hand to mercy prone;
The eye with kindly drops that flows
For sorrows not my own.


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