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M. That is the organ. Your M. Now, when you eat food, it stomach receives the food, and does not form sap, but blood. This makes it liquid. Can you find this blood is not merely sent up your organ in vegetables ?
body and down again. It is sent L. I should think not, mamma, through nearly all its different They do not want a stomach, for parts, in all directions,-and it they have not to make their food flows through little vessels called liquid, they live on the juices of the veins and arteries. Thus it is earth,-and water,-and air. always moving—or circulating, as
M. That is correct. Now state we say ; so animals have an organ the difference.
within them, for the purpose of Ion. I will say it, mamma. 2ndly, keeping it in motion. This organ An ANIMAL lives on solid food, acts very much like a pump. What so it has an organ called a stomach: is it called ? but a VEGETABLE lives on liquid W. I think it is called "the food, so it has no stomach. Are Heart;" is that the organ ? there any more differences, mamma? M. Yes, it is your heart which
M. Yes. You shall see. When circulates the blood—so you may the roots of a plant absorb water call it “ the organ of circulation, from the earth, it is conveyed if you like. through little sap vessels, up to the W. I will repeat the third difleaves ;--and then, coming down ference, mamma. again, it hardens, and forms new 3rdly, ANIMALS change their wood. This juice in the vege- food into blood, which is always table is called 6 sap.”
being circulated, so they have an Ion. I have heard that word be- organ called the Heart. fore. And we have seen some sap, VEGETABLES have not any heart. too! When we broke the branch M. There are more differences of the lilac tree the other day, and yet, but we will leave them until peeled off the skin from one of the next Tuesday, when we will make twigs, it was quite wet.
up the whole lesson.
With silver crest and golden eye,
And weathers every sky.
In gay but quick succession shine;
They flourish and decline.
While moon and stars their courses run,
Companion of the sun.
To sultry August spreads its charms;
And twines December's arms.
THE ALLODIAL SYSTEM.
ble. THE SAXON HEPTARCHY. another, “Do you want to leave??'
Then they would ask one
W. They should have said “emiP. Where did we stop in our grate”—“Do you want to emiHistory last week?
grate?” Ion. You said, papa, that the P. And if they all said “Yes,” Saxons had driven out the Britons, then they would arrange about it. and had divided England into seven They would get some money to kingdoms.
buy a ship, or perhaps two, and P. These seven kingdoms are would " call a meeting.” All round called a “Heptarchy." Who can about, for many miles, they would repeat their names?
send messages to the other chiefs, L. I can, papa. l. Northumber- saying, “Come to such a place, at land. 2. East Saxons. 3. East such a day, and bring your people Angles. 4. Wessex. 5. Sussex. with you, for we are going to hold 6. Mercia. 7. Kent. And all these a Comitatus.'" were formed in 150 years.
When Then they would meet on a large did the Saxons first come, papa ? open place, where there was plenty
P. About 20 years after the de- of room ; and there you would see parture of the Romans.
a thick crowd of wild, half-naked L. That is, in the year 450, and fellows, waiting to hear what was then 150 years more make 600 ; so to be sa:
One of the grumbling that the seven kingdoms were all chiefs who had determined to mimade and finished about the year grate would stand up in the middle 600.
of the company, and make a great P. A little before that time. But speech. He would flourish his
“made and finished,” spear and shield, as though he say established. You may call this were very angry; and if he intended period “the period of the Saxon In- to go to Britain, he would say, “I vasion."
know of a country much better than W. So we will say, “The Ro- this one. There is an Island-over man period ended A.D. 430." there!(pointing to Britain)—which,
“The period of the Saxon In- I have heard, is a most remarkable vasion ended A.D. 600."
spot.” Then he would speak of the P. Now you shall hear of the green fields there, the rich lands, period of the Saxon Heptarchy.- and say many things to make them Listen.
think it was a comfortable place; I told you that the Saxons and and would tell them that the other barbarians were constantly Britons could be easily conquered. wandering about, for they were Then he would add that he was going fond of conquering new countries. himself, with his friends on the left, All at once they would dislike and that they had provided ships. the place where they were living,
He would further explain, perand would say, Oh, we'll go and haps, that when those who chose seck for a better land, and conquer to go should have conquered the
And this is the way they country, it was to be divided bewould do it.
tween them-each man to have a One or two strong chiefs would piece, and those who were bravest meet together, and begin to grum- were to have the largest shares.
do not say,
Then he would sit down; and all Ion. Then, papa, they were hus the men who wanted to go with bandmen, living in an agricultural him would rise up and say so. state, which must have been very
These men would have to agree pleasant, if things always went that, during the expedition, they on so. would follow these commanders, P. Yes. You may see by this, and find their own arms—with that the Saxons had a system in provisions, perhaps. Every one making new kingdoms, different was bound to keep his promise; for from that of the Romans. For, if I have read in Cæsar's book, that you notice, each man
was inde“ Those who went back from their perdent-living on his own properengagement were looked upon as ty. There were noblemen, but only deserters; and lost all credit for those were made noblemen who the time to come.” Such a meeting were thought to be the best men, of barbarians was called a “Comi or the bravest. tatus.”
The Kings of these seven kingSo, when the Saxons conquered doms had to depend very much Britain, those men who were not upon themselves.
Each king got killed in battle divided the land most of his money by attending to between them. The common men his own land. He could not make were called “ceorls”
churls," the people pay taxes. If there and each churl had his lot of should be a war, nearly every man ground, or nent,” marked would go to fight for himself and out for him.
his neighbour; so they learned not In the middle of his allotment, only to take care of their own land, the churl made his cottage with but of their own country. rough branches of trees, clay, and You will find, as we go on with straw. It had no windows, but a our history, that there are many hole for the light to come in; and different ways, or “systems,” of another for the smoke to go out. forming a kingdom. On this sysThe churls took their prisoners- tem, every man, as I said, had his the conquerei Britons-and made own lot or allotment. Such a plan them work on their farms as ser of dividing the country was called vants. They were called “Thralls," “the Allodial System.” which means slaves, for they had Ion. Was it a good system, papa? to do very hard work—to plough P. Perhaps it was the best for and dig; to attend to the cows, and people who were living in such a pigs, and poultry.
simple state. I have read much Thus the Saxons found Britain of how they used to enjoy themto be a very comfortable place, - seives--of their merry-makings and plenty of mutton, with fine fowls, their feastings; but there was one eggs, butter, milk, and honey. For thing wanting! Their happiness bread they would make barley was all on this earth. They did cakes, which they baked on the not know anything of the happiness hearth. When they wanted clothes, which lasts for ever, for they had they would make a coarse cloth, not yet heard of Jesus Christ. like baize, from the sheep's wool; I meant to have told you how and if they wanted money, they'd God first sent them the knowledge "go to market” and sell some of of his Son, but we must now wait their good things.
i until next Wednesday.
meant making them white; and
that the chloride of lime which was M. We were saying, last Thurs- spreading all over the room, would day, how useful salt is, because it whiten them. is conservative; but there are other M. That chloride of lime is conseryative substances in this made partly from a gas called world.
chlorine, and the gas chlorine is W. Yes, sugar is conservative. procured from the salt.
It was I wish you would preserve some this chlorine gas in the lime which more gooseberries, mamma ; took away all the colour from the make some more red-currant jam! stockings, and made them appear
L. And vinegar is conservative, white. So you see that this white for preserving onions, and making salt is useful for bleaching because pickles. And is not pepper con it contains chlorine. I don't know servative, and spice?
whether it is any better for being Ion. Oh, yes, spice is. I have white. read in the Bible about the Israel. W. But can you not be sure, ites preserving the body of Joseph mamma? -embalming it, it was called-and M. No, Willie, I really do not they embalmed the kings of Egypt, ki:ow everything. I have not made them into mummies for the learned bleaching yet. British Museum.
W. Oh, mamma, I am almost L. I don't think that the kings sure that that is the reason why had any particular wish for their the salt was made white. So I bodies to be in the Museum. But, shall run the risk, and will say, mamma, you said last Thursday,that “Because it is white, it is used for when God put the other qualities bleaching." in salt-the qualities white, granu M. I think you had better not lous, fusible, and saline-that He say so, because, if you should be thought about it, and meant each wrong you will be laughed at. Requality to have some use. Now, member, it was the chlorine in the what is the use of its being so lime which produced the whiteness beautiful and white? We don't | in the stockings. make paint of it.
Ion. I know that the quality M. Well, Lucy, I am not sure " soluble” makes the salt useful, that I can find you the reason for but what is the use of its being its whiteness, except that we like fusible? to see nice white salt on our plates; M. See how hard and smooth we can tell sooner whether it is and bright this breakfast cup is. dirty or not. Let us look for a The glaze which is outside it is
Do you remember that made with melted salt; and so is you once went with me to a large the glaze on the earthenware down manufactory, and that we looked stairs. Salt is also used in making through one of the windows of the glass. bleaching room ?
W. Perhaps it could not be used L. Yes, mamma; and I remem for that, nor for making glass ber the long rows of stockings either, if it were not white. which were hanging up to be Ion. I wonder why it should be bleached. You said that bleaching | granulous ?
M. I cannot exactly tell. It is L. But why does vegetable food very useful as a manure. Men can make people want salt, mamma? easily chop it up, anal break it into M. I must tell you. Salt is so little grains, so that, it sinks into necessary for man, that it is found the earth. There it preserves
not only in the sea and earth, but some plants from cisease.
in some of the food which he eats. W. It is a good thing that it is There is salt in flesh, in milk, in saline, mamma, because it gives a this egg, and in nearly all animal nice taste to meat and other things. food ;-but, we do not find it in I should not like to live on potatoes vegetables. The baker knows this, without salt.
and because flour is a vegetable M. Not only you, Willie, but all substance, he mixes salt with the mankind and animals are made to bread. But, although vegetables like the taste of salt, for they could do not contain salt, I told you, in not live very well without it. one of our former lessons, that they
I have read of two captains who have another conservative subwent on a journey up the River stance in them—not salt, but Missouri (you have seen the great L. Sugar, mamma. You said picture of the Missouri painted by that the sugar made them nutriBanvard). When these captains tious. were looking for a spot where they M. Let me tell you something might pass the winter, they thought to show you that vegetables have very much about one thing, “Where not much salt.-All animals that shall we get our salt ?” So they feed and grass on herbage confixed on a place about fifteen miles tinually require salt. Tame anifrom the sea, and every now and mals, such as sheep and cows, then, in the course of the winter, cannot procure it themselves, and they were obliged to travel that the farmers are obliged to mix it long distance to get a fresh supply with their “fodder.” I told you of salt.
once, that great numbers of cattle Although it was cold, damp, and are fed and fattened on the eastrainy weather, they would travel ern shores of England-in Yorkthrough thick woods, and deep shire, Lancashire, Norfolk, and morasses, until they reached the Essex. sea, when they boiled the water W. I think I know why that in their salt pans, and made is, now, mamma. It is because salt.
the water from the sea overflows In Africa many of the poor have those parts, and makes marshes of to travel, perhaps, 100 miles to them. procure it, and only the rich peo- M. Yes. Some parts are called ple can procure as much as they “ Salt-marshes.” Salt is provided want. A man called Mungo for cattle, in all parts of the world. PARK, who travelled there, once In North America-in the woods saw a little African child sucking-you may find small springs of a piece of salt, and enjoying it as salt water. They are called though it were sugar. Mr. Park “ Licks.” The wild animals from says, that “the long use of vegetable the great “Prairies” will journey, food creates such a painful long- for many days, to these licks, that ing for salt, that no words can they may drink the water, or even describe it.”
lick the salt earth if the spring