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HOW WE KNOW AN ANIMAL circulated too quickly.
heart beat very fast, and the blood FROM A VEGETABLE.
Ion. Yes, I felt my heart beat(Continued.)
ing. Ion. I know an Animal from a M. And when your blood circuVegetable now, mamma,- because lated quickly, the “waste” was it has only one mouth, and it has carried away quickly. I saw some two organs more than a Vegetable. of it coming away in a liquid state.
It has one mouth, the organ for It came in little drops through the procuring its food;
pores of your skin. Some of them A stomach, the organ for pre- trickled down your forehead, and paring its food; and
we called them “perspiration.” But A heart, the organ for circulating some of this waste came from your its food, when it has been made body in a different manner. I saw into blood.
some particles coming away in a M. Then let us look for the next fluid state. You opened your mouth, difference. Animals, you know, and it came out so quickly that you can move about on the earth. Most could hardly speak. of them are very fond of motion Ion. That was my breath coming they will often creep, or run, or fly, out of my mouth! But, mamma, or swim for a long time, without I thought that breath was made of feeling tired; so that they are con air. stantly exercising their bodies. Now, M. Not entirely. Breath conwhen a carpenter is constantly sists of particles of the air, and asing his tools-exercising them— particles of the waste of your body what will happen?
mixed together. Ion. They will wear out.
I think you can easily understand M. So will “organs” wear out, how it is made. You see this dark in time. You are constantly moving vein in your arm? It has a dark about, Ion, and exercising the or look because it contains blood which gans of your body, so it wears out, is nearly black. and wastes away. Now, why is it L. I thought that blood was althat your blood, instead of just ways red, mamma,—what makes it going “up and down,” like the black? trees' sap, is circulated by your M. It has this dark colour beheart through every little corner of cause it is full of particles of the your body?
waste which it has collected W. Oh, I see, mamma! To mend from your body. It will flow on it where it is wasted, that is, to through many other veins, until it make new flesh—“keep it in re reaches your heart. Your heart pair”-that's what I mean. will then pump it into another organ,
Ion. But the old particles of where it will meet with the air flesh, which are wasted, how are which is flowing down your windthey carried away from my body ? pipe. As soon as this air gets down M. This is also done by your
to the black blood in this organ, it blood, partly. I must tell you. Last makes it clean and red again. week, when you ran all the way This is done by carrying away home from school, you exercised all the waste from it. Some of the your body too much. Then your particles of the air mix with the
any nerve in
dark particles of the waste, and of your body, there are thousands make breath, as I told you. of very fine threads, which are like
Ion. Thank you, mamma! Now a beautiful network. These threads I know what breath is made of are called Nerves, and, directly you but what is the name of that organ touch a nerve, you feel a pain, or, where the air meets with the black as we call it, a sensation. You blood?
cannot, however, find M. It is called “the Lungs." your nails, or in the hair of your
W. But the plants, mamma!- head, except at the roots. They do not want any lungs, be W. Then, that is the reason why cause they have not any waste, I we do not feel any pain! But we suppose. They do not go cut for do feel a pain when we pull out a walk, or take exercise.
hairs from our heads by their M. The leaves of plants are roots. something like lungs. Their sap M. Some of your organs have is thin, like water, when it goes up curious nerves. One organ has to the leaves; but these leaves ex nerves which can feel smells, or pose it to the air, and it is thus perceive smells, we say. altered ; for when it comes down W. That is my nose
- but do the tree, it is much thicker. those nerves feel the smell them
L. Then that will make another selves? I thought that I always difference.
smelt i he flowers myself ! 4th difference,-Most ANIMALS M. That is right, Willie. You have organs for purifying the blood, use these nerves, and they convey called Lungs.
the smell to you. VEGETABLES have not—but they W. Do they bring it to me, have organs something like lungs, mamma? Then, where am I? called Leaves.
M. That I will tell you in our M. We will now find another next lesson. We are learning difference. Come here, Willie, about Nerves now. Another organ and let me pinch you!
can convey W. Oh! mamma. I'd rather sounds. not, thank you! I'll pinch myself
- your tongue, —there!
has nerves, which you use to perM. Well
, what has happened, ceive tastes. Your eye has difWillie ?
ferent nerves, which perceive the W. It happened that there was colours of things—their shape and a pain—a sharp feeling, just here size. These organs, with peculiar -in my arm.
nerves, you know, are called M. Now, take the edge of your Senses. We shall learn more thumb nail, and pinch it. Now about them next Tuesday. pinc's some of the hairs in your Ion. But Vegetables have not head! There was no pain then, any nerves, or any senses ; so that I'm sure. Why is it that there is will make another difference. no pain in those parts as well as 5th difference, — ANIMALS can
feel, for they have nerves, some of W. I don't know, mamma. Please which form organs called the Senses, tell me !
butL. Well, underneath the skin of VEGETABLES cannot feel, and your arm, and in nearly all parts | h-we not any nerves.
THE SAXON HEPTARCHY.
mined to give up their idols, and to
follow Jesus. THE INTRODUCTION OF CHRIS
Soon, there came more Monks TIANITY.
from Rome; and the people were P. What period are we learning so glad to hear the truth, that about now?
some of them went to Rome that L. The period of the seven king, they might become Monks, and doms—the Heptarchy. We heard might learn to preach. last Wednesday of the system on They also had clergymen, called which they were managed—it was Bishops, who used to superintend called the “ Allodial System;" and the others and teach them; the you were to tell us, papa, how the two principal Bishops were called people learned of Jesus Christ. “ Archbishops.” They made an
P. So I will. You may remem- Archbishop of Canterbury, and ber that the Saxons worshipped another in York. There was a Thor and Woden, and other strange Bishop in London, a Bishop in gods. When they found the Bri- Winchester, a Bishop in Worcestons worshipping the true God, as ter, in Rochester, Hereford, Durthe Romans had taught them, they ham, and other large towns. would not allow it. But they had They also built large churches now settled down quietly, and they with organs in them. In the year were better able to think.
604, King Ethelbert founded a It happened one day that as the church in London, called St. Paul's; Pope St. GREGORY was passing and, in 611, another king founded through the slave-market, at Rome, a church, called Westminster Abbey. he saw some beautiful white chil- The Monks did not live alone by dren standing up to be sold, and he themselves, but several of them asked what nation they belonged | lived together in large houses, called to. He was told that they were Monasteries, or Abbeys. There Angles, from Britain. “Ah!” he they had schools for children, just said, “If these children were Chris- as the Romans used to heve; and tians, they would not be 'Angles,' rooms where poor travellers, who but 'angels:”” and soon after he were tired, might stop and sleep. sent a missionary to this country So, because they tried to do good, to teach the Saxons.
the people gave them money, and This good missionary was called lands for corn-fields, and gardens. AUGUSTIN. He came over quickly Thus, in time, they became very to the King of Kent, and told him rich. Some of these Monks were that he had glad news for him, very pious and learned; and one, from God; and that he might be called the Venerable Bede, was a saved, and be happy for ever. very wise and good man indeed.
The king, who was called ETH- But, I am sorry to say, they were ELBERT, listened to him, believed not all so. Many of them were him, and became a Christian. Then ignorant, and even wicked, for they the good monk was so encouraged taught the people many foolish that he preached the Gospel as often things, which were untrue. We call as he could; and, before he died, such foolishness, “superstition.” not only the Kentish people, but Besides preaching and teaching, many of the other Saxons deter- the Monks would practise a trade.
The kings thought that preachers It was not a good plan to divide ought to have a trade, just as our Britain into seven kingdoms, for Saviour had—and to work like the the kings were always quarrelling. Apostle Paul. In an old Saxon The King of Sussex would think, work, a king called EDGAR says, “My kingdom is not large enough, “We command that every priest I should like to have a piece of do diligently learn some handi- Wessex;"—and each king would so craft.” So we hear of one Monk often be wanting to make his own as being a good blacksmith. Ano- kingdom larger, and his neighbour's ther was made an abbot, because | kingdom smaller, that there were ke was a clever goldsmith. Ethel too many wars. One of the kings wald, a bishop, made bells for the was chosen to be master of the other churches, and a wheel full of small six--and was called the BRETbells, much gilt—to turn round and WALDA, or ruler of Britain, but the make music on feast-days.” others would not obey him properly.
W. I should think that an Arch At last there was a King of Wesbishop must have been very clever! sex, called EGBERT. He had
P. Yes, Dunstan, the Arch- lived in Europe, with a great king, bishop of Canterbury, could draw called CHARLEMAGNE. There he well-he could paint patterns for became so wise and brave, that, a lady's gown-he was a smith when he came to Britain, he maand could work in all kinds of naged to conquer all the other kings metals. He made two great bells and be the only king in the Island. for the church at Abingdon.
So when he had done this, he The laws of this period were went to Winchester, where the improved a little, but some of bishops and priests met him.them showed that the people had | They made a great pomp,- put a learned superstition. They would crown on his head, and called him sometimes try whether a man had EGNERT THE FIRST, KING OF ALL done wrong, by making him put | ENGLAND. Thus the Island's name his hand into boiling water, or was changed from “Britain” to carry a red-hot iron. If one man “ England”-and instead of being killed another, he had to pay for divided into a Heptarchy, it was his sin with a large sum of money. a Saxon kingdom. This was in
In time, however, the people the year 827. began to think more, and they L'essons 8 and 9. THE Saxons. found out a way to make good (16.) The Saxons divided Englund laws. They used to hold a great into seven kingdoms, and lived assembly, in which the nobles, and together on the * Allodial System.” bishops, and rich men met, and They soon afterward learned the considered about the laws very
Christian religion. The names of carefully, before making them—just
these seven kingdoms were NORTIUMas members of Parliament do now.
BERLAND, EAST ANGLIA, MERCIA, This great assembly was called Sussex, Essex, Wessex, and Kent.
(17.). After many contests between “THE WITTENAGEMOT."
these "kingdoms, they were united
into one by King EGBERT. The Now that you know something Island was then called ANGLE-LAND of the customs and laws of our OR ENGLAND. ancestors, I will tell you something (18.) The PERIOD OF THE SAXON about their kings.
HEPTARCIY ended A.D. 827.
It is very
J. It is called the gastric juice SALT (Concluded).
When you take any salt into your Ion. You said, mamma, that we stomach, the muriatic acid helps to should hear to-day why men and make gastric juice; and the soda animals require so much salt. in the salt forms part of another
M. Then listen, and I'll amuse juice, called bile; and, both of these you.
juices are useful for changing your W. Oh! here is a curious thing food into blood, or digesting it. mamma has brought from under W. Now I see, mamma. Then, the table. What is it-this shining it is no wonder that the poor ani. stuff, like silver, mamma?
mals go so far for it. They can't M. This is a metal called make their food digest properly, I Sodium; it is a deadly poison. suppose. You told me, mamma, And in this retort is a gas called that vegetables were harder to Chlorine.
digest than meat. I suppose that L. Ah, that is the bleaching gas, is another reason why the farmers which makes the “chloride of give the sheep salt. lime.”
M. Do you think that you quite M. This gas, too, is a poison. understand now why we require Now, see me put a little of the salt? metal with the gas.
Ion. Yes, mamma. W. Ah, there! Oh, mamma, easy, — it makes juices to digest let me clap my hands, please. What food. a beautiful flame!
M. Now you shall hear where M. It will burn a little longer. the salt is procured. Now, see what there is left. There Here is the salt-cellar. Let us is a white substance. Taste it! go to the place where the salt came
L. Why, mamma, that is Salt. from. We must travel all the way How strange,- for two poisons to from this table to CHESHIRE. make such a good thing as salt. W. Get your hat, Ion. M. This salt is not now poison. Ion. No, no.
Mamma means It contains two other substances, “ travel in your mind.” -muriatic acid and soda. You M. Yes; by three different railwill understand this better, one ways, until you reach a Cheshire day, if you study Chemistry.- town called Nantwich.
There you What are the names of the two will find, flowing from under substances in this salt?
ground, springs of water, which L. Muriatic acid, and soda. are very salt,- they are called salt
M. Now you shall see why we springs. This water is put into want salt with our food. I told large iron pans, and boiled. The you, in our Natural History lesson, particles of water then form vathat the food you eat must be pour, and rise up in the air; and, made liquid, so as to become part when all the water has changed of your blood.
into vapour, what is left in the pan? W. Yes, mamma. First, our W. Nothing ! mamma. teeth chop it up, and then it is M. But I said that the water dissolved in our stomachs by a juice. contained salt. Now, the salt will I don't know what the juice is not change into vapour. Som called.
although the water goes away,