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bodies change their dress. When
we grow bigger, we leave off our WILLIE'S FRAMEWORK. old clothes our pinafores, and M. Here, Willie, is the drawing frocks,—and wear different ones; of your framework. Papa finished so, when our ideas grow, our old it last night.
words are not good enough to put Ion. What a curious thing, them in-and so, we use better mamma-let us all look at it! Yes, expressions. Willie, it must be like your frame W. Yes, I like that. We get work, because it has such short some Latin names, too, and somelegs. How bony it is!
times a little bit of Greek. We W. It hasn't a very pleasant shall talk all Greek soon. look.
M. I hope not, Willie. Come M. Ah! but it is a very pleasant and have a little English with me thing to learn about. See if we about the bones of your trunk. don't get some pleasant thoughts Look at them! which do you out of it! We will learn the think is the principal bone, there ? names of these different bones, W. The backbone is, mammaand their uses. How many parts the spine, I should say. do you notice in it, Willie?
M. Then here is a separate W. Ever so many:
It is all drawing of the spine which you parts. But I haven't half noticed may examine. it yet.
Please let me look at it a little longer. Look, Ion—there's a
M. Well, Willie, now you have done looking at it--which do you call the principal parts?
W: I should think that the Head must be one. What would it be without that! Then the middle part—the body, or the Trunk as it is called—is another principal part; and then, what is left? Why, there are legs and arms remaining, that is all—they are called Limbs. So, that there are three principal parts, —
(1.) The Head,
(3.) The Limbs.
M. It is time to leave off that W. I notice first, mamma, that word backbone. You must call it it does not seem to be a bone. No, the “ spine.”
it is made of a number of little L. Ah, mamma! Just as our bones,
M. That is true-count them! wonderful little nerves in you
Ion. I will, mamma.—1, 2, 3, 4, body, do not exactly begin at the 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11,-12, oh! there brain. They begin at little openare too many.
ings in the spine between the verM. Well, you cannot count tebræ. them easily. I will tell you L. I see the openings, mamma. there are thirty-three of these little. They are marked in the drawingbones in the spine. Each bone is there are some little holes between called a vertebra. That is why we the joints. are called Vertebrated Animals. M. At these openings, then, they Here is a drawing of a single ver are joined to the spinal cord, which tebra.
I told you before, is joined to the brain.
W. Perhaps that is the reason why the spine has so many little bones—that there may be openings between them.
M. If you think, Willie, you may find a better reason than that. If
your spine were a straight bone, Ion. It has a hole in the middle like the bone of your leg, there of it, mamma.
might still be little holes in it for L. To be sure it has !- and the nerves, but then, what a when the bones are placed on top straight-backed, stiff-necked fellow of each other, as they are—these you would be! You could never holes in them form one long hole- stoop to pick up anything. a tube. Thus, the spine is hollow W. Nor could I move my head like the bones of our legs—and so to look down easily, and I could it should be, that it may be never make a bow. I see now, these stronger.
joints in the spine make it more M. Yes, and this tube has even bendable-flexible, I mean.
Is not a higher purpose than giving that the proper name for a thing strength to the bone. Listen. Do that will bend? you remember iny telling you that M. Yes, but not for everything all the nerves in your body meet that bends. in one part — the brain ? You W. Then, mamma, the spine is wondered how they couid all be a famous bone, it has such good made to reach one place—now, I qualitieswill show you.
1st, It is strong, and yet This tube in the spine is useful, 2nd, It is flexible—whilst because it forms a case for a sort 3rd, The hollow tube in it, not of marrow, or pith. This marrow only gives it strength, but forms a or pith is called the Spinal Cord. case for the spinal cord—it is the It extends the whole length of the railroad for my electric telegraphs tube, and at the top, it joins the -the Nerves. brain in your skull. Do you un L. And with plenty of stations derstand chat ?
in it-one at every joint. Ion. Yes, I do, mamma, very M. Yes, this bone is full of wonwell—and I think that Ada does. ders—it is one of the many parts M. Very well. Now, all those of your body from which you may
get beautiful thoughts of God's | each other, would merely cause the wisdom. Ah, and thoughts of his whole spine to bend more-just love and goodness too, when you like a spring. understand it properly. You have Ion. Ah! how God must have forgotten to notice its shape. thought when he made us! He
Ion. I was wondering at that, knew that we would want to jump, mamma-Instead of being a nice, sometimes. straight, perpendicular bone, so- M. And yet, Ion, if you had
ordered your own spine, you would have liked a “nice, straight, perpendicular bone.”
can tell you another curious thing about this curve. It causes your body to get chorter every day.
W. How can that be, mamma?
Why, we should grow down to it is curved; there are two curves nothing, like candles! in it-a double curve. Why is M. Listen. The cartilage bethat?
tween your vertebræ is elasticM. There is a very nice reason (you know very well what that for it, Ion. If these vertebræ were means). Now a man, in the day. placed on top of one another time, instead of lying down, is so as to make a straight line—it either standing or walking -80 would happen, whenever by acci- | the weight of his head is always dent you had a knock on the top resting on the spine. This you of your head, that each bone would strike on the one beneath it.
W. I understand, mamme—they would “jar" against each other.
M. That, you know, would be very disagreeable, especially if there were no cartilage or gristle between the vertebræ. And, again, it would happen, if you were to jump down six stairs, as you do sometimes, and come down suddenly on your feet
-the shock would produce the same “jarring” of the vertebræ against each other—but, in an upward direction — from the bottom of your spine to the top ; and it would produce a very bad effect on your brain.
Fig. 2. Fig. i. W. I see, mamma, and I sup
Bed time. Morning time pose that the jarring is not so bad with a curved spine as it would be can see in Figure 1. So, it hapwith a straight one.
pens in the course of the day, that M. No. If you received a hard the head continually bearing on blow on your head, the force, in- the vertebræ, presses them closer st ad of striking the bones against I together—this pressure causes the
spine to curve more--as I told you | Backboned Animals consists of three a violent blow would do. It thus principal parts, viz.becomes shorter — and at night,
1. THE HEAD, when a man goes to bed, he is
2. THE TRUNK, about half-an-inch shorter than he
3. THE LIMBS. was, when he got up in the morning. You see this in Figure 2. (2.) The Trunk has several
bones, W. That is curious !-Ah! but the principal of which is the SPINE. then he gets right again in the This Spine consist of several ring-like night, mamma. When he lies down bones called VERTEBRÆ. These ver. the cartilage stretches again—of tebre are so placed above each other course it does!
that their holes form a long TUBE. Ion. Ah, mamma, you only told The tube forms a case for a sort of us part of the truth-that was as Pith called the SPINAL CORD. bad as Mr. Ganeall.
(3.) This Spinal Cord is connected M, I left that for you to find at one end with the brain, and is also out. But now you may sit down connected with the nerves, at the little and write the lesson-The 1st les- openings between the vertebræ. son on your framework. Lucy will (4.) THE SPINE IS THEREFORE do it.
A MOST REMARKABLE BONE-for it Lesson 8. THE FRAMEWORK OF
is very strong and yet flexible--and, VERTEBRATED ANIMALS — The cord, that inportant organ which con
at the same time, it protects the spinal SPINE.
veys sensations from our nerves to the (1.) The bony Framework of | Brain.
Ha! he is not half asleep,
There the little ancient man
before then, there was a bad power THE SAXON KINGDOM.
working very strongly on the earth,
and it brought-ah! far worse EDRED, EDWY, EDGAR.
slavery than that of the Danes. Ion. I liked that story of Athel This bad power, which is called stane last week, papa—so much. SUPERSTITION, not only taught
P. Yes, I knew you would. men to do wickedness, and foolishBut I forgot to tell you one thing. ness, -but to call good things bad, These Danes kept their promise, and bad things good. and never came again. They W. Ah! it taught the priests to couldn't do that.
burn John Huss, and call that a W. Why not, papa?
good thing! P. There was something, now, in P. I must stop now to tell you the hearts even of these rude men of some of this foolishness. JESUS that would not let them do so! CHRIST had said that He was the The king could not always stop “ door" to heaven, and that men them with the sword—they were could only enter heaven through not afraid to fight.
Him;—but, the people were taught But, “ There's a power can con
that there was a wooden door quer the sword.”
Do you know that the Apostle Peter had real what that means ?
iron keys, and that he was the W. Why, it is stronger than the only person who could open this sword—can do more, I suppose.
door. P. Yes. The sword brings quar And, how do you think that the rels and disorder on the earth ; apostle was to be persuaded to do but this power prevents quarrels, this for them? Why, with MONEY!! and brings peace and order. It is You may well thank God that we called Love.
have His Word now; for in these Yes! this new power of love days, even little children who might which the poor Danes felt was hear such nonsense would not much stronger.
It made them believe it! think that they would rather live But the poor blind English and be poor in their own country, people did! Every nobleman, and than lose Athelstane's good-will. all who had money, were persuaded
They were not afraid to ht, by the priests, that they must leave not they! But now, when he had their country and go as “pilgrims” been kind to them, they were afraid to Rome. They all imagined that even to make him angry—they were it was not possible to reach heaven obliged to obey him.
without first paying their compliTo-day we will talk about three ments to St. Peter, who kept the more Saxon kings ;-but I have a keys,—so away they went and dismal picture to give you.
everywhere the princes and priests The next king was call d looked out for a chance to cheat EDRED. He began to reign in them. This love of pilgrimage, 946. You remember what I told which was getting very strong in you of the times of John Huss -- the reign of Edred, grew so fast, and of the great darkness in the that about 100 years after, very minds of men. In the time of large sums of money were gained Edred, which was ahovt 500 years by the kings of those countries