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ASPIRATIONS OF YOUTH.
Up the mount of glory,
In our country's story;
He who conquers, he who fálls.
In the mines of knowledge;.
Win from school and college;
Than the stars of diadems.
In the path of duty;
Excellence true beauty ;
Make we then a heaven of earth.
Hearts and Hands together,
In the wildest weather ;
For the joys of life from home.
Draw our souls in union,
To the saints' communion;
TRAINING-SCHOOL SONG BOOK.
REJOICE, REJOICE. REJOICE ! rejoice! the summer months are coming; Rejoice! rejoice! the birds begin to sing;
When joy bursts forth in songs of praise,
And hills resounding echoes raise. Rejoice! rejoice! the budding flowers are bursting; Rejoice! rejoice! their fragrance fills the air;
When roses bloora, and daisies grow,
And woodbines twine, and violets blow.
The cooling morn, the sunny day,
tains several important organs VERTEBRATED ANIMALS.
such as your heart, and lungs. WILLIE'S FRAMEWORK You know that when you breathe, (Continued).
your lungs expand, or stretch.
These ribs are so formed that they M. Now, Willie, look again at move with your lungs. the picture; tell me what other hands round your ribs, Ion, and bones you observe in
your breathe. “ Trunk.”
Ion. Ah, mamma! When I W. Several, mamma. Here is breathed, my ribs seemed to rise a large flat bone in front, called up a little, and then to fall again. The Breast bone.
My lungs seemed to get larger, and Here are several roundish bones, smaller, and then my ribs secmed called Ribs.
to move on purpose to make room There is a pair of flat bones for them. behind, at the top of the back. M. The manner in which these
M. They are called “Shoulder ribs move, is very beautiful; but bones.”
we will not talk about this motion W. And here is a pair of little now. Do you see how they are round bones, joining the breast joined to the breast bone? bone to the shoulder bones.
L. Yes, mamma; they are joined M. They are called “ Collar with pieces of cartilage, or gristle. bones."
I suppose that is done, so that they Ion. Mamma, I can feel all these may move easily. bones in my body. I can feel my
Ion. Not all of them seem to be spine, breast bone, ribs, my shoulder joined to the breast bone; the top bones, by putting my hands behind ones are-one, two, three, four, me; and my collar bone-ah, it is five, six, seven pair are joined to just under my collar.
this bone, with gristle. The three M. We will now examine the lower pair seem to be joined to the bones, one at a time, and describe gristle of the seventh pair of ribs. them.
Then, the two lowest pair-they Ion. The BREAST BONE is a long do not seem to be joined to anyflat bone, to which the ribs are thing; they are loose. They make, joined.
altogether, twelve pair ribs. W. The Ribs. They are curved M. Yes. These seven upper bones—they begin at the Vertebræ pair of ribs, which are joined "di. in the spine, and end at the breast rectly” to the breast bone, are bone in front; so they join, or con- called TRUE RIBS ; and, the five nect, these two bones together. lower pair are called False Ribs,
They are arranged in pairs, that is, the three pair joined to and each pair is fastened to a ver- the true ribs, and the two lower tebra. I will count them; there are pair, the loose ribs. (They are twelve pair—the middle ones are sometimes called floating ribs.) the largest. They form a curious So that we have seven pair of hollow shape for the trunk. true ribs-and five pair of false
L. Yes. Something like the ribs. I ought to have told you shape of a Tub.
that the part of the spine to which M. This tub-shaped cavity con- these 12 pair of rihs belong, is called the back. Of the 33 vertebræ in the they must be very useful to keep spine, 7 belong to the neck, the shoulders apart, or else they
12 belong to the back, would fall together, or get too near 5 belong to the loins, to each other.
and the rest to the lower M. That is their use; but not parts of your body. Which of you all collar bones are alike. As we will now describe the ribs fully? proceed with the Natural History,
W. I will, mamma. THE RIBS you will see strange differences in are twelve pair of curved bones, the collar bones, and indeed in which are joined at one end to the other bones of animals, according vertebræ of the back, and at the to the different circumstances they other end to the breast bone. are placed in. They thus connect the spine and A Bird, who uses its fore limbs, the breast bone, and form a tub- or wings, to fly with, would soon shaped cavity, which contains the knock its shoulders together with heart, and the lungs. The seven the flapping of these wings, so it upper pair of ribs are joined to the has a double collar bone-just like breast bone by cartilage, and are two collar bones. called True Ribs; but the five lower A Horse, who uses his fore pair are only joined by cartilage limbs to trot on the ground, has to the seventh rib; and they are not any collar bone. We will find called False Rits.
out the reasons for these things M. Very good, Willie. Now, one day. let Lucy notice the shoulder bone, Now for the Lesson.'' or shoulder blade, as it is called.
L. The SHOULDER BLADE, Lesson 9. THE FRAMEWORK OF mamma, is a flat bone, nearly the VERTEBRATED ANIMALS (conshape of a triangle, at the upper tinued). part of the back. The narrow end,
(5). The other bones of TAE I see, is joined to the top of my TRUNK, are a long flat bone in the
There seems to be a round hole for the round end of my arm
front, called the BREAST BONE. to fit into,
(6.) Twelve pair of curved bones, M. This round hole is called a joined to the spine and the breast socket. Perhaps, when we have bone, and called Ribs — the seven had a shoulder of mutton for din- upper pair are called True Ribs ; and ner, you may have noticed this the seven lower pair are called False
Ribs. socket at the end of the blade bone, where it is joined to the shank (7.) A pair of broad, flat, trianbone.
gular bones, called THE SHOULDER Ion. Now, I will describe the BLADES ; and COLLAR BONES, mamma. They (8.) A pair of thin, round bones, are thin round bones at the top of between the breast bone and the the breast bone, joining it to the shoulder blades, called THE COLLAR shoulder bones. I should think
means a chief man amongst the THE SAXON KINGDOM.
Monks; and, in time, he became EDRED, EDWY, AND EDGAR. an Archbishop, which, you know,
means the chief of the bishops. P. You heard last week of the The KING, too, as well as the dread power “superstition,” which people, believed him; and almost kept the minds of the Saxons in everything that Dunstan told him darkness.
to do, he did. Dunstan then made When EDRED came to be king a law that every man who became there was one man amongst the a priest should not have any wife; priests who had determined to and forbade any of the clergymen become a "saint." This man was to get married—but, not all of them named DUNSTÁN—the same whom obeyed him. I spoke of when you heard of the This man had such great influtrades which the clergy practised.ence over the king, that the king In order to be called a saint, he gave him the charge of the Treaknew that he must pretend to have sury of England; the place where had messages from God, and, to the money is kept. have done extraordinary things. Ion. Miracles, I suppose.
EDWY. P. Yes. I should hardly like to When Edred died, Edwy, his tell you half the wicked inventions nephew, was placed on the throne. of this man—they are too foolish He found out that Dunstan was a for children to hear. I will just rogue, and that he could not give a mention one or two.
fair account of the money which One of his tales was, that when belonged to the Treasury in he was very ill, an angel brought Edred's reign. So he told the people him, in bed, some medicine, mixed that Dunstan had been stealing, up in heaven-that he was going and banished him from the kingto church to thank God, when the dom. devil and some black dogs tried to Edwy had also been provoked prevent him, but another angel to banish this man by his impudent caught him up, and popped him behaviour. He had married a down a hole in the roof.
beautiful princess, called Elgiva; He made another tale—"That and Dunstan declared that he he was working quietly in his cell, should not do as he liked, and when suddenly the devil put in his tried to prevent him. head, and asked him to make him But now that Edwy had bansomething, and that he — Saint ished Dunstan, he found that he Dunstan—seized the fellow by the had provoked most dangerous enenose with his red hot tongs, and mies. made him roar horribly.”
The Monks, everywhere, called Many more such accounts he him a heretic. They stirred up gave of adventures which no one the people with tales about the had seen but himself; and of, won holiness of Dunstan, and made the derful miracles—and the poor peo- wkole nation in an uproar. And, ple believed them all to be true. now they did a most wicked thing; So Dunstan was called a Saint. they sent soldiers to the king's He was also an Abbot, which palace, who dragged off his beauti
ful Elgiva, marked her face with a pletely drove them out of England red hot iron, and carried her away -so that, the Saxon farmers, now, from him, to Ireland. Soon after, were not afraid of having their when the dreadful scars on her sheep stolen, and their children poor face were better, she tried to killed. The king found, however, return to her husband. Then these that great numbers of the wolves wicked priests discovered her on had run away, and hidden themher way, caught her, and caused selves in the mountains and forests ser to be cruelly murdered! of Wales; so he thought of an ex
I feel shocked to tell you of cellent plan to get rid of them. such dreadfully inhuman deeds; The Welsh people having been they hardly seem fit for you to conquered by the English, were hear. And yet, so blind were the obliged to pay them a large sum miserable Saxons, that they con of money every year as tribute. sidered this cruelty of the monks So, the king said to the Welshto be a judgment from God upon “ In future, instead of paying me Edwy and Elgiva for marrying your tribute in money, you may against the will of " the Church.” bring me Wolves' heads--300 every
So, the monks then cailed Dun- year.” The Welshmen then were stan back again to England; and, very glad to save their money, and soon they were strong enough to
set to work to kill the wolves every drive Edwy away from his throne, year, in such earnest, that soon, and make his little cousin, EDGAR, none remained to be killed. to be king instead.
King Edgar, although clever and brave, was not, I am sorry to
say, a good king. As Dunstan EDGAR was a boy only 13 years and the priests had mave him old; but when he grew up to be a king, he was so foolish as to beman he became a brave king, kept lieve all they said to him, and to the kingdom in good order, and let his mind be guided by them. kept away the Danes. So great You will not wonder that he did was his power that he once caused some wicked deeds. He murdered himself to be rowed in a barge by a nobleman that he might have eight princes who were subject to his wife for himself; and,-ah! I him, and paid him tribute.
bad better not tell you any more He was remarkable, too, for his dreary tales of wickedness. love of hunting, and, for his care He was a brave king, but, being in clearing the country of wild led by cruel and superstitious men, beasts. He and his soldiers hunted he did many shocking actions. the wolves here until they com He died in the year 975.
TO A RED-BREAST. LITTLE bird, with bosom red,
But I'll cast a crumb to thee. Welcome to my humble shed. Come, my feathered friend, again, Daily near my table steal,
Well thou know'st the broken pano; While I pick my scanty meal;.
Ask of me thy daily store, Doubt not, little though there be, Ever welcome to my door.