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refreshing, reviring, strengthening, a fire-extinguish it, I should say. and fertilizing:
Why is that? (Uses)— Water, because it is pene Ion. I should say that is because trating and has other qualities, is -I don't know why-because it is useful to fertilize the earth.
Because it is liquid, pure, and L. And because it is cold, perhaps. tasteless, it is useful to drink. Because it is fluid, penetrating,
(Different sorts) — There and solvent, it is useful for washing.
many different sorts of water, such Because it is buoyant, it is useful spring water-warm spring water
as river water-rain water-cold for steumboats and ships to sail upon hot spring water-mineral spring Because it is fluid and heavy, it is
water-salt spring water-sea water useful to turn the wheels of watermills. It is also useful for making
—and stagnant water. tea-for boiling the pudding in-for (Different states)— Water is not mixing paints and colours.
always liquid, but is found in other W. Ah! and we have forgotten states--such as ice, steam, mist, fog, something. It is useful to put out' dew, clouds, rain, snow, and hail.
A SONG FOR SEPTEMBER.
To the deadly field of conflict, or in triumphing return,
And trumpets' blare, and trampling of hot steeds the ground that spurn. All the wealth of olden story—the up-piled heaps of treasure,
The gorgeous pageantry described in tales of Eastern land, Are as nothing to the riches--the plenty without measure
That brown SEPTEMBER scatters profusely o'er the land.
Upon the quiet valley that spreadeth far beneath,
And to twine of Autumn Flowers, all golden-hued, a wreath.
Chequers the leafy umbrage of the woodlands waving wide,
Upflushing through the amber of its ever-changing tide.
On stately oak, and elm-tree clump, and copse, and orchard flung ; And sleeps upon the stubble lands, and banks that are the fairest,
Above which rise the hedgerows with clematis tassels hung.
Where gos’mers--tiny aeronauts—their silken meshes weave;
I. G. ADANS.
FRIDAY. English Geography,
THE TRAVELLER THROUGH It is very pleasant, too, when ENGLAND
you come to the bridge, and lean WESTMORELAND.
over to loɔk at the water,-to feel MY DEAR CHILDREN,—
the fresh breeze, and the dampness It is a very pleasant thing to get which rises to cool your face and ap early in the morning, and take refresh you. How quickly the a walk before breakfast.
river seems to flow in the morning, And it is always pleasant in a especially round the arches! It country town which you have seems then to be in a hurry, as never seen before. So, as I awoke | though it felt more glee in the next day, and peeped between the early day, and wanted to be off to edge of the blind and the window the open sea, before the barges of the King's Arms Inn to see and boats are out. Ah, it must what sort of a morning it was, I be heavy work for the river to observed the end of the broad bear up those barges! And then, street, and thought to myself, “I sometimes, a great fish jumps up should like to know what is to be —and that is very pleasant! seen beyond there. I'll go and Sometimes you come to a long look.”
stone wall, with wall-flowers growAnd so it is very pleasant- ing on the top, and, you think, when you get out in the silent “What is on the other side?" or, street, and there is no one about, “Where will it end?” And then, except, now and then, some wo- perhaps, you come to eight almsman or girl, going “down town" houses, with a garden in front. for the milk. When there is no- The middle house has a stone thing stirring except the weather| image of a man whose features are cock on the market-place, and quite worn off. Beneath him is a the sparrows who have been up stone tablet, with coat of arms, some time.
and some "printing” about him, Then is it pleasant to walk with the line Anno Domini 1656. along and take notice, and to see And, then, it is very pleasant what different kinds of pavement when you have gone past the workthere are. How, in some parts, house to the end of the town, to nothe pavement is uneven, and tice, as you come back, the houses cracked, and wants mending-in and shops, and see the men take some parts only gravel and loose down the shutters. There are four stones; there! just by the doctor's or five shops which are four times as house, where there are green posts large as the rest, with fine Corinand chains along the edge of the thian pillars, and cornices covered path. How, sometimes, there is a with gold. On one is written, “Mr. little green grass plot between the Jones, FROM LONDON,” in very path and the road, and in other large letters -. 50 !-- and another parts, a large piece of Asphalte to belongs to Mr. So-and-so, Chemist walk upon. And then, again, the to the QUEEN. Do you know, I pavement is made of round stones, believe that the Queen has more which are very close together, and than a hundred chemists? What stick very tight in the earth. I quantities of physic she must take! don't know what they are called - And another man is shoemaker to they are not “ Boulders."
the late Queen Dowager; while at
one little shop, there is the Tobac- ! the poor hands, alas! they often conist to his Serene Highness— find that they are making dumb somebody--with a very long name motions to the deaf. Yet, then --living in Poland, I think. is the time for a living men to
And it is pleasant to look at the think of the graves beneath, and houses. There are a few new brick the world where he is, and the houses, some of a dark red colour. | heaven above, and to remember Then, there are the old houses that he belongs to all these. with bow windows. Here and I did not see so many places au there, a house more ancient still, | KENDAL—but I saw very much with carved work upon it, and an that pleased me. There was the archway underneath, which leads large broad High Street, which was to somewhere. There are some very well paved, and another houses with long pantiled roofs, almost as large. There was while some seem to have no roof large church with a square tower at all. There are the curious —a town-hall-a free school, and houses where the first floor rooms a workhouse—they have a very project over the shop, far into the clean and orderly workhouse. street; and the second floor pro I saw Kendal Castle on the jects over these; and the third opposite shore of the river Ken. floor projects more still. Then It has circular walls, and three comes the large square private towers,—and, the view of the town house, with steps to the door—it and river from here is very fine. is called the Mansion House,—and I learned, too, that the articles lastly the old fashioned grammar- manufactured at this town are school-as old as the alms-houses, woollen cloths, baizes, and worsted perhaps.
stockings. It was famous in old It is pleasant, also, to stop at the times for a coarse kind of green market-place when it is market cloth, which the Archers used to day, and the country folk come wear. How fine they must have jolting in with their carts.—Some- looked, dressed up in bright green times, too, there is a town hall to coats. I have read in some old song look at, and sometimes a county book about the English Archers jail, if you happen to be in the “arrayed in Kendal green.” capital town.
I spent the whole day in this But, oh, it is pleasanter still to town, and did not return go out to the church, and sit in the APPELBY, the capital, as I had still churchyard. It is a very good intended, for I found that I should place to think pleasant thoughts, have to travel back more than and a place to learn to sing praises. twenty miles.
The Clock there ticks to tell you In the evening I heard an acto begin. Yes! that's a curious count of that town from a gentleplace for the clock-why did men man who had lived there, which stick it up there? Perhaps because you shall have in my next letter the tale it ticks sounds so true from with the notes on Westmoreland, the midst of the dead — for, it as I promised you before. moves round its hands to tell
I am, dear children, children and men that they're
Your faithful friend, moving on to GOD. But the clock's tick is seldom heard, and
Ion. So that, when lines are PERSPECTIVE.
below the level of the eye, they THE HORIZONTAL LINE (Continued). must run up to it. THE VANISHING POINT.
P. Well, that is another rule
say it again. P. Last week, Ion, we made a Ion. When we make a drawing drawing of a square, in which the in perspective, the lines below the middle of the square was on the level of the eye must run up to the same level as your eye.
horizontal line. Now, I will put a square before you, and will place it below your put the square up
P. Now, I will eye. What do you call the line
higher than your which marks the height of the head. See, it is
placed above the Ion. The horizontal line.
horizontal line. P. Well, then,
I am going now here is the hori
to turn it round, zontal line drawn
with the left hand side near to with dots, and the
you-so imagine in your mind the square is below it.
further side. Which side of the
Ion. I have thought of it, papa. square is nearest
P. Which side will be nearer to to the horizontal
the horizontal line? line--the right hand side or the
Ion. Why, the further side will left hand side?
seem to be, as it was in the other Ion. They are both at the same
The space between the distance, because the square is in front of me. But, please, papa, must seem to get smaller, as we
square and the level of the eye turn it round.
said at first. P. I will; here it is, at the side
P. Then, in which direction will the lines run-up, or down?
Ion. Downward, papa. They must, for the space to become smaller. So I can make another rule-may I?
Ion. When we make a drawing in perspective, with lines which are above the level of the eye, they must run down to the horizontal line.
L. And I suppose that if we L. Yes, that is drawn according were to make a number of squares to the rule we made last Saturday; in a long line, as the lines would for now the rignit nand side seems all slant to the horizontal line, the to get nearer to the horizontal distance from the squares to the line-because, as that side is more line would get smaller and smaller distant, the space between it and just as in the long row of squares the level of the eye seems to be- we drew last week. come smaller.
I will make another drawing for ! long wall, which is below the level you. Here is a front view of a ! of the eye.
Ion. Is that the level of the eye, P. Yes, so I was. Here, again, papa, above the wall? Then, when is a side view of it. I was in a you drew it, you must have been house at the end of the wall when looking out of a drawing-room I drew this. I could see round window from some house opposite. | the corner.
You see in this picture, how the across the picture to show the level distance from the lines of the wall of the eye--so that we may know to the horizontal line seems to be which objects are above the eye, and gradually smaller-until the wall which are below it. becomes so small that it seems to This line we call the HORIZONTAL vanish altogether.
LINE. L. That is because, at last, there 2. When we draw objects in perseems to be no distance between its spective below the horizontal line, lines and the horizontal line, for their lines must run up to that line. they all meet in one point.
3. When we draw objects in perP. And that point where the spective above the horizontal line, the distance from the wall to the hori- lines of the object must run down to zontal line is so small that you can that line. hardly see it—that point which is 4. The distant point on the horiso far from the eye that the object zontal line, where the lines of the seems to vanish entirely:-would object meet, is called the VANISHING you like to know what it is called? | POINT. W. Yes, please, papa.
P. I have never seen a line run P. It is called THE VANISHING yet, Lucy. If you make a drawing
and set the lines running, they will W. And that is exactly the very soon be all gone,
will proper name for it.-Now, papa, have only the blank paper again. we have learned enough, so we L. I mean, papa, they slant to will make up another lesson. the horizontal line.
Come, Lucy, and bring the slate. P. Ah, I thought that perhaps Lesson 7. PERSPECTIVE.
you meant that. The word I gene1. When we draw objects in per- rall usc is “incline,”-say they spectives a line should be drawn 'incline in such a direction.