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HISTORY OF ENGLAND. THE ROMAN PERIOD-THE PERIOD OF THE SAXON INVASION-THR PERIOD OF THE SAXON HEPTARCHY-AND THE PERIOD OF THE
SAXON KINGDOM (FROM 55, B.C., TO 1066, A.D.) B.O.
THE ROMAN PERIOD. 55. JULIUS CÆSAR. Opposed by CASSIBELAUNUS.
CLAUDIUS CÆSAR. Opposed by CARACTACUS.
NERO CÆSAR. Opposed by BOADICEA. A.D. VESPASIAN. Subdued the WHOLE NATION. 430. VALENTINIAN THE YOUNGER. The Romans left the island,
The Irruptions of the Picts and Scots.
THE PERIOD OF THE SAXON INVASION. 450. HENGIST AND HORSA came to assist the BRITONS.
FRESH SAXON TRIBES arrived to conquer the Britons. 600. SEVEN Saxon KINGDOMS established by these tribes.
THE PERIOD OF THE SAXON HEPTARCHY.
THE PERIOD OF THE SAXON KINGDOM. 827. EGBERT. The first King of all England.
gles with the DANES. ETHELRED. 871. ALFRED THE GREAT. Conquered the Danes, and caused their
chief to become Christian,
clergy to marry.
away, and murdered. 959. EDGAR. Destroyed the wolves in England and Wales
murdered a nobleman to marry his wife, ELFRIDA.
(The Three Danish Kings.) 1016. CANUTE. A wise and powerful king. He reproved his cour
tiers for their flattery.
(people. EDWARD THE CONFESSOR. Was too partial to the Norman 1066. HAROLD. The son of Earl Godwin, killed in the battle of
pan or boiler?
BOILING WATER NEVER BOIL, when immersed in (Continued).
ANOTHER vessel full of water also ?
Because water can never be What causes the RATTLING NOISE, heated above the boiling point: all so often made by the LID of a sauce the heat absorbed by water after it
boils, is employed in generating The steam (seeking to escape) steam. forces up the lid of the boiler, and How does the conversion of water the weight of the lid carries it back into steam prevent the INNER POT again : this being done frequently, from BOILING ? produces a rattling noise.
Directly the water in the larger If the steam could NOT LIFT UP pot is boiling hot (or 212o), steam THE LID of the boiler, how would it is formed, and carries off some of its escape ?
heat; therefore, 2120 of heat can If the lid fitted so tightly, that never pass through it, to raise the the steam could not raise it up, the inner vessel to boiling heat. boiler would burst into fragments, Why do SUGAR, SALT, &C. REand the consequences might be TARD the process of BOILING ? fatal.
Because they increase the density Why do STEAM-ENGINES some of water; and whatever increases times BURST?
the density of a fluid, retards its Steam is very elastic; and this boiling. elasticity increases in a greater If you want water to boil, without proportion than the heat which COMING IN CONTACT with the SAUCEproduces it; unless, therefore, some PAN, what plan must you adopt ? vent be freely allowed, the steam Immerse the pot (containing the will burst the vessel which con water to be boiled) in a saucepan fined it.
containing strong brine, or sugar. What BECOMES of the STEAM ? Why would the INNER vessel boil, for it soon vanishes.
if the OUTER vessel contained strong After it has been condensed into | BRINE ? mist it is dissolved by the air, and Though water boils at 212° of dispersed abroad as invisible vapour. heat, yet brine will not boil till
And what BECOMES of the INVI raised to 218° or 220°. Therefore, SIBLE VAPOUR ?
212° of heat may easily pass Being lighter than air, it ascends through brine, to raise the vessel to the upper regions of the atmos immersed in it to boiling heat, before phere, where (being again con any of it is carried of by steam. densed) it contributes to form clouds. Why will brine impart to ano
Why does a METAL SPOON (left ther vessel MORE than 212°, ana in a saucepan) RETARD the process water NOT SO MUCH ? of BOILING ?
Because both liquids will impart Because the metal spoon (being heat till they boil ; and then they an excellent conductor) carries of can impart heat no longer. the heat from the water ; and (as Why can they impart no EXTRA heat is carried off by the spoon) heat after they boil? the water takes a longer time to Because all extra heat is spent in boil.
making steam. Hence water will Why will a POT (filled with water) | not boil a vessel of water immersed
in it, because it cannot impart to you how to do it? Take the book it 212° of heat, but brine will ; down in the kitchen, sit by the because it can impart more thun side of the kettle, and prove every 212° of heat, before it is itself answer, whether it is correct or converted into steam.
not. W. These questions are very Now, as we have a few minutes hard questions, papa, and I do not more, I will amuse you. This is understand all the answers yet. our recapitulation week. So we will
P. I did not suppose that you talk a little about the old lessons. would. I would advise you to To-day, I will describe some of take these questions, and read the objects to you; and then, them over very frequently. Learn you may see if you can tell me the answers by heart. Shall I tell their names.
THE TABLE-CLOTH-BREAD BUTTER-SUGAR MILK-EGGSALT
Now, listen-and tell me which L. That is SUGAR. of the above objects I am thinking P. Now think of some substances about.
which are alike, and arrange them I am thinking of an object which into classes. is liquid, fuid, penetrating, solent. Write down the names of six W. That is WATER, papa.
granulous substances ? P. You should not be in such a Tell me twelve nutritious subhurry to speak, Willie—wait until stances? my description is finished. Now Twelve opaque substances ? I must begin it again. This object Ten substances which are liquid is liquid, Auid, penetrating, solvent, and nutritious ? white, opaque, natural, and nutri- Twelve animal substances fit for tious.
food ? L. There, Willie!—it is not Twelve vegetable substances used water-it is MILK.
as food ? P. That is right. Now, I'll think Two mineral substances used of another. It is white, opaque, thin. with our food ? W. That is milk, again!
Six adhesive substances ? P. Do, Willie, keep your tongue Six sticky substances which are in order. Boys should always be not adhesive? slow to speak, as well as men. Ten brittle substances ? Again—it is white-opaque-thin Four crisp substances ? and fibrous !
Twelve transparent substances ? Ion. Then you are thinking of Six semi-transparent substances? THE TABLE-CLOTH.
Six objects which are white and P. Right. Now again; there is natural ? a substance which is opaque, Six stimulating substances ? natural, granulous, brown, and Something which is refreshing. sweet.
but not stimulating ?
FRIDAY. English Geography.
THE TRAVELLER THROUGH
(Shape)-The county of Westmoreland is nearly of the shape of a
vine leaf. MY DEAR CHILDREN, —
(Boundaries)—It is bounded on I am very sorry to tell you that the north by Cumberland; on the Peg slipped in coming along one east by Yorkshire; on the south and of the country roads yesterday, and west by Lancashire. hurt her ankle, and that I have (Soil)—The soil of this county is myself, for the last two days, been
not very fertile, but on the western suffering from an attack of rheu- side contains very large moors, inmatism - Ah! you don't know habited by geese and grouse. Good what rheumatism is! I am still in slate is found here. Kendal, and therefore can only
The county is chiefly noted for its send you the notes on the county beautiful lakes. The principal are of Westmoreland, which I forgot ULLSWATER, about 9 miles long2n my last letter.
and WINDERMERE, the largest in I think I told you that the other England, nearly 15 miles long. evening, I met a gentleman at the They are both surrounded by eninn, who had been to Appleby.
chanting scenery. The latter one He told me that APPLEBY is contains fifteen small islands; and situated on the river Eden, that it near Ullswater is a village called was once a very large town, but | Pooley, where remarkable now is not so important as Kendal. echoes may be heard amongst the rocks. It has suffered in the same way as (Surface)-Many of the old manCarlisle, for, in the wars with the sions and farm-houses in this county, Scots, it was burned twice, and
are built of stone, and are surrounded has never since recovered.
by court-yards, with heavy stone There is nothing remarkable in walls. These were built in the times the town except the square castle, of the “ Border war,” to protect the situated on the high ground near cattle and sheep from the mossthe banks of the Eden.
troopers. I did not hear of anything else (Rivers)—The principal rivers concerning this county-except are the EDEN, on which Appleby is that in some parts very good slate situated, and the Ken, on which is is found such as we use for the Kendal. roofs of houses, and for writing (Capital and Towns)-The capiupon.
tal is APPLEBY, an inconsiderable I therefore looked at the map town with a large square castle. for the shape of Westmoreland, KENDAL is a more important town, and its boundaries; and then made and has a good trade in woollen my notes in the order which your cloths, baizes, druggets, and stockings. papa wished-writing about the
(Name)-Westmoreland is supshape--the boundaries—the soil, posed to have been so called, from the surface-the rivers—the capital the moors situated on the western side. and towns—and the name, according to your own plan-so I hope dear children
you will be
I perceive by your papa's letter, pleased with them.
that this is your week for recapi
tulation—so in the course of this greatest number? Perhaps, one of evening, I will write you a page of you will answer them all. questions, and then I shall know
I am, dear children, whether you have remembered all that I have written to you.
Your affectionate friend, Which of you will answer the
ENGLISH GEOGRAPHY. QUESTIONS ON THE COUNTIES OF NORTHUMBERLAND, CUMBERLAND,
AND WESTMORELAND. 1. I know a mountain, where 11. Why has one of them the black eagles once built their nests. word “mouth” at the end of its What is its name, and in which name? county is it?
12. Did you ever hear of any 2. But which is the highest other English towns with the word mountain in England?
mouth in their names? 3. And which is the largest lake in England ?
13. Tell me of a capital which
is an inconsiderable town? 4. Where is the principal black lead mine?
14. If you were to walk from
Berwick to Newcastle—what re5. I'm trying to remember a town. It has a fine bridge, a ca
markable places would you see on thedral, and a castle where an unfortunate queen
15. You have heard of seven There are walls round this town
castles—tell me their names ? which caused it to be besieged 16. Tell me the names of four twice during the civil war. It is islands belonging to these counon the river Eden. What is its ties? name?
17. How many islands have I 6. I'm thinking of another town. spoken of altogether ?* Peg seemed to know it when we reached it. Like Carlisle, it has a
The Author would anxiously press fine bridge, a castle and fort, and is surrounded by walls. So, also, ducing the children to exercise their
upon parents the importance of inon account of its walls, it has been minds and memories with such a series besieged several times-once by of questions. They should be conKING EDWARD THE FIRST. Even tinually trained, not only in collecting, more salmon is sold here, than at arranging, and storing,-but in reCarlisle. Its principal trade is in collecting ideas. The registering of old pickled salmon. It is an indepen- facts is not so pleasant to children, as dent town. What is its name, the reaching forward to new ones. They and on what river is it?
like “ to hear the news”-but if the 7. Tell me a town noted for discipline of mind gained by the less coals?
pleasant process be lost sight of, it is 8. Another town?
a great pity.
Offer the children any inducement 9. Another?
to repeat or write out the answers, 10. On what river are these | The best inducement is—the advantage three towns ?
they will bring to themselves.