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You are made to think;—but | one, the last one. I wonder what the lower animals, one might that one would do ! sometimes think, if we did not W. Why, it would eat itself, of benow how useful they are to man, that they were made on purpose to Ion. No, it would not like to do eat. When a sheep awakes in the that. No-no-I'll tell you what morning it begins to eat, and it would do;—it would make young continues eating grass and chewing ones and eat them.* the cud all day long-that is all it M. No, Ion, that would not do. seems to live for.
It appears clearly to me that if Now, think again. Not only the they were all fed on the same food, sheep, but all the other Mammals, they would soon be starved. So, eat, and how many of them must we find that the Creator who has there be in this world! Think of the made them, and undertakes to feed Mammals on the mountains, plains, them, gives them different food. deserts, trees, and rivers, – and Some feed on grass and herbs. that every morning when the old W. Some, mamma, on flesh. sun rises with his yellow light, these L. Some on insects. thousands and thousands of Mam- Ion. Some on fruits of trees and mals rise with him.
nuts. wake up to be fed-and, when L. And some (such as the elethe sun goes down in the even- phant, the giraffe, and others) ing, other Mammals come out for eat the young leaves and twigs of their food also. And all these the trees. animals expect to be fed every W. While some animals will eat day. Now, who will find the food all kinds of food. for them?
M. Let us remember these L. GOD will, mamma.
things, then : M. Suppose, then, that God were Ist, Food seems to be one of the o say, “They shall all be fed alike.” principal objects for which they “Grass is a very good food—the live. sheep like itthey shall all eat 2ndly, They have different kinds grass."
of food. W. Oh, the world couldn't grow 3rdly, As they eat such differenough grass, mamma!-unless ent kinds of food, they have to more fields were made; and then procure their foods from different there would not be enough, it places. A monkey, for instance, would soon be all gone.
has to procure its food on the M. Or, if they were all to be trees—while a cow grazes on the fed on insects, just as the mole is. land. Suppose the order of things
Ion. Then of course there would not be enough. I wonder how many flies the lion would eat for • The author begs to apologize for dinner, or whether he would claw some of these unseemly remarks, by them up singly-perhaps he would saying that they, as well as many
others in the book, are the actual esprefer them hashed !
pressions of the children to whom these M. Or, if they were all made to
lessons have been given in school. live on animal food?
He does not, therefore, like to erase L. Then, they would soon eat them, even though they may not be each other up-at least, all except “quite proper."
to be changed suddenly, and the L. The Whale, who eats fishes cow has to get her food upon the in the water, has fins. trees.
W. The Dog, who runs after L. She could not, mamma,
animals on land, has paus. because she has no hands to grasp M. The Mole, who grubs and the branches—she could not hold digs for worms under the earth, on with her hoofs.
has extremities, something like M. Then lei a dog come and shovels, or scoops. seek his food there.
L. And, mamma, the Bat, who W. But he could not climb, flies about for insects above the he has only paws.
earth, has wings. M. Then suppose the Mammals Ion. And the Monkey, who climbs called whales were to take the for the fruits on the trees, has hands. monkey's place.
M. And when you begin by L. They could not get up-they noticing even the difference only have only
fins to move with. in one part, in their limbs - when M. Then suppose a lion were to you see that while the cow and come, he would say, “I can live others have hoofs, others have in the monkey's place!"
He fins, pau's,
“scoops,” wings, and would climb up the cocoa-nut | hands, – then you can say —“I trees, and seize the large cocoa think I see now the reason of these nuts with his claws—but, then, differences." poor fellow, when he put them to
W. Yes-Let me say it, mamma, his mouth, he could not crack pleasethem. He would find that his God has given them different kinds teeth are made long and pointed, of food-therefore he has made a difand very sharp for tearing and ference in their limbs, that they may cutting animals flesh.
procure this food. So he would say to the first M. And there are many more monkey he met up there grinning differences in their other parts, at him, “I say, friend, this won't which we will try and find out do, for I cannot get on. I find the reason for next week. that we are not only different in L. Yes; and I suppose that there our limbs, with which we get our are differences in the teeth with food, but we have different teeth which they eat their food. If we for eating our food. So I'll wish could only find out the reasons for you good day.”
all the differences, how much easier No! let every animal be in its | it would be to make them into proper place, then you will begin classes! to see why there are these strange
M. And it would be very pleadifferences in their parts.
sant, too. It is pleasant to find The Cow, who eats the grass on out the reason for anything, espethe land, has hoofs.
cially of anything made by God.
active fire from beneath had THE NORMAN KINGS.
raised up on the earth. These WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR.
mountains, you may remember, P. Yes. The FEUDAL SYSTEM were soft and yielding when they decreased the power of the people, were being made, but, afterwards, and increased the power of the they became cold and heavy stone, king.
pressing down on the fire that had And William took care to use raised them up. So did William. this power for himself.
But, you remember, sometimes After giving land to the 700 of the fire would not stand it!" his followers-hear how much he Sometimes giving a restless roar, had for his own share! He had it would make efforts to rise one thousand-four hundred and again, and in the great earthtwenty-two estates—besides farms quakes would give the old mounand lands in Middlesex and Shrop- tain many a shake. shire!" From these lands, and And so it was with the heavyother sources, he gained a revenue handed William. He had taken every year so large, that if we away the liberty of the Saxons,
to put down its value in but he could not take away their sovereigns, it would
to love of liberty! The fire was twelve hundred thousand pounds. within, and all through his reign
W. That is more than a million it gave him “many a shake." pounds, papa!
Not only did the people make P. Yes, and then with one the dreadful conspiracy I told you pound you could go to a shop and of—but, again and again, he had purchase nearly ten times as much to march against and conquer the as you can now so think again, different towns before he could his income would now be worth quite establish the feudal system. more than TEN MILLIONS POUNDS The BARONS, too, were restless, A-YEAR! We may therefore be- fiery spirits, and, once or twice, lieve that "there never had been those who were not satisfied with in any age, or nation, any prince, their lands, rose up in arms or any emperor, whose riches and against him-but these William power could be compared to that conquered. of WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR." MALCOLM, King of Scotland,
What would the people say to whom William had once defeated, their conqueror now?
rose again, and attempted to seize Ion. They would say he was part of his kingdom at the north
-but him, too, William conP. And powerful too. They quered. At the same time he would whisper, "great and mighty built Newcastle, for the protection king!"
of the people. You would have thought him a CANUTE, too, a king of Denmighty king—for he must have mark threatened to invade Engbeen a strong and heavy-handed land; and prepared a large Aeet man to keep down those active and of ships, to see if he could not restless barons. Yes—he was like give this conqueror a shake; some tall mountain, which, as I but William, with his money and said in our Geology lesson, the l by other means, caused Canute's
soldiers to rebel-So him also P. Very likely. Although the William conquered.
Pope would try to prevent him. His son, ROBERT, alas! rebelled But he did not care for the Pope against him, and fought to gain not he! Unlike the kings before his father's Dukedom of Normandy. him, the Church had not been able In one battle this foolish son to interfere with his government. almost killed his own father!– He was a very good Catholic, but but at last, him also William con then he was the king of 700 barons! quered.
Of the names of these 700 William had a half-brother barons, and their estates, he made called Odo, the Bishop of Bayeux, a list,—with an account of all the who rebelled against him. Odo lands, except the abbey lands, and had gathered so much riches, that those of the priests, who refused to he thought he would use them in give in any account. This list purchasing the Popedom. He was written in a large vellum book, would go and be Pope! So, once called “The Doomsday Book," which when William happened to be is still preserved in the Exchequer, absent in Normandy, Odo went in two volumes. The first volume secretly to the Isle of Wight, has 382 double pages—and the and fitting out a vessel, he second 450 double pages; and I loaded it with immense treasures, dare say he thought them "pleawhich he intended to take to Italy. sant pages," as he read them over, While, however, he was being and counted up the number of detained by contrary winds, Wil- great and powerful men who liam heard of this, and returned served him! to prevent such great wealth So, no wonder men called him being taken from his dominions. great and mighty king.” They
Just as his brother was stepping had tried to shake him, but his on board ship, William ordered heavy hand had conquered them him to be made prisoner; and it all. All people now obeyed him. is said that the attendants being I have read in some history book afraid to seize such a holy man as a that, to show he was their rightful bishop, William arrested him with lord, he summoned a meeting of his own hands.
the nobles to do him homage for Pope Gregory directly sentames their lands. Think of that great sage to William that he was to let meeting. How many hundreds of him go because he belonged to the these splendid barons, proud and Church-but, William sent back haughty looking characters, folword that he seized him not as a lowed by their trains of kniglits and bishop, but as the Earl of Kent, yeomen, must have met together! and that he meant to keep him. Perhaps it was at Winchester, for So, notwithstanding all the angry I forget where, in some great hall, threats and remonstrances of the where they all stood round their powerful Pope, William did keep Conqueror. And then these darkhim. He sent Odo as a prisoner faced, crop-haired warriors bowed to Normandy; and kept him in down to William, kissed his hand, custody till the end of his reign, and swore fealty to him as their thus-him also William conquered. king.
W. And I suppose he kept all Now, what would you have said those treasures for himself.
if you had been there?
W. I would have said, “GREAT for so much money to make a man AND MIGHTY CONQUEROR!" just poor. But, the gold itself, papa! as the others did.
and the power, would not that Ion. So would I, papa.
make him happy? P. And yet, do you know he P. Oh! dear no!-the gold could was a very poor conqueror, after not satisfy him. It could not all!
bring happiness. Happiness canL. What, papa?
not be made of any mineral that is P. A very poor conqueror. dug out of the earth.
W. But he had ten millions a- The pleasure of having anyyear!
thing is very small—there is more P. And yet if you had known pleasure in getting it; but the him well, you would have said, greatest and the lasting pleasure “ Poor fellow !”
is the pleasure of giving. Do you Hear what I say,
understand that? Poor fellow-poor fellow-poor Ion. Yes, yes, papa! I have often fellow;
for all his riches were outside had that pleasure ; so, in that way, him! There were no riches within the Conqueror might have made him-in the man himself. Indeed
very great pleasure with his gold. he had no riches at all--for he P. Ah, yes. If he had only had not gained happiness, and known that riches cannot be made only those things are riches which of gold, but with gold, then, that make the heart glad.
ambition within him, that hungry lon. Oh!
feeling, would have been stilled. W. But, when he had the ten Yes ; he never learned what I millions a-year-did not that make have told you before, that we get him rich?
real riches from what we give-not P. No-it only made him poor. from what we take. And he spent And I'll show you how.
all his life in taking from others, In his mind was working a selfish poor fellow ! desire to be above all other men, Listen to what happened to him. which is called ambition. When a His spirit of ambition was now man has ambition, his mind feels very strong, and very restless. very hungry; but, as long as he is Yet he could not satisfy it. So, working hard to get riches, and as there were no others to be conpower to satisfy that desire, he quered—it began to conquer him. feels a certain pleasure, called the He was driven all day to seek pleasure of getting.
new pleasure, to quiet that resto W. Something like that we feel less spirit
. He would seek pleawhen we are eating?
sure in hunting the wild animals P. Yes, something like that. in the country, but then, so that But, when he had got all this he might have this pleasure to himgreatness and gold, he could not self, he acted unjustly. He cared have the pleasure of getting," more for the deer than the people any longer; and yet he had that he governed. Before—any poor desire within him still-it was not man might catch the animals in satisfied; and it made him misera- the woods, but now he made a law ble.
that no one should hunt in his W. Ah! then, of course, it forests. It is said that “he loved made him poor. How curious!~ | the wild deer as if he had been