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THE TRAVELLER THROUGH | large new streets—the new docks, ENGLAND.
too!-the famous docks, which are almost the largest in England-to
write you a description of their DEAR CHILDREN,–
splendid warehouses and long I had often heard that Hull was quays, covered with all kinds of a famous place for shipping; and, goods, would require, oh, a very if you look on your map, you will large sheet of paper! As I was soon see why it is so.
standing near the water, I saw a You may see that ships can sail steamer coming in from London, to it from many different parts. A which was called the Wilberforce; ship may come into the HUMBER and there was a smaller steamer from the river Ouse, or from the alongside, which was to start for large river Trent, or from the Der-York at twelve o'clock. went, or from any of the rivers Șo I returned home quickly, flowing into the Ouse; and, as and at exactly a quarter to twelve there are many towns on these Mrs. Peg and I took our places for rivers, the ships bring goods and York on board the boat Èbor. We manufactures from them.
had a delightful trip up the river W. Yes; and if you will come Ouse, for the Ebor was not a very here, and look at the map of the fast boat; so we were able to noworld, I will show you something tice the old ruin at Howden, and that our teacher told us at school. Selby, and many pretty places. A great many ships sail into the
It was getting late in the Humber from other countries- afternoon, when I, who had been from the east of Europe-from walking backwards and forwards Sweden, and Denmark, and Rus- on the deck for a long time, sat sia ; and the ships that come from down to have some talk with mythe cold northern seas, laden with self, and to think of the City of oil which the sailors get from the York. “Fine old city!" I beganwhales there, when they come to “ dear old city! I have read thy England, it is so much easier to ancient name in many a history sail up the Humber and call at book. Old city, where the Romans Hull, instead of going all the way built idol temples, when thou wert to London. But let us hear what called Eboracum ! Old city, where Mr. Young says.
now the finest cathedral in EngL. Yes : listen
land stands! Great city, once the Ships also come from countries capital of the north, how I long to which are at the north and east of see thy old walls and gates!” England, bringing oil, timber, flax, So I took out my guide-book hemp, and other things, because to read. I found that the city, in Hulle is the nearest port. Canals, the time of the Romans, was called also, and now railways, bring goods Eboracum, and that, even in the from all parts to be exported;" present day, the Archbishop of so that Hull is called THE GREAT York signs his name Ebor. EASTERN PORT OF ENGLAND.
W. And the steamer was called I cannot tell you of all I saw Ebor, too! at Hull—the great church, the But, in the Saxon_times, its statue of Wilberforce, and the name was changed. The Saxon
name for the river Ouse was Ure, What's that? and the Saxon word for “ village” STOP HER! was Wic, and, as it was one of the What? And as I shut my book, Ouse villages or towns, it was and jumped on my feet, I saw called “Ure-wic."
before me the ancient city. The If you repeat that name very sun had left us, bụt, standing quickly, it will sound like Yurek ; athwart the dim red sky, I saw and, if you say it quickly several | the two tall western towers, and times, you will find yourself saying the heavy lantern tower of the caYORK—the word which people say thedral, or “minster,” the castle,
and below, part of the walls and York, like Carlisle and West- the bridge over the Ouse. moreland, has been the scene of I slept that night at the house many a battle. York was the of an aunt of mine who lives here, stronghold of the Saxon nobles and the next day we took a walk who resisted William the Conqueror. to see the city. I saw the castle, Your papa has, I believe, told you which is now a new building—the in his history lessons, how this city barracks—and the soldiers exerand all the country round about, cising. I walked round part of was destroyed by William. the old walls, for a very great part
I have told you in one of my of them is still standing, saw the letters, of Edward I. who tried to four ancient bars or gateways—and conquer the Scots. During seven was shown the places where, a long years he fixed his head-quarters time ago, our barbarous ancestors here. Both Edward II. and used to expose the heads of their Edward III., when they marched prisoners, and of criminals who against the Scots, also made this had been executed. city their head-quarters. Queen If you have ever been to LonPhilippa, Edward's wife, when, as don, you may have seen a bar you have heard, she conquered something like these called Temple the Scotch king David, at Neville's Bar. One of the bars in York was Cross, received him as prisoner in called Micklegate Bur-another, a York Castle.
very old “picturesque" place, was But in the time of the civil war called Walmgate. There were some between Charles I. and his Par remains of an old abbey, called St. liament, there were many dreadful Mary's Abbey, which were also scenes in this city. At one time picturesque—but, oh, the most the suburbs (that means the houses picturesque, the grand sight was built around the city) were all the Minster! You shall hear about burned by the army of the Parlia- it in my next letter. ment. Great batteries were built
Your faithful friend, for destroying the walls and gates,
HENRY YOUNG. bat the place was kept by the king W. Papa. What does he mean until after the battle of Marston by “picturesque?” Moor (the place which my York P.' It mcans really—“ fit for a shire friend at Hull spoke of). picture ;" old buildings, trees, and Then the royalists were defeated, many natural objects are pictuand obliged to flee.
resque. You shall understand that EASE HER!
word better another day.
THE PLATE AND BREAK
are this one, Staffordshire, and this FAST-CUP
one below it, Worcestershire. I
you travel to the north of the first (Concluded).
county until you reach this town, M. What nations were famous Newcastle-under-Lyne, you will for “ pottery ?”
then be at the beginning, of a Ion. I remember them, mamma. district ten miles long, called “the The Egyptians, Greeks, Rom— no, Staffordshire potteries.” This disEtruscuns, Romans, Peruvians and trict is divided into many villages Mexicans, and the Chinese. or towns, such as Bruslem, Etruria,
W. And I suppose that the and others—but really the rows of English come next.
houses are so near to each other M. Yes-to-day we will talk of that the towns seem to be all the English pottery; but you must joined together, and they form one understand that earthenware plates long street. and cups have only lately been You would soon distinguish the generally used in England. In manufactories from the dwellingthe olden time wooden plates (some houses by “the largo, lofty, darkof them curiously carved) and coloured buildings, of a shape bowls, and spoons, were used; something like a sugar-loaf or a pewter plates also were much used; bee-hive.” These buildings coneven last month I saw in the kit- tain the kilns where the earthenchen of a farm, a bright row of ware is baked—they are called pewter plates.
hovels. Ion. Well, they would not break, You would next notice, perhaps, that is one good thing.
the Grand Trunk Canal, opened M. And as for cups-our ances- about seventy years ago, for the tors' cups and jugs were made of purpose of conveying the goods to horn and leather. I have seen the two northern ports-Hull and many an old drinking-horn, and a Liverpool, but this was before the black-jack made of leather for time of the railways. And again, holding the beer.
you may observe on the banks of W. And now we are going back the canal, and around the buildto the old times again, for I bave ings, Ist, Heaps of flints, which seen jugs, bowls, and cups made have been brought in barges from of gutta percha.
Gravesend, &c. ; 2ndly, Clays and Ion. Yes ; papa says that every- stones from Dorsetshire, Devonthing is to be made of gutta percha shire, and Cornwall; 3rdly, Coarser
He bought baby a gutta clay from another part of Staffordpercha bib yesterday, and a gutta shire, to make baking cases for percha apron for mamma.
the earthenware ; 4thly, PlasterW. They can't make guttaa of-Paris to make moulds for the percha meat — that would be a different shapes; and 5thly, Heaps failure.
of coals for the baking fires. M. Come, let us proceed with Now, let us see what is done the lesson “English earthen- with these things. The flints are ware."
taken to a kiln and burned until Here is the map of England, they are quite white; they then the two counties we shall notice | break more easily, and are tak
to a flint mill, where they are the plate. After fixing it on to the broken into a coarse powder by edge and middle of the plate, she a machine with heavy hammers, takes a round-headed rubber and called stampers.
The powdered rubs it violently; then, as the flint is then mixed with water, and “biscuit ware” is absorbent, the with some of the Dorsetshire clay. rubbing makes it absorb the wet It is next ground in a number of ink from the paper. mills, each of which grinds it finer The plate is then passed over to than it was before, and strains it a younger girl, who dips it in cold through a fine silk sieve. After water, rubs off the paper, and finds time the powdered flint and clay that the pattern on the paper has become so fine, that, with the been transferred to the plate's water, they form a thick smooth surface. paste like cream, which is called After being sent to a kiln, for slip.
the oil to be dried out of the ink, This slip. is heated until the the plate is then glazed with a water evaporates, so that it be preparation of salt, and is ready comes stiff again like dough. It for use. is then passed on to the throwing- Ion. Ah, mamma, it would not room, where men shape it into be so useful without the glaplates, cups, dishes, &c., upon a zing. wheel called the “throwing wheel.” M. No, the plates could not be You could not, by any description, washed so well. The use of salt well understand how quickly and was discovered accidentally: A well these men work; you must see servant in the pottery neighbourthem do it.
hood, who was boiling in an These articles, when made, are in earthen pot some very strong a soft state; they are then called brine for salting pork, happened green ware."
to leave it on the fire for a few The green ware is placed in minutes. When she returned, she cases of the shape of a drum, and found that great part of it had carried to “the biscuit kiln," where boiled over the vessel, and covered it is baked until it is very dry and it with a hard shining substance, crisp. It is then called “biscuit which, when it was cold, she could ware."
not rub off; and a potter to whom The biscuit ware must next be it was shown immediately saw its coloured. Look, Willie, at your great use. blue plate. Plates could not be At one time, only brown and bought so cheap if each one had coarse red earthenware was made to be painted. See how much at Staffordshire.
The improvework there is on the surface. ments which have been made are
W. How is it done, mamma? owing to the discovery of the use
M. It is taken to a woman who of flints, which was also accidental, knows how to do it. In the next and to the great skill of a gentleroom to hers is a man printing man named Wedgewood. patterns for blue plates on thin The finer kinds of earthenware paper, from a copperplate press. are called porcelain, or China, much Directly he has printed a pattern of which is made at Worcester. she takes it from him, and turns it We will have a lesson on “China" over with the printed surface on some other day.
‘THE CRUST OF THE EARTH. / plants, and plants such as Mam
mals and Man require for food. BKETCH OF GEOLOGY (Concluded).
In the basins of the earth, which P. We will now talk of the vege- I spoke of, there were now many tables and animals that lived dur- large lakes, surrounded by thick ing the rest of the sixth day. foliage.
From the time when the second- Notwithstanding the ice, the ary rocks were made, to the be- world was still too warm a place ginning of the tertiary rocks, a for boys to live in; but if, Willie, very long period seems to have you could have been there, and elapsed-great ages of time-how have just peeped through the many thousands of years I cannot foliage, you might have seen one tell.
of the new Mammals ! During these years, the trouble- W. What was he like, papa? some times” when the reptiles P. Get your natural history book, reigned had changed; the fire, as and look for the picture of the I said, was less restless; the earth tapir. was more cool and still.
You see that it is something
like And now, quite a new order of the hog, with a long snout. It is things began; all the old reptiles even longer, like that of the eleseem to have died. Indeed, hardly phant. Like the hog and the eleone species of animal living on the phant, it belonged to the order of land, or in the water, was left to thick-skinned animals,” or, as we when the new animais came. say, the Pachyderms. It lived in a
Here they come-GREAT MAM- | harmless, quiet way, by the margin MALS! But let us look at the of the lakes, feeding, like a proper world they were coming to. Oh! thick-skinned animal, on herbage, how different!
and sometimes going into the water And how different the climate ! to wash itself. The greater part of the land had It would take too much time to risen above the deep sea, and was describe to you a hundredth part rising still. Now, in the middle of of the new animals. In the period the world, when land rises, the when the gypsum (or plaster-ofclimate becomes hotter; but in the Paris) was being formed, the earth northern and southern parts, the was becoming a busy place. In “ effect” is exactly contrary-it the gypsum
the Paris basin, becomes colder.
men have found the bones of many It is very likely that about the pachyderms, and even flesh-eating middle of this sixth day, the north animals, like the wolf and the fox; of Europe was covered with fields | —birds, like the owl, woodcock, of ice, just as part of North Ame- and pelican ;-new reptiles, and rica is now.
new fishes. As the climate changed, so, of In the period after that of the course, the vegetables and animals gypsum formation, there were still changed too. Instead of the long more pachyderms—some most gigrasses and ferns, there were trees, gantic animals, resembling the such as we see on the earth in the tapir, rhinoceros, horse, and hog. present day; trees with flowers There were also, a kind of cat, and fruits ; beautiful flowering nearly as large as the lion, and