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took my note-book from my called CALEDONIA ; Ireland, pocket, and wrote down these HIBERNIA ; and Wales, CAM-notes:BRIA. I found, too, that after
66 ENGLAND. the time of the Romans, Bri- “1st. England is the Southern tannia was seized by some part of a large Island. It is people from Germany, called separated from Scotland by the Baxons, and ANGLES. The River Tweed. Angles called Britannia Angle- “ 2nd. It was formerly called land, and we now call it Eng- BRITANNIA, by the Romans, but
its name was changed to ANGLE“I looked once more at my LAND, by the Angles-a tribe of map, and saw that England is Germans. bounded on the North by Scot- “3rd. England is bounded on land ; on the South, by_the i the North by Scotland, on the English Channel ; on the East, i South by the English Channel, on by the North Sea, and on the the East by the North Sea, and West, by the Irish Sea. The on the West by the Irish Sea. map also had many different “ 4th. It is divided into 40. divisions marked on it. There counties. These divisions were were 40. divisions in England, made by a Soxon King, called and 12 in Wales, making 52 ALFRED THE GREAT. altogether. In my History book, I “When I had made these notes, learned that these divisions were I mounted my horse again. She marked out, nearly a thousand had been cropping the grass years ago, by a good Saxon King, all this time,
not troubling her called ALFRED THE GREAT. He head in the least about Scot appointed governors to these land, or England either. So I. divisions, who were called " Al- said to her, “Well, my good dermen,' or Counts,'-so, their friend, while I have been work. divisions were called “Counties.' ing, you have been eatingI found, also, a Saxon word please, now, to carry me to a *Sciran,' which means 'to divide,' place where I can find some. and from this word sciran, the thing to eat. I want my din. people called
the Counties ner!' In my next letter, I will shíres,' which means 'divisions.' tell you where he carried me to. I saw on the map, some counties Good bye! Dear children, called shires ;-such as · York- “ Your faithful friend, shire—Derby-shire,' and others.
“ HENRY YOUNG.' You will now easily remember W. Papa, those "notes” of his that these different parts are are just as good as lessons. So, we sometimes called Counties,' be- will learn them, and we will call cause they were governed by them “ Notes on English GeoCounts, and sometimes Shires, graphy," or, 6 The Traveller's because they were Divisions. notes," or, some new name.
No. 2. LINES. (Continued.) W. The shade and thickness
P. Do you remember the last of lines do not alter the shape of Drawing lesson ?
a thing; because an object will Ion. I do, papa. “Whenever keep the same shape when you we make a line, we are to see if are drawing it, no matter how it is correct in length, breadth, , thick the lines are. shade, direction, and position.” Ion. I know why we must
P. Why are we to make our attend to the shade of lines. lines of the right length ? See, here is a curious picture
L. Because, if you do not, the which I drew last night, with thing you draw will have the lines of the wrong thickness. wrong shape.
Ion. And you may spoil the shape of a thing by putting the lines in a wrong position. Sup pose you were drawing a house;
- you might put the lines of the bedroom, parlour-window, and door, close together.
W. Yes, the lines of the sun L. Then, they would certainly are too dark and thick. be in the wrong position.
I. Why should they not be Ion. And yet, you know, each dark ? line might be right in its direc- W. Because, nearly always, tion and length. But, you may things that are far off are not spoil a drawing only by putting seen so clearly as things that the lines a little in the wrong are near, and should be drawn position.
with lighter lines. I will tell L. The house in the drawing you how the picture looks. It No. 5 was spoiled by the lines seems as if the man who drew it being in the wrong direction. was close to the sun; and the
They were “slanting," instead post and things that would be of straight.
were a long way off P. Now, tell me-how many from him—in the distance. points must you attend to, so Ion. Then, near objects should that the object you draw may be be drawn with dark lines, and of the right shape ?
distant objects with light lines. Ion. Three points. I can This is the rule I have made make a rule about it. 66 When about it "The distance or nearwe draw an object, its shape will ness of an object we may draw depend on the length, direction, depends on the shade and thickand position of the lines. ness of the lines.
L. I wonder why we must L. You might have made the attend to the other two points- i rule shorter. the shade of lines, and their Ion. Instead of saying, “the thickness.
distance or nearness" of an 40
object, you might have said, “the room which must be drawn with position;" because you meant lines in these three directions. distant position and near posi Ion. This envelope-box. tion. I will now say the two The side lines are perpenrules in a shorter way : When dicular--the lid is oblique drawing an object, its SHAPE
--and the lines at the botwill depend on the length, direc- tom of the box, and the bottom tion, and position of the lines ; of the lid, where it separates and its POSITION will depend on
from the box, are horizonthe thickness and shade of the line.
tal. P. That is better, Lucy. We W. You said just now, Ion, will now proceed with the next that the lid was oblique. lesson on straight lines. Let Ion. But I meant only the top us talk, to-day, about their direc- of the lid. tion. What do you say of the L. My copy-book has all three direction of this line ?
lines. 'l'he lines we write in are W. It is upright.
horizontal : the writing is P. Here is a better word for oblique ; and the sides of the you. Instead of saying up: book are perpendicular. right," perpendicular."
W. The letter A has oblique What do you say of this one? lines, and horizontal. W. I say it is lying down-it
P. Find out all the letters in is flat-straigḥt-level.
the alphabet which you can P. Ah, you say too much at a make with oblique and horizontime.
tal lines. Ion. I say it is a flat line. I W. Here they are, papa. mean by that, it has the same There are only the first and the direction as ground that is quite last, A and z. level, when water will not flow P. Now find out all you can on it in one direction morė than make with oblique and perpenanother.
dicular lines. P. A flat line would be a very L. I have found them, KMNY. good name for it—but the proper P. Now show me all that are horizontal.”
made with horizontal and perNow make a line in another | pendicular lines. direction.
W. Here are five, EFHLT L. Here is one It is a and here are some all oblique slanting line.
lines,-V W and X. Ion. Yes, but that is a girl's Ion. And here is one all in a name for it. Let us have its | perpendicular state,-). grown-up" name, please.
L. The others belong to a dif°P. Then call it "oblique.” ferent company. They have
W. So lines have three di- curved lines in them. See !-B rections — the PERPENDICULAR, CDGJOPQRSU. HORIZONTAL, AND OBLIQUE.
P. We will now talk about P. Find me something in this ! TWO STRAIGHT LINES.
name is “
observe in the direc- P. You are to say that they tion of these lines
W. I will make the rule about W. They have exactly the them—Two straight lines runsame direction.
ning in exactly the same direction P. That is right; and if I
can never meet, and are called wanted to make them meet each
PARALLEL LINES. other, I should draw them out to
Ion. That will not do. I do a great length.
not believe in that. Willie says L. Then you would not do it,
that lines which have exactly papa. If you were to keep on
the same direction cannot meet, making them longer for an hour, and must be parallel. Now, and to draw them out at both look at these two lines ends, they would not meet.
Ion. But if you altered the They have exactly the same direction of one of them only a direction. very little, they would meet. W. Yes.
L. Oh, but they must be Ion. Yet, if you make them a exactly in the same direction, and little longer, they will soon meet. bestraight from beginning to end. So, they are not parallel.
W. Then they have no chance P. Willie was very near the of meeting at all! For, of course, truth. But we will leave off if they keep in the same direc- now. Suppose that you all try tion, they must always keep at and find out before next Saturthe same distance
from each other, day, how to tell me exactly what like the rails on a railroad. is meant by parallel lines. GoodWhat are we to say of the lines, i bye!-here is the omnibus waitpapa, when they are placed so ? | ing.
My Home, my own dear home, The bird seeks not to wander
From its own quiet nest,
The dearest and the best. Where parents' arms enfold me Home is my nest, where round me In fond embraces pressed,
Soft sheltering wings are spread, And daily, nightly blessings
And peace and joy and gladness, Upon the household rest.
With shade and sunlight, shed. Our morning salutations,
O may I bring no shadow
Of sorrow or of care,
J. E. L
TRUTH.—THE ERRAND-BOY. M. This is called the New Road. Conductor.-CITY! BANK !
H. Mamma, we have come up the H. Mamma! what does the man hill, and here is a place with four on that step say that to me for? omnibuses. My name is not City-bank-it is M. This is THE ANGEL, and the HENRY!
inn where we are stopping is called M. It is to ask us if we will go in • THE BLUECOAT Boy.” his omnibus. I will stop him, and H. (In a whisper.) Here comes a we will go in.
little girl, and her papa, and two H. Mamma! why did the man ladies. What large spectacles that, say “ Hold hard !" when we went in? M. Hush! It is rude to make Let me kneel up on the cushion, remarks on any person. then I will hold hard to the window Conductor. FINSBURY-SQUARE ! and look out. Oh! the houses all OFF SIDE! seem moving! There is a red cart P. I then left the omnibus, and with gold letters. Is that the Lord bid good bye to little Henry. When Mayor's?
I had paid my 6d., I saw that the M. No, it is a baker's cart. boy with the box was getting down
H. Mamma! here is a boy on from the outside-and, after much the pavement shaking his hand to trouble, the box was lifted from the the conductor.
roof. Conductor. HOLD HARD!
“Three-pence more," said the conH. There, mamma, he is saying it ductor. again! Must all people hold hard Boy. What for? when they want to ride in an Conductor. Box. omnibus?
Boy. I asked you how much, and M No; the man does not say you said 6d. “hold hard” to the people, but to Conductor. But you didn't say the driver. He wants him to pull that you had a box; you ought to the reins very hard, and stop his have told me. horses.
Boy. And you didn't say, when Boy. How much to the Bank? you saw the box, that I must pay Conductor. 6d.
any more. You ought to have told 8. The boy has gone back to the me. linendraper's for a' box. Is that Conductor. Well, you can't have coming in here?
your box without paying 3d. The M. No; they will put that on the rule is, “Fare 6d. without lugroof; what a long time they are gage.” getting it up,-it must be very heavy. So the box was put on the roof
H. Here we go again! I can see again, and the omnibus went on. the horses' backs out of this little The boy ran by the side of the window. Here is a long road! It is wheels, until he found a policeman. " up-bill."
Then I saw them standing on the