« AnteriorContinuar »
of the lowest division of animals. , is the mouth in the centre, and They therefore connect the ani- five great limbs branching out mals with the plants. There are from it. What a tough skin it others in this division, each one has—like leather ! becoming more and more like a M. And do you remember plant, until yoù arrive at one when we opened a star-fish ? animal which resembles a vege- We found something inside which table so much, that for a long looked like a framework to it. It time men thought it was one. was made of a stony kind of subEven now, some people do not stance. So you see that some oi know exactly what to call it. this division are not quite withYou have the house in which out skeletons, like the hydra and some of these animals lived, in sponge. Now let us make a your bed-room, Willie. I saw | lesson about these animals. you washing yourself with it.
LESSON No. 4. It is full of holes, made by these The 4th Division are the lowest animals, and sucks up the water. kind of animals, and seem to
W. Oh, the Sponge, mamma! connect the animal and vegetablu
L. I always thought it was a kingdom together, for, vegetable. How beautiful, that ist. Their limbs all grow from God should make a living thing one centre, like branches from the which should be like an animal, trunk of a tree. and a vegetable too! It does 2nd. They seem to have no seem to join the two kingdoms skeleton, or regular shape, altogether.
though the star-fish and some M. I want you to notice some others have a tough leathery skin, thing else in this hydra which like the bark of a tree. makes it like a vegetable. Do 3rd. They may be increased in you observe how its limbs grow? number, by dividing them into
Ion. Yes; they all grow from many pieces. one part of its body—just as the
W. Just as I increased my curbranch of a tree grows from its rant-bushes, by cutting "slips." trunk.
4th. They also increase in M. Hereis an animal belong- number by growing from each ing to this division, which you
other. know very well.
W. Just as Lucy's rose-bushes have suckers growing from the same root.
5th. They seem to have no power of seeing, hearing, smelling, nor feeling, but altogether live and grow very much in the same way
as plants. L. Yes; this is a star-fish. It Oth. These animals are called grows in the same way. Here | BRANCHED ANIMALS.
THE ROMANS-CARACTACUS. P. That is true, Willie ; but you
W. We are waiting for our History must not say they murdered them. Lesson, Papa. Was it really a glory People call this “murder"—where for Cæsar to kill those poor Britons ? one man goes up to another, and kills
Ion. And to come over on purpose him ; but when one nation of men to rob them, and to burn their vil- march to another to kill them, that is lages ?
called “War." P. Well, Willie, I do not think so, L. And the men are not called out there are hundreds of people even“ murderers,"—they are called “warnow who call such actions “glory.” riors."
W. But if a boy in our school knew Ion. How curious, that the men more about fighting than any of the should be called by a different name, others, and then would always be because they all happen to be together "knocking them about,” because they -by the side of each other—when had not learned how to fight, we they are killing! Suppose a man was should call him a coward.
sixty yards away from the others, Ion. And if he fought the others and was to kill one of his enemies, on purpose to take away all they had? would he be a warrior or a murderer?
W. Then we should call him a W. That would depend upon sneak”—not a conqueror.
which name he liked best. You may Ion. Or, papa ; you know that we call the action what you please ; but have, each of us, a piece of garden. I think that the thing which is done Now, if Willie, because he is the I mean the killing—is just the same. strongest, were to kill Lucy and me There are not two killings—and there on purpose to take our gardens away is no difference in the thing itself from us
because it is done by several people. W. Oh ! how can you talk so, Ion ! Ion. So I think ! To kill a man Ion. But, I only say if you should means “to make him die ;' and
unless there is any other killing, it is W. Well, I should be hanged-of the same, whether it is done by a man
or a nation. Ion. Then, why do not the Govern P. Well, Ion, that is quite true. ment hang those armies who go to It is just what any boy's common kill other nations on purpose to take sense will teach him. Christian peoaway their land?
ple are now beginning to believe that W. Why, you forget. The Govern- it is wrong to make wars, or to call ment send these soldiers—so the them “glory.” people of the government would have L. Are they only beginning to beto punish themselves.
lieve, papa? How strange ! L. I think that. nations kill each P. But there are some who say other, because they are Heathens. that, as there are always wicked Only such nations as the Romans, people in the world who will rob and who have not learned about God, steal, if you let them, we ought to would do such things.
have soldiers to defend us. W. But the English are not Hea W. But, papa, could not you thens. They are Christians, and teach these people better? Couldn't have murdered natives in America, you prevent them from fighting or Africa, Australia, and India, on pur- stealing, by being kind to them pose to get their lands.
P. There are many people now,
as we can.
Willie, who think that we could. You Rome. When Caractacus arrived know there has been only one Teacher there, he was placed, with some other in the world, whose words we can be chiefs, from different parts of the sure are quite true.
world, who were going to be made L. Yes, that is Jesus Christ. slaves. Iron chains were then fast
P. Jesus Christ, then, wrote a law ened on his body ; an iron collar was to show us how to live without fight- placed round his neck, and he was led ing. It is written,“ Whatsoever ye through the wide streets of the city, would that men should do unto you, do to be shown to the people. ye even so unto them." But that is a Ion. How did Caractacus feel when very hard law to keep. There is no they stared at him ? doubt at all, that men would leave P. He did not seem to notice them, off fighting, if they all knew the law, for his mind was full of astonishment and had hearts good enough to keep it. at the wonderful city of Rome. Oh!
Ion. Then, of course, we ought to thought he, what grand marble teach that law to one another as fast temples! What immense houses !
Here is a broad market-place! What L. And so ought all English peo- tall aqueducts! What a wonderful ple, because it is Christ's law, and the city! Then, he thought of his own English are Christians.
poor home, and his poor wife and P. This is one of Jesus Christ's children,—and he wondered more to great laws, and no one can teach it himself why the Romans should want until he has learned it. God will teach take his little house away from all of you, if you ask him.
him, and to make his countrymen Ion. Then, I am sure, I will ask miserable, when they seemed so happy him. I believe it is wicked to fight, themselves. Then he thought again, unless you are obliged; perhaps it is “ I'll ask them why they do so.” wicked then. At all events, I think So, when he came and stood in the there ought not to be any soldiers presence of the great Emperor, his made on purpose. I will never be a heart was full of grief-and, without soldier !
feeling any fear or shame, he looked w. I do not think that Cæsar was in his face and said to him, “Oh ! 60 wicked. He had not learned that Emperor Claudius, how is it, that you, aw-because he lived before the time who have such a magnificence at of Jesus Christ. Did he gain any- home, can envy me my poor little thing by fighting !
cottage in Britain ?” P. Cæsar did not gain much else W. Yes, why couldn't they let him besides “glory :" for, after he was alone, poor fellow ! Did the Emperor dead, the Britons rebelled once more. punish him for being impudent ? The Romans did not try to conquer
No: when he saw that Caractacus them again, until about 100 years was in earnest, he felt that his reafterwards. The Emperor CLAUDIUS proach was not impudence, but truth. CÆSAR then sent a great general I have told you before that everybody with an army. He conquered some must give way to truth, and so did of the British tribes, and made them the Emperor. He ordered the chains pay tribute-money, and after much and the iron collar to be taken off fighting, and killing, he took their from Caractacus ; then, he gave him leader, CARACTACUS, prisoner, and some money, and sent him back to sent him to the Emperor Claudius, at his own dear home.
Ion. Please, mamma, will you let us it has hundreds of particles. Such a have an easier Object Lesson to-day? little piece is called a grain. I have been trying very hard to re- So you must not say
of member the old ones; I have written it is solid, or liquid ; but that it is down the qualities of de Bread and “ "granulous." the Butter on a long piece of paper, W. That will make three quali and my head is so full of hard words ties. Sugar is sweet, brown, and gra-opaque, absorbent, edible, nutritious, nulous. I know something else that that I am afraid of forgetting what is granulous. Sand and so is salt. they mean.
—and sago. M. Well, we will have a very easy Ion. But there is a difference belesson. Here is some sugar in a tween sand and sugar. If you put basin for you.
sugar in the water, it will melt, and
sand will not. SUGAR.
M. It is not exactly right to say Ada. It is sweet.
that it will melt. We say that a thing W. And it is brown.
is melted if its particles are separated Ion. It is solid.
by heat-or, rather, caloric. W. How can that be? See me put W. Yes, when you put lead in the my finger in it.
fire it melts—that means, its particles Ion. Well,—but see again ; here is leave go from each other, and flow one very little grain.
about. W. Yes,-it is very little. I hardly L. And that is what is done to the think that I do see it.
sugar;-when you put it in tea-even Ion. Yes, you do,
,—or you wouldn't in cold tea,-.the water gets in besay that it is little.—That is solid, is tween the particles of every grain. it not?
Ion. And then it makes them W. Yes.
“ leave go” from each other. Ion. Then so are all the other par- M. Say separate—“ leave go” is ticles, of course ;-and, if you say such a babyish word. that all its particles are solid, you Ion. Well, the tea makes the parmust say that the Sugar is solid. ticles of the grain separate from each W. Why?
other. Then, they set out on an exIon. Because all the particles of cursion between the particles of the the sugar means the same as all the water-flow about in it, I should say. sugar ;-and, if all the sugar is solid, W. Or, mix with it. then sugar is solid. Don't you under- Ion. Yes, and so they give the tea stand that ?
a sweet taste. W. Oh yes.
And yet you see L. But, really, the tea has not a that is not solid,—for, look, the par- sweet taste-only the particles of ticles make way for my finger. sugar, flowing about in the tea, taste
M. The truth is, that you are sweet. making a mistake in calling each little Ion. I know that ; because, once, grain a particle. We do not call a when mamma gave me some tea, I piece of anything “a particle,” until did not know that I was to stir it, it is so small that we can hardly see and the tea tasted bitter for a long it. If you take one of the smallest time. The truth was, that the parpieces of the sugar, and put it in a ticles of the sugar, because they had magnifying glass, you will find that I not been “stirred up,” were afraid to come to the top, and remained swim- grains came from the West. You ming about at the bottom.
shall hear what they say:W. But when you drank to the “ Please to bring the map, and look bottom of your cup
between North and South America; Ion. Then the tea tasted very sweet. then you will see a number of islands
L. What are we to say is done to called the WEST INDIES. In one of the sugar, mamma, when its particles these islands, called JAMAICA, we are separated by the water—if it is were born. This island is a very hot not melted ?
place, and so are all the countries in M. We say that it is dissolved. This the part which we call the "middle" word “dissolved,” is made from a of the world. But the plants there Latin word, " solvere,” to loosen. never care for the heat,—they grow
W. Then, dissolved just means all the better for it. You should see that the particles are let loose ? the mighty trees,—the bamboo canes,
M. Yes, and substances which may the banyan, and the palm trees ! be dissolved by water or any other They look very fine and large, but liquid, are called “soluble.”
nothing could have looked so fine as W. Then we have found four qua- our canes, in which we were born. lities. The sugar is sweet, brown, “Oh! take us back to the West granulous, and soluble. Please, mam- Indies, and then we will show you a ma, will you let us hear its history sight! You should have lived in a now? Will you tell us where it comes house near our plantation, when we from?
were growing. There were thousands Ion. Mamma, I should like, for a of canes, and inside some of these change, if you would let the sugar canes we lived in the form of juice.” give its own history, just as the But- Papa. Yes, and you ought to know terfly did. Grains of sugar can talk, that there is sugar in nearly all plants. I daresay, as much as Butterflies. You may make sugar out of a cab
D. Yes ; when mamma helps bage-stalk. them.
W. And I have read in a book M. Very well, I will put some about the French people making sugar in this spoon. Now, listen to sugar from beet-root. them :
P. It is the sugar in plants which “We poor grains of sugar have nourishes you. There is sugar in been very much ill-used, and squeezed, hay, and grass. and beaten, and boiled, and otherwise L. Yes. We often say that the abused:-and, we know, from what hay smells sweet ; I suppose that is you said just now, that, because our why the cows like it. But, what is taste is good, you are going to drown a sugar-cane, papa? us in your tea, and swallow us up P. It is a plant which grows up for food.”
with a long stalk, and without any L. Oh! poor things—they have pith in it. It has knots on it, just just learned that they are soluble. But, like a reed or a straw. mamma, they are talking in rhyme ; Ion. I have a little cane up-stairs; is that the way they talk in the I will run and fetch it. See! there is countries sugar comes from? Please no pith in it, but it has a number of let them talk properly.
little holes. M. That is the language of the P. And there are many other East. People are rather musical in plants in the West Indies, which those parts ;--but, I forgot, the sugar-| grow in a different way from that of