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But, one morning before break- | to pay so much, if he had known fast, there came a strange man with a that a railway was coming to disturb brass thing, something like a tele- him? scope, which stood on three legs. He P. No. And Mr. Ganeall thought put it down just between our house he had made another good bargain. and Mr. Ganeall's, and peeped | The whole truth, however, came out through it, whilst another man stood soon afterwards; and then, of course, a long way off, and held up a tall, the gentleman wanted to pay less straight staff, for him to look at. rent. But Mr. Ganeall said, “No, The staff had numbers printed on it, he would not take less." which he counted. So I asked the L. What did the gentleman do? man what they were both doing, and P. He began what is called a he said they were making "trial “ lawsuit,”—that means, they both levels," and that in about four or five went to a Judge, that he might say years' time there would be a branch who was right. rail-road, running just between Mr. L. What did the Judge say? Ganeall's park and our garden. P. The Judge said, “ That if Mr.
You should have seen how angry Ganeall did not know before the lease Mr. Ganeall was when he heard was made, that the railroad was to be about it. He said that he didn't like there, it was not his fault, and he noises, and he would not have a ought not to have less rent; but, that noisy railway close to his house, if he did know, he ought to have said when he wanted to be quiet ; and at so, and ought to say so now. last, he said that he would let the L. I suppose he confessed then house to some one else, and go away. that he did know? About a week afterwards, when we P. No. He said he was not obliged were all quite sure that the railroad to say anything. But at last, one of would be made, we saw an adver- the servants who had lived with him tisement in the Times
came forward, and told the Judge
about the man who had made the TO OF
an eligible FAMILY MANSION, "trial-levels,” and spoke the whole situate in Lower Clapton, containing truth. 24 Rooms, with Coach-house, Stables,
W. And what was done then? Out-houses, Green-houses, and good supply of spring water. The House has
P. Then Mr. Ganeall had to renine acres of meadow-land attached, with ceive less rent; and he found that Orchard, Shrubbery, Kitchen-garden, &c.; in trying to gain too much for his and commands an extensive view of the River Lea. For terms, and cards to
house he had not gained anything, view, apply to X. Y. Z., opposite the but had lost much money. He had Orphan Asylum, Clapton.
to pay his own lawyer's bill, which W. Ah! he never put a word in was £200 68. 8d. ; and the bill of the advertisement about the railway. the gentleman's lawyer, which was He was keeping back a part of the £319 78. 3d. truth again.
L. Let me make a lesson about Lucy. What is a "lease," papa? him, papa !- It is wrong to speak less
P. The lease was an agreement than the truth, for that is what is it? that the gentleman who took the P. PREVARICATION. house should live in it for 21 years W. Mr. Ganeall paid very dear he had to pay 180 guineas a year for that lesson. He gave up the Truth,
£319 7s. 3d. and £200 68. 8d. That L. But he would not have agreed I was not a good“ bargain” at all.
THE FOUR SUB-KINGDOMS. M. From another Latin word,
W. Mamma, you did not, last“ Vertebra ;" that is the name given Tuesday, tell us the names of any to the little bones of which the branched animals.
spine or backbone is composed. Ion. But, Willie, I have been I have been thinking that, tolooking in papa's Natural History day, instead of learning any new books, and have found out several. lessons, it would be well for you to There is one which we saw when let me hear how much you know of we were in a boat near righton. the old ones. Now, I have that The boatman called it a “Jelly fish,” all animals may be arranged into and in the book it is called a SEA four great divisions. NETTLE."
particulars did I give that you might And there is another which has a know the Backboned Animals ? round shell covered all over with Ion. Three, mamma. prickles, like a Hedgehog. It is M. And how many parts did the called the SEA URCHIN, or SEA EGG. Butterfly mention by which you There is another very beautiful one, i might know the Jointed Animals ? called the SEA ANEMONE. There Ton. Three, mamma. There were are also others called CORALS, which four particulars by which we distinform rocks.
guished the Soft-bodied Animals ; and W. There are seven kinds. I will five points by which we knew the count them :'The Hydra ; Star- Branched Animals; fish ; Jelly-fish; Sea-egg ; Sea- M. To-day, then, we will recapianemone ; and Coral. But, mamma, tulate these particulars. Let us all you gave us a Latin name for the repeat the distinctions of the four backboned division of animals,-are sub-kingdoms. there not Latin names for the other W. What did you call them, divisions ?
mamma? M. Yes. These “ branched ani. M. “Sub-kingdomas;" we must mals”- their limbs may not only be not call them divisions now. compared to the branches growing W. That is a curious name. May out from the trunk of a tree, but we not call them classes instead, you may compare them to the rays mamma? of light reflected from the sun. Ion. Or, “ Regiments?” Or, we The Latin word for ray is “radius," might call them the four " tribes." so we call these animals “RADIATED M. No, I will tell you. When ANIMALS."
we speak of all the animals, we do And the soft-bodied animals. The not say the animal “class,” for they Latin word for soft is “mollis,” so are in too great a number to form
call them MOLLUSCOUS only a class. ANIMALS.
W. No, you say that they form W. And what are we to call the the “ Animal Kingdom." jointed animals, mamma ?
M. And if the master in your M. From the Latin word articulus, school, Willie, were to take one of which means a "little joint,” we give the large divisions” of boys, and them the name, ARTICULATED arrange it into smaller divisions, the ANIMALS.
little divisions would be called Ion. And why,mamma, are the back W. Sub-divisions. I remember boned animals called “vertebrated ?" | that, because in our etymology class
we learned that the Latin word " Sub" &c., &c. They are ca.led BRANCHED, OR
RADIATED ANIMALS, means under, they would be “underdivisions."
Now we will repeat together M. It is exactly so with the four once more ;-“So that the whole divisions of the animals. They are
Animal Kingdom may be divided not large enough to be called “ King
into four sub-kingdoms, viz. :doms,” so we call them
1. THE BACKBONED,ORVERTEBRATED W.“ Sub-kingdoms."
2. THE JOINTED, OR ARTICULATED M. Now let us repeat:One great division of animals are 3. THE SOFT-BODIED, OR MOLLUSCOUS
SUB-KINGDOM; and, alike because they have
4. THE BRANCHED, OB RADIATED 1. An internal skeleton.
SUB-KINGDOM. 2. Red blood.
L. It is a very good thing, mamma, 3. Four limbs: Such as the Dog, Cow, Horse, Sheep,
that men have found out the plan on Lion, Pig, Mouse, Elephant, Mole, Eagle, which all the animals are arranged. Herring, Blackbird, Sparrow, Salmon, Now, when I meet an old dog in the Bat, Whale, Hedgehog, Eel, &c. &c. &c? street, I know something about him, They are called BACKBONED, OR VERTE- I know what place he belongs to. BRATED ANIMALS.
W. Or when you meet a Horse, M. Another great division are or a Cow, or a Sheep; but, how alike because they all have
many different animals are made on 1. An external skeleton.
the same plan ! What a difference Vhite blood.
there is between an Elephant and a 3. Not less than six limbs: Such as the BUTTERFLY, Bee, Grass
Mouse, or between a Snake and a hopper, Crab, Earwig, Lobster, Ant, Gnat, Canary-bird, or between a Flat-fisha Silkworm, Flea, Leech, Scorpion, Worm, and a Lion! I wonder how they Fly, &c., &c. They are called JOINTED, would get on if they had to walk in OR ARTICULATED ANIMALS. The third great division are known
a row. They must be arranged again,
I by their having
suppose, for they do not make a 1. No skeleton, but a thick skin, called very orderly class now. "a mantle."
M. Yes, you will find that, after 2. Whitish blood.
a little time, we shall take one of the 3. No real limbs. 4. Therefore, not much power of motion : sub-kingdoms, and arrange the ani
Such as the SNAIL, Oyster, Periwinkle, mals into smaller divisions. Cowrie, Mussel, Slug, &c., &c., &c , &c. They are called SOFT-BODIED, OR MOL- Army of Soldiers and arrange it into
Ion. Just as you would take an LUSCOUS ANIMALS. And the fourth great division are
Regiments; and, then take a regiknown because
ment,and divide it into companies.
W. Or, just as you would take a 1. Their parts grow from one centre,
like the branches from the trunk of sovereign and change it into shillings; a tree.
and then take a shilling, and change 2. They seem to have no regular shape it into pence.
or framework. 3. They may be multiplied almost in
M. No, Willie, that is not a good the same way as we multiply trees comparison; because you have and plants.
to change the shillings, before 4. Many of them have hardly any
power of feeling, seeing, or hear you arrange them. We shall not ing; and are so much like plants, have to change the nature of our that they seem to join the Animal animals, nor to change their names ;
and Vegetable kingdoms together : Such as the HYDRA, Star-fish, Sea
- we shall only arrange them as we Nettle, Sea Anemone, Sea Urchin, &c., ' find them.
sorry too—but, Lucy, God so orders CONQUEST OF BRITAIN.
things that, whenever there is any W. Now you see, papa, that when evil, there is almost always some good Caractacus talked to Cæsar, Cæsar with it. did not like to kill him.
W. But was there any good for P. No.
the Britons when the Romans conW. Well, then, that is just what I quered them? have thought-if men would talk to P. Yes. The Romans brought one another, they would not fight so evil and good too. They had more much. If Cæsar had heard that knowledge than the Britons, and, speech before he sent his army here, when they came here, they taught perhaps he would not have made a the people many things. They war, nor killed any of the Britons. showed them how to build large
P. He ought not to have done so, handsome houses, and to plant beauWillie;
but let us go on with the His- tiful gardens. Many of the Roman tory. When Claudius died, there soldiers were engineers and surwas another Emperor called Nero. veyors. They made hard broad He sent more soldiers to try and roads through the country, paved conquer the Britons. In one part them with stone, and placed mileof the island there lived a Queenstones upon them. These were called Boadicea, and her two daugh- such famous roads, that some of them ters. When this poor Queen's hus- have lasted until nearly band died, the Romans treated her cighteen hundred years! and her daughters very cruelly. The The Romans also built many Britons so enraged at this large cities, with walls round them, cowardly hehaviour, that they rose such as York, Bath, and Chester, up, TWO HUNDRED THOUSAND OF and in them they made temples, THEM, to figlit for her. They de- l baths, and market-places. They stroyed the villages and towns, and also made schools, where their own burned the Roman city called London. children and the little Britons were
Ion. And did they drive away the taught to read and write. They Romans?
made good laws, better than those of P. No: the Britons tried to, but the Druids, so that in about a hun. they were conquered again. In a dred years there was a great change great battle, the Romans slew eighty in the people's manners. Many of thousand of them, and the Queen the Britons left off painting their Boadicea was so broken-hearted that bodies, and began to wash themselves she poisoned herself. Year after and comb their hair, and dress like year, there was continued fighting, the Romans. Some who had lived until the time of the Emperor VES- in an agricultural state, instead of PASIAN, when the whole island was dwelling in the fields, had large subdued. Britain was then governed houses within the walls of the cities. by the Romans, and it became a At the markets, they learned to use province of Rome, iust as India is money, and to get their living by now a province of Britain.
buying and selling. L. Oh! I am so sorry that they W. What state would you say conquered ; because they had no right they lived in then? to the Island.
P. We might say,
that P. I dare say the Britons were they were now in & civilised state.
They were not called Husbandmen, P. But before we leave them altobut MERCHANTS and CITIZENS. getlier, I want you to recollect the
The Romans also taught the Emperors whom you have heard of, people to build castles and stone and all the British Chiefs; so we will walls. The Emperor SEVERUS came count up their names, and make to Britain; and when he found that another lesson:the natives of Scotland were very
Lessons 4 and 5. troublesome, he built a great stone 8. About 50 years B.C. JULIUS wall, with towers on it, to keep CÆSAR conquered the Chief CASSIBEthem out. If you take your map, | LAUNUS, and made the Britons pay and draw a line from Northumber- | tribute. land, where the wall began, to Cum 9. About 50 years A.D. the soldiers berland, where it ended, you will see of CLAUDIUS CÆSAR conquered that it extended right across the north | CARACTACUS. of England. The Romans lived here, 10. The soldiers of NERO CÆSAR and governed the Britons for nearly conquered QUEEN BOADICEA. 400 years, until the year 430.
il. The armies of VESPASIAN Ion. What happened then? subdued all the Britons.
P. In the reign of an Emperor 12. In the reign of VALENTINIAN called VALENTINIAN THE YOUNGEP, THE YOUNGER the Roman soliiers, the people in Rome, who for a long being wanted at home, departed from time had been growing idle and care the Island, and left the Britons to less, were unable to defend their own themselves, A.D. 430. city. They were then obliged to send for all the soldiers in Britain to P. We will call this period of our come and help them. So the Romans history “ The ROMAN Period,” from bid good-bye to the Britons, and left 50 B.C. to A.D. 430. How long was them alone by themselves.
the Roman Period, Lucy? W. Ah! good-bye, old Romans, L. From 50 B.C. to 430 A.D., the Britons are free again!
nearly 500 years.
'Tis the Lord who gave our country;
'Tis our God who shields our home; He hath fixed our habitation,
And from Him our blessings come.
We are happy English children,
And our hearts should glow with love
And to Him who reigns above.
Thanks and praise to God Almighty,
To the Lord of earth and heaven:
For the blessings he hath given.