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older than Adam. It has been a "Continuing the same course for stone for ihousands of years! It hundreds, or ever thousands of will be the same stone during thou- years, it would remain an object of sands of years to come. If it could wonderand admiration to successive know and speak, it might tell of races of men-it would belong to many changes in Animals and Vege- many a tradition, and many a tale tables, but of no change in itself. of the olden time handed down
If I were to leave it in this box, from father to son ; and thus it here it would always remain; and, as would be looked at with respect, or the world rolled on, and ages of time even veneration,-and still flourish, passed away, we should change while generation after generation and decay-the box would crumble would pass away, and be forgotten."* to dust, but here the stone would W. I like to hear that. Please, be; it would never move nor change, mamma, let me run and put it in but still be the same old stone. the ground at once.
Ion. What fine old fellows stones L. But, after all, mamma, it are! Ah, I'll never kick a stone would not last so long as the stone. again.
M. No; for it has life. EveryM. Then,-the Acorn. It does thing which has life, will have not seem very different, but some- death. As soon as it has done where inside it, is the something growing, it begins to die. It reaches we call life. If we were to put all its glory-its fulness of life-then, three of these things in the ground, little by little, it loses that life, and whilst the stone would remain returns to dust again. stone, the Vegetable would—but, Ion. And the Chrysalis, mamma. you shall hear what I once read in If that were put in the ground ? a book about a seed. Listen
M. That would become a butter“The Seed would swell and fly. Soon it would show how much burst-it would put forth a root; life it had ; much more life than and, thus holding fast to the earth, that of the tree. It would not reit would push up a green shoot. main fixed to the Earth, but away The Shoot would rise above the it would fly-you know where! ground; and, feeding itself from over flowers, fields, and hills ! But, the Air, Water, and Earth, would although it seems so full of life, increase its thickness every year,
that life is shorter-not so many and become a stately Tree. The hours, as the tree numbers years. Tree--spreading its branches far W. Ah, that is curious. The and wide into the air, and its roots Animal, which is so full of life, into the soil, putting forth buds, changes soonest. The Vegetable in the spring, which open to clothe does not change $0 soon. The it with leaves, and adorn it with Mineral, which has no life, never blossoms would then repay the changes at all. earth for its bounties with a rich return of fruit and seed."
• Hugo Reid's Botany.
She is but two years old,
She is worth her weight in gold.
tain, for they might have made it NORTHERN BARBARIANS.
a very fine kingdom.
But we must now leave Britain P. Well, Willie, you were very ourselves for a little while, and glad that the Romans left Britain, travel to the north of Europe. but I do not think that the Britons L. Who are we to see there, were.
papa ? In the first place–The Romans P. OUR ANCESTORS ! I will had so changed the appearance give you a picture of them. They of the country, and had made it were tall men, with round faces, look such a happy place, that it broad foreheads, brown hair, and seemed quite a pity to leave it. blue eyes. If you had asked them There were now many large cities, where they came from, they would with strong walls and towers have said that the god Tut (promany large houses, beautiful gar- nounced Toit) sprang up through dens, and even aqueducts. I told the earth, and made a man; and you, too, that they had schools for this man made more men. Others their children, and more than that, would have told you that they they had temples where they wor sprang from the rocks, and the shipped the true and living God. earth. And then they would have They had heard, too, of Jesus told you some wonderful tales Christ; and some, perhaps, had about their gods, THOR, WODEN, learned his kind spirit, and knew and others; and have given you the way to heaven.
such an account of the gods SUN In the second place—Before the and Moon, of the water-spirits, Romans went away, they had sent spirits of the mountain, and other an army of the strongest and finest strange beings, that you would young men in Britain to help in have wondered very much, and defending Rome against the crowds perhaps would not have believed of savage people who were attack- them at all. ing the city. They now took many
These ancestors of ours wanmore Britons with them, so that dered about in a country which there were not enough fighting had formerly been covered with an men left to defend the country.
immense black forest. There you In the third place—There was might once have seen bears, and no one left to govern the island ; even rein-deer. The rivers were and, a people cannot easily learn to often frozen over, and the land was govern themselves. Many of the covered with fogs, thick marshes, Britons who lived in the cities, and and large tracts of heath. were civilised, as I said, had been Throughout this country, at the married to the Romans : - they north of Europe, in the parts which wanted to obey the good Roman we now call Germany and Scanlaws. Some, however, were not dinavia, our ancestors roved about civilised, and wanted to be rude almost in. a savage state, some and savage again; and the people of them living in huts built on then began to quarrel amongst wheels,* which they moved from themselves, to see who should be one place to another. For, almasters. So, it really was a great pity for the Romans to leave Bri
though many of them grew oats,
P. Hear of the barbarians! They and a coarser kind of grain, in the came to the snowy Alps. From times of Julius Cæsar,-yet no man these high mountains they looked had any land to call his own ; their down on the fruitful valleys of families were forced e zery year to Italy. Then, as they felt the remove to some new spot.
pushing and pressure behind, they Like most savages, they loved to moved forward, and, pouring down be strong and to fight. They would in continual torrents, soon the city bathe themselves and their little of the Romans, and the countries children in the frozen rivers, that they had conquered, were filled they might become hardy; and with Goths, Huns, Ostrogoths, would hardly wear any clothes, Visigoths, Vandals, Suevians, Bureven when it was cold.
gundians, and all manner of big, They were still savage people in burly fellows, who destroyed the the year 430, when the Romans beautiful cities, and danced on left Britain. They had, already, the ruins they had made, as defought many, many hard battles lighted, as fierce, and as savage with the Romans. They had once
as bears ! taken the city-and now that they Ion. Was England conquered knew Italy to be a warm, pleasant too, papa ? country, and Rome a very beau- P. You shall hear. England, tiful place, they determined to go you know, is an island, and must there, and were travelling from the be reached by boats, or ships. These north to the south of Europe by barbarians were now only spreadthousands and tens of thousands. ing themselves over the conti
Not only these people. Mighty nent. streams of men, from other north- Our German ancestors, whom I ern and eastern countries, rushed spoke of, were living at the North, down, and pressed them forward. and were divided into many tribes. Just as the heavy waters of some
A tribe called Saxons lived the grand river, which has been swelled life of pirates, for they had ships by the rains, and is overflowing, in which they used to put out to move on to find a resting-place- sea, and rob other nations. first, coming with silence, at last, These Saxons one day received with a roar and a crash, sweeping a message from the Britons, askon everything before them; so, from ing them to come over to their the cold countries came crowds of island. wild and grizzly men, opening wide Ion. Did the Britons ask them, their round eyes to see strange papa ? That was a dangerous inplaces; and, with the force of the vitation. I would never invite a deep stream, new races and tribes robber to come and see me. pressed on like strong waves to the P. Do not be sure, Ion. You south of Europe, to swallow up the do not know what you might have city of ROME.
done. In the next lesson you shall W. How the Britains who went hear why they did so, and what to Rome must have had to fight ! happened.
certain. It is smocth. Let me tap AN EGG.*
it. It is hard. I wonder what M. How many parts can you shape it is. Round, I think. No, find in this egg, Ion?
not round exactly-it is a long Ion. Please give it to me, mamma,
round; I will call it oval. I will see. There is the outside The egg-shell is thin. I can't you gave me another name for observe that without breaking the outside once-the “exterior.” The egg. Now, Ion, please to repeat inside, or “interior.” Then, the the qualities of the shell för me. outside has a smooth face.
Ion. The EGG-SHELL is white, L. That is called the surface.
smooth, hård, oval, and thin. But Ion. Then, there is the shell you have left out something-it itself, the white of the egg, the yel- breaks with sharp edges, it is brittle. low part-I forget the name for May I break it, mamma ? Then that, mamma.
Willie will see, for I want to exaM. The yolk.
mine the white of the egg. Ion. Yes, the yolk; and I don't
M. Yes-here is a cup. think I can find any more parts.
Ion. There- crack! See how W. Don't you remember, that brittle it is.
How quickly the when you open the egg, you find a
white flowed into the cup-it is thin skin inside the shell 7-that fluid, that is certain. And, it is is another part.
sticky, for it is sticking to my finger. M. And there is another part
DÍ. It is more than sticky, Ion. inside, which is intended to become It will even fasten two substances a chicken. You can hardly tell it together. There are many things from the white of the egg. We
which are sticky, and yet will not will call it the embryo.
join two substances. Ion. Then, there are seven parts
L. Yes, mamma, butter is, and in the egg. I will say them. The lard. They are sticky; but you exterior, the interior, the surface, could not fasten a letter with either the shell, the skin, the white, the
of them. yolk, and the embryo.
W.Tallow is only sticky, and oil W. I did not think it had so
and treacle. The juice of oranges, many parts. Please, mamma, to too, and of gooseberries. let me have it now, and I will find M. But when any substance has out its qualities. Come, sir, what
so much stickiness in it that it will sort of an egg have you ?
fasten two things together, it is M. You had better examine one
called adhesive. This word “adhepart at a time, Willie.
sive" is made from the Latin word W. Then I will take its shell
adhærere”. - to stick to. Now first, mamma. It is white—that is think of some adhesive substances.
L. Gum, mamma. They put it The author has to acknowledge and that is why they are called
on envelopes to fasten them. Ah, that the idea of these lessons is obtained from Miss Mayo’s “Lessons
" adhesive envelopes.” on Objects ;” and that, as he has often W. Glue, paste, wafers, and chosen the same subjects, the details postage-stamps are adhesive. ere, necessarily, in some respects si Jon. How can that be, Willie ! milar,
the stamps are made of paper
is opaque then.
You mean that the gum at the graphy lesson. You have learned, back of them is adhesive.
too, that the snail's and crab's shells M. No, Ion. Willie was right, are made from lime. for the gum, you must remember, At the time for laying eggs, the is a part of the stamps; but you hens may often be seen looking are forgetting the white of the egg. about for lime, which they eat to
Ion. Well, the wluite is fluid, form shells. Is it not curious that sticky, and adhesive. I can see the hens should know that mortar through it - so it is transparent ; contains lime? If they find a piece but, when you boil it, it is not-it on the ground, they will “peck
away” at it, and will even pick L. And when you boil it, it is out the mortar from a brick wall. not fluid-it is solid.
Pigeons will also do this. W. Now I will say Ion's “quali- You know that the egg, if warmed ties” for him. The WHITE is fluid, for a long time, will change into a sticky, adhesive, and transparent; chicken ; and not only chickens, but when boiled, it is solid, and but the young of many other aniopaque. Here is the cup, Lucy-mals, come from eggs. you must describe the yolk.
W. Ycs, mamma. Young birds L. The yolk has a smell—so it do- and the butterfly, or rather is odorous. It has a colour—it is the caterpillar, is born in an egg. yellow. You cannot see through and fishes. You told me once it, so it is opaque. There! The that the little round things in the YOLK is odorous, yellow, and roe of the herring were eggs. opaque.
Ion. And flies lay eggs, and lobPlease, mamma, I am very anxi- sters, and shrimps. ous to hear the egg's history ; for M. Ah! and many more aniI often wonder how the hens can mals. Fleas, scorpions, black beemake so many eggs, and all exactly tles, snails, snakes, frogs, crocodiles, of the same shape.
bees, and all insects. I could tell Ion. And they always seem so you some curious tales about eggs, pleased when they've made one. but we must leave off now, and They sing out such a cackle and inake up the lesson. noise afterwards, and seem to think Lesson 6. AN EGG. they have done something won. (1.) The egg has an exterior, inderful.
terior, surface, shell, skin, white, yolk, W. Yes, at uncle's farm in the and an embryo. country there was one young hen (2.) The SHELL is white, smooth, in particular who was very proud hard, oval, thin, and brittle. She would persuade some other (3.) The White is fluid, sticky, bens to help her, and would “ go adhesive, and transparent; but, when on” for half an hour, as much as boiled, it is solid, and opaque.
" Come and see what I (4.) The Yolk is odorous, yellow, have made — isn't it a beauty !" | and opaque. But, mamma, where do they get (5.) Eggs are made by birds, and the nice stuff to make such fine other animals, for the purpose of prowhite shells ?
ducing young ones. Fishes, Reptiles, M. That “nice stuff" is chiefly and Insects, lay eggs. rrocured from the lime which you (6.) Eggs are also useful to manpheard in your Physical Geo- kind, who eat them.