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GLAND.—An organ which secretes or separates some peculiar product from the blood or sap of animals or plants.
GLoTTIs.—The opening of the windpipe into the oesophagus or gullet.
GNEIss-A rock approaching granitein composition, but more or lesslaminated, and really produced by the alteration of a sedimentary deposit after its consolidation.
GRALLAroREs.-The so-called Wading-birds (Storks, Cranes, Snipes, &c.), which are generally furnished with long legs, bare of feathers above the heel, and have no membranes between the toes.
GRANITE-A rock consisting essentially of crystals of felspar and mica in a
mass of quartz.
HABITAT.-The locality in which a plant or animal naturally lives. HEMIPTERA.—An order or sub-order of Insects, characterised by the possession of a jointed beak or rostrum, and by having the fore-wings horny in the basal portion and membranous at the extremity, where they cross each other. This group includes the various species of Bugs. HERMAPHRodite.—Possessing the organs of both sexes. Homology.—That relation between parts which results from their development from corresponding embryonic parts, either in different animals, as in the case of the arm of man, the fore-leg of a quadruped, and the wing of a bird; or in the same individual, as in the case of the fore and hind legs in quadrupeds, and the segments or rings and their appendages of which the body of a worm, a centipede, &c., is composed. The latter is called serial homology. The parts which stand in such a relation to each other are said to be homologous, and one such part or organ is called the homologue of the other. In different plants the parts of the flower are homologous, and in general these parts are regarded as homologous with leaves. HomopterA.—An order or sub-order of Insects having (like the Hemiptera) a jointed beak, but in which the fore-wings are either wholly membranous or wholly leathery. The Cicada, Frog-hoppers, and Aphides, arewell-known examples. HyBRID.—The offspring of the union of two distinct species. HYMEN opterA.—An order of Insects possessing biting jaws and usually four membranous wings in which there are a few veins. Bees and Wasps are familiar examples of this group. HYPERTRoPHIED.—Excessively developed.
TCHNEUMonidze.—A family of Hymenopterous insects, the members of which lay their eggs in the bodies or eggs of other insects. IMAGo.—The perfect (generally winged) reproductive state of an insect. INDIGENs.-The aboriginal animal or vegetable inhabitants of a country or region. Isosco. The mode of arrangement of the flowers of plants. INFuso RIA.—A class of microscopic Animalcules, so called from their having originally been observed in infusions of vegetable matters. They consist of a gelatinous material enclosed in a delicate membrane, the whole or part of which is furnished with short vibrating hairs (called cilia), by means of which the animalcules swim through the water or convey the minute particles of their food to the orifice of the mouth. Insectivorous.-Feeding on Insects. INVERTEBRATA, or INVERTEBRATE ANIMALs.-Those animals which do not possess a backbone or spinal column.
Lacunae.—Spaces left among the tissues in some of the lower animals, and serving in place of vessels for the circulation of the fluids of the body.
LAMELLATED–Furnished with lamellae or little plates. LARVA (pl. LARvæ).—The first condition of an insect at its issuing from the egg, when it is usually in the form of a grub, caterpillar, or maggot. LARYNx.—The upper part of the windpipe opening into the gullet. LAURENTIAN.—A group of greatly altered and very ancient rocks, which is reatly developed along the course of the St. Laurence, whence the name. t is in these that the earliest known traces of organic bodies have been found. LEGUMINos. E.-An order of plants represented by the common Peas and Beans, having an o flower in which one petal stands up like a wing, and the stamens and pistil are enclosed in a sheath formed by two other petals. The fruit is a ...! (or legume). LEMURIDAE.-A group of four-handed animals, distinct from the Monkeys and approaching the Insectivorous Quadrupeds in some of their characters and habits. Its members have the nostrils curved or twisted, and a claw instead of a nail upon the first finger of the hind hands. LEPIDoPTERA.—An order of Insects, characterised by the possession of a spiral proboscis, and of four large more or less scaly wings. It includes the wellknown Butterflies and Moths. LITToRAL.-Inhabiting the seashore Loess.-A marly deposit of recent (Post-Tertiary) date, which occupies a great part of the valley of the Rhine.
MALAcostRAcA.—The higher division of the Crustacea, including the ordinary !. Lobsters, Shrimps, &c., together with the Woodlice and Sand0.006rs. Mo The highest class of animals, including the ordinary hairy quadrupeds, the Whales, and Man, and ja. by the production of living young which are nourished after birth by milk from the teats (Mamma, Mammary glands) of the mother. A striking difference in embryonic development has led to the division of this class into two great groups, in one of these, when the embryo has attained a certain stage, a vascular connection, called the placenta, is formed between the embryo and the mother; in the other this is wanting, and the young are produced in a very incomplete state. The former, including the greater part of the class, are called Placental mammals; the latter, or Aplacental mammals, include the Marsupials and Monotremes (Ornithorhynchus) MAMMIFERous. Having mammae or teats (see MAMMALIA). MANDIBLEs, in Insects.-The first or uppermost pair of jaws, which are enerally solid, horny, biting organs. In Birds the term is applied to É. jaws with their horny coverings. In Quadrupeds the mandible is properly the lower jaw. MARSUPIALs.-An order of Mammalia in which the young are born in a very incomplete state of development, and carried by the mother, while sucking, in a ventral pouch (marsupium), such as the Kangaroos, Opossums, &c. (see MAMMALIA). MAXILLE, in Insects—The second or lower pair of jaws, which are composed of several joints and furnished with peculiar jointed appendages called palpi, or feelers. MELANISM.–The opposite of albinism; an undue development of colouring material in the skin and its appendages. METAMoRPHIc Rocks,—Sedimentary rocks which have undergone alteration, generally by the action of heat, subsequently to their deposition and consolidation. MolluscA.—One of the great divisions of the Animal Kingdom, includin those animals which have a soft body, usually furnished with a shell, an
in which the nervous ganglia, or centres, present no definite general arrangement. They are generally known under the denomination of “shell-fish; * the cuttle-fish, and the common snails, whelks, oysters, mussels, and cockles, may serve as examples of them. Monocotyledons, or Monocotyledoxous PLANTs.-Plants in which the seed sends up only a single seed-leaf (or cotyledon); characterised by the absence of consecutive layers of wood in the stem (endogenous o by the veins of the leaves being generally straight, and by the parts of the flowers being generally in multiples of three. (Examples, Grasses, Lilies, Orchids, Palms, &c.) Mo-The accumulations of fragments of rock brought down by glaciers. MoRPHology.—The law of form or structure independent of function Mysis-stage.—A stage in the development of certain Crustaceans (Prawns), in which they closely resemble the adults of a genus (Mysis) belonging to a slightly lower group.
NATAtoRy-Adapted for the purpose of swimming.
NAUPLIus-ForM.–The earliest stage in the development of many Crustacea, especially belonging to the lower groups. In this stage the animal has a short body, with indistinct indications of a division into segments, and three pairs of fringed limbs. This form of the common fresh-water Cyclops was described as a distinct genus under the name of Nauplius.
NEURATION.—The arrangement of the veins or nervures in the wings of Insects.
NEUTERs.-Imperfectly developed females of certain social insects (such as Ants and Bees), which perform all the labours of the community. Hence they are also called workers.
NICTITATING MEMBRANE.-A semi-transparent membrane, which can be drawn across the eye in Birds and Reptiles, either to moderate the effects of a strong light or to sweep particles of dust, &c., from the surface of the eye.
OcELLI.—The simple eyes or stemmata of Insects, usually situated on the crown of the head between the great compound eyes. CEsophagus.-The gullet. Oolitic.—A great series of secondary rocks, so called from the texture of some of its members, which appear to be made up of a mass of small egg-like calcareous bodies. OPERCULUM.—A calcareous plate employed by many Mollusca to close the aperture of their shell. The opercular valves of Cirripedes are those which close the aperture of the shell. ORBIT.-The bony cavity for the reception of the eye. ORGANISM.–An organised being, whether plant or animal. ORTHospermovs.-A term applied to those fruits of the Umbelliferae which have the seed straight. Osculant.—Forms or groups apparently intermediate between and connecting other groups are o be osculant. Ova.—Eggs. Ovaorum or Ovary (in plants).-The lower part of the pistil or female organ of the flower, containing the ovules or incipient seeds; by growth after the other organs of the flower have fallen, it usually becomes converted into the fruit. OvIgERous.-Egg-bearing. Ovules (of plants).-The seeds in the earliest condition.
Pachyperms.--A group of Mammalia, so called from their thick skins, and including the Elephant, Rhinoceros, Hippopotamus, &c. PALEozoic.—The oldest system of fossiliferous rocks. PALPI.-Jointed appendages to some of the organs of the mouth in Insects and Crustacea. PAPILIonACEAE.—An order of Plants (see LEGUMINose).-The flowers of these plants are called papilionaceous, or butterfly-like, from the fancied resemblance of the expanded superior petals to the wings of a butterfly. PARASITE.-An animal or plant living upon or in, and at the expense of, another organism. PARTHENogenesis.-The production of living organisms from unimpregnated eggs or seeds. PEDUNculated.—Supported upon a stem or stalk. The pedunculated oak has its acorns borne upon a footstool. PELoRIA or PELoRISM.–The appearance of regularity of structure in the flowers of plants which normally bear irregular flowers. PELvis-The bony arch to which the hind limbs of vertebrate animals are articulated. PETALs.-The leaves of the corolla, or second circle of organs in a flower. They are usually of delicate texture and brightly coloured. PHYLLóp1NEous.-Having flattened, leaf-like twigs or leafstalks instead of true leaves. PIGMENT.-The colouring material produced generally in the superficial parts of animals. The cells secreting it are called pigment-cells. PINNATE.-Bearing leaflets on each side of a central stalk. PISTILs.-The female organs of a flower, which occupy a position in the centre of the other floral organs. The pistilis generally divisible into the ovary or germen, the style and the stigma. PLACENTALIA, PLACENTATA, or Placental Mammals. See MAMMALIA. PLANTIGRADEs.-Quadrupeds which walk upon the whole sole of the foot, like the Bears. PLASTIc.—Readily capable of change. PLEIstocene PERIoD.—The latest portion of the Tertiary epoch. PLUMULE (in plants).-The minute bud between the seed-leaves of newlygerminated plants. PLUTON1c Rocks.-Rocks supposed to have been produced by igneous action in the depths of the earth. PolleN.—The male element in flowering plants; usually a fine dust produced by the anthers, which, by contact with the stigma, effects the fecundation of the seeds. This impregnation is brought about by means of tubes (pollentubes) which issue from the pollen-grains adhering to the stigma, and penetrate through the tissues until they reach the ovary. PolyANDRous (flowers).-Flowers having many stamens. Polygamous PLANTs.-Plants in which some flowers are unisexual and others hermaphrodite. The unisexual (male and female) flowers, may be on the same or on different plants. PolyMoRPHIc.—Presenting many forms. Polyzoary-The common structure formed by the cells of the Polyzoa, such as the well-known Sea-mats. PREHENSILE.—Capable of grasping. PREPotent.—Having a superiority of power. PRIMARIES.—The feathers forming the tip of the wing of a bird, and inserted upon that o which represents the hand of man. PRocesses.—Projecting portions of bones, usually for the attachment of muscles, ligaments, &c. Propolis-A resinous material collected by the Hive-Bees from the opening buds of various trees.
PRotozoa.-The lowest great division of the Animal Kingdom. These animals are composed of a gelatinous material, and show scarcely any trace of distinct organs. The Infusoria, Foraminifera, and Sponges, with some other forms, belong to this division.
PUPA (pl. for E). The second stage in the development of an Insect, from which it emerges in the perfect (winged) reproductive form. In most insects the pupal stage is passed in perfect repose. The chrysalis is the pupal state of butterflies.
RADICLE.—The minute root of an embryo plant. RAMUs.-One half of the lower jaw in the Mammalia. The portion which rises to articulate with the skull is called the ascending ramus. RANGE.-The extent of country over which a plant or animal is naturally jo Range in time . the distribution of a species or group through the fossiliferous beds of the earth's crust. RETINA.—The delicate inner coat of the eye, formed by nervous filaments spreading from the optic nerve, and serving for the perception of the impressions produced by light. RETRogression.—Backward development. When an animal, as it approaches maturity, becomes less perfectly organised than might be expected from its early stages and known relationships, it is said to undergo a retrograde development or metamorphosis. RHIzopods.-A class of lowly organised animals (Protozoa), having a gelatinous body, the surface of which can be protruded in the form of root-like rocesses or filaments, which serve for locomotion and the prehension of ood. The most important order is that of the Foraminifera. Rodents.-The gnawing Mammalia, such as the Rats, Rabbits, and Squirrels. They are especially characterised by the possession of a single pair of chisel-like cutting teeth in each jaw, between which and the grinding teeth there is a great gap. RUBUs.-The Bramble Genus. RUDIMENTARY. —Very imperfectly developed. RUMINANTs.-The group of Quadrupeds which ruminate or chew the cud, such as oxen, sheep, and deer. They have divided hoofs, and are destitute of front teeth in the upper jaw.
SACRAL-Belonging to the sacrum, or the bone composed usually of two or more united vertebrae to which the sides of the pelvis in vertebrate animals are attached. SARcope.—The gelatinous material of which the bodies of the lowest animals (Protozoa) are composed. Scureto.-The horny plates with which the feet of birds are generally more or less covered, especially in front. SEDIMENTARY FoRMATIons.—Rocks deposited as sediments from water. SEGMENTs.-The transverse rings of which the body of an articulate animal or Annelid is composed. SEPALs.-The leaves or segments of the o or outermost envelope of an ordinary flower. They are usually green, but sometimes brightly coloured. Sernatures.—Teeth like those of a saw. Sessite.—Not supported on a stem or footstalk. SILURIAN System.–A very ancient system of fossiliferous rocks belonging to the earlier part of the Palaeozoic series. SPECIALisatios.-The setting apart of a particular organ for the performance of a particular function. SPINAL Chord.—The central portion of the nervous system in the Vertebrata,