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THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE:
A COMPLETE ENCYCLOPEDIC LEXICON, LITERARY, SCIENTIFIC,
JOHN OGILVIE, LL.D.,
Author of "The Comprehensive English Dictionary,” “The Student's English Dictionary,” &c. &c.
CAREFULLY REVISED AND GREATLY AUGMENTED.
CHARLES ANNANDALE, M.A.
ILLUSTRATED BY ABOVE THREE THOUSAND ENGRAVINGS PRINTED IN THE TEXT.
VOL. II. DEPASTURE-KYTHE.
BIBLIOTHÈQUE S. J.
BLACKIE & SON, 49 AND 50 OLD BAILEY, E.C.;
REGARDING PRONUNCIATION AND CHEMICAL SYMBOLS.
fate. far. fat. fall. me. met. her.
u, u, ü,
PRONUNCIATION. In showing the pronunciation the simplest and most easily understood method has been adopted, that of re-writing the word in a different form. In doing so the same letter or combination of letters is made use of for the same sound, no matter by what letter or letters the sound may be expressed in the principal word. The key by this means is greatly simplified, the reader having only to bear in mind one mark for each sound. Vowels.
Accent.—Words consisting of more than one syllable à
receive an accent, as the first syllable of the word labour, ö,
the second of delay, and the third of comprehension. The tube.
accented syllable is the most prominent part of the word, se. abune (Fr. u). being made so by means of the accent. In this dictionary oi,
it is denoted by the mark'. This mark, called an accent, pine.
pound. pin. y,
Sc. fey (=e+i).
is placed above and beyond the syllable which receives the
accent, as in the words la'bour, delay', and comprehen'sion, Consonants.
Many polysyllabic words are pronounced with two acthen.
cents, the primary and the secondary accent, as the word Sc. loch, Ger. nacht. th,
thin. excommunication, in which the third, as well as the fifth job.
The accent on the fifth syllable is commonly accented.
syllable is the primary, true, or tonic accent, while that on sing.
the third is a mere euphonic accent, and consists of a slight The application of this key to the pronunciation of resting on the syllable to prevent indistinctness in the utterforeign words can as a rule only represent approximately ance of so many unaccented syllables. Where both accents the true pronunciation of those words. It is applicable, are marked in a word, the primary accent is thus marked ", however, to Latin and Greek words, as those languages are and the secondary, or inferior one, by this mark ', as in the pronounced in England.
CHEMICAL ELEMENTS AND SYMBOLS.
By means of chemical symbols, or formulas, the composition of the most complicated substances can be very easily expressed, and that, too, in a very small compass. An abbreviated expression of this kind often gives, in a single line, more information as to details than could be given in many lines of letterpress.
Symbols. When a symbol has a small figure or number under-
written, and to the right of it, such figure or number indiAntimony (Stibium),
cates the number of atoms of the element.
Nb signifies two atoms of oxygen, S; five atoms of sulphur, and Bismuth,
Cho ten atoms of carbon.
When two or more elements are united to form a chemi. Cadmium,
Pd cal compound, their symbols are written one after the Cæsium, Cs Phosphorus,
other, to indicate the compound. Thus—H.O means water, Calcium, Ca Platinum,
Pt Carbon, с Potassium (Kalium), K
a compound of two atoms of hydrogen and one of oxygen; Cerium, . Ce Rhodium,
• R C,H,Ou indicates cane - sugar, a compound of twelve Chlorine, CI Rubidium,
atoms of carbon, twenty-two of hydrogen, and eleven of Chromium, Cr Ruthenium,
Si These two expressions as they stand denote respectively
Ag a molecule of the substance they represent, that is, the Erbium, . E Sodium (Natrium),
smallest possible quantity of it capable of existing in the
S free state. To express several molecules a large figure is Glucinium, . G Tantalum,
prefixed, thus: 2 H,0 represents two molecules of water, Gold (Aurum), Au Tellurium,
4(C12H20u) four molecules of cane-sugar.
Th When a compound is formed of two or more compounds
the symbolical expressions for the compound are usually Iridium, Ir Titanium,
Ti Iron (Ferrum),
connected together by a comma; thus, the crystallized Fe Tungsten (Wolfram), W Lanthanium, . La Uranium,
U magnesic sulphate is MgSO4, 7H.O. The symbols may also Lead (Plumbum), Pb Vanadium,
be used to express the changes which occur during chemical Lithium, L Yttrium,
action, and they are then written in the form of an equaMagnesium, Mg Zinc,
tion, of which one side represents the substances as they
exist before the change, the other the result of the reaction. When any of the above symbols stands by itself it indi. Thus, 2 H, +0,= 2 H,O expresses the fact that two mole. cates one atom of the element it represents. Thus, H cules of hydrogen, each containing two atoms, and one of stands for one atom of hydrogen, O for one atom of oxygen, oxygen, also containing two atoms, combine to give two and Cl for one atom of chlorine. (See Arom, and Atomic molecules of water, each them containing two atoms of theory under ATOMio, in Dictionary.)
hydrogen and one of oxygen. (1)