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A COMPLETE ENCYCLOPEDIC LEXICON, LITERARY, SCIENTIFIC,
Author of “The Comprehensive English Dictionary,” “The Student's English Dictionary,” &c. &c.
ILLUSTRATED BY ABOVE THREE THOUSAND ENGRAVINGS PRINTED IN THE TEXT.
GLAscow : W. G. BLACKIE AND Co., PRINTERs, WILL.AFIELD.
REGARDING PRON UN CIATION
IN showing the pronunciation the simplest and most easily understood method has been adopted, that of re-writing
the word in a different form.
In doing so the same letter or combination of letters is made use of for the same
sound, no matter by what letter or letters the sound may be expressed in the principal word. The key by this
means is greatly simplified, the reader having only to bear in mind one mark for each sound. -
à. . . . . . . as in ...... fate. o, .... as in .... not.
a, - - - ------ far. 6, .... ,, .... move.
a, -- ------ fat. ū, -> ... tube.
3, . . . . . . -- ------ fall. u, . ,, .... tub.
e, . . . . . . -- ------ Ille. tl, . ,, .... bull.
e. . . . . . . -- ------ met. u. . . . . , ... Sc. abune (Fr.u).
* ...... -- - - - - - - her. oi, .. ,, .... oil.
!. . . . . . . -- - - - - - - pine. Oul, . ,, .... pound.
1. ------ -- ------ pin. y, . ,, ....Sc. fey (=e-Fi).
0, . . . . . . -- ... note
ch, ... as in ... chain. TH, . . . . . . as in ...... then
ch, ,, ... Sc. loch, Ger. nacht. th, • * r * ... thin.
j, ,, ... job. w, -> ... wig.
g. ,, . . 00. wh, ...... -- *1, i
fi, .. ,, ... Fr. ton. zh, ...... -- azure
ng. . . . . . sing.
The application of this key to the pronunciation of
foreign words can as a rule only represent approximately
the true pronunciation of those words. It is applicable,
however, to Latin and Greek words, as those languages are
pronounced in England.
Accent.—Words consisting of more than one syllable
receive an accent, as the first syllable of the word labour,
the second of delay, and the third of comprehension. The
accented syllable is the most prominent part of the word,
being made so by means of the accent. In this dictionary
it is denoted by the mark'. This mark, called an accent,
is placed above and beyond the syllable which receives the
accent, as in the words la'bour, delay', and comprehen'sion.
Many polysyllabic words are pronounced with two ac-
cents, the primary and the secondary accent, as the word
eaccommunication, in which the third, as well as the fifth
syllable is commonly accented. The accent on the fifth
syllable is the primary, true, or tonic accent, while that on
the third is a mere euphonic accent, and consists of a slight
resting on the syllable to prevent indistinctness in the utter-
ance of so many unaccented syllables. Where both accents
are marked in a word, the primary accent is thus marked",
and the secondary, or inferior one, by this mark', as in the
CHEMICAL ELEMENTS AND SYMBOLS.
By means of chemical symbols, or formulas, the composition of the most complicated substances can be very
An abbreviated expression of this kind often gives, in a
given in many lines of letterpress.
When a symbol has a small figure or number under-
written, and to the right of it, such figure or number indi-
cates the number of atoms of the element. Thus–02
signifies two atoms of oxygen, Ss five atoms of sulphur, and
Clo ten atoms of carbon.
When two or more elements are united to form a chemi-
cal compound, their symbols are written one after the
other, to indicate the compound. Thus–H2O means water,
a compound of two atoms of hydrogen and one of oxygen;
Cia Ho Ou indicates cane-sugar, a compound of twelve
atoms of carbon, twenty-two of hydrogen, and eleven of
These two expressions as they stand denote respectively
a molecule of the substance they represent, that is, the
smallest possible quantity of it capable of existing in the
free state. To express several molecules a large figure is
prefixed, thus: 2 H2O represents two molecules of water,
4(C12H22O11) four molecules of cane-sugar.
When a compound is formed of two or more compounds
the symbolical expressions for the compound are usually
connected together by a comma; thus, the crystallized
magnesic sulphate is MgSO, , 7 H2O. The symbols may also
be used to express the changes which occur during chemical
action, and they are then written in the form of an equa-
tion, of which one side represents the substances as they
exist before the change, the other the result of the reaction.
Thus, 2 H2 + O. = 2 H2O expresses the fact that two mole-
cules of hydrogen, each containing two atoms, and one of
oxygen, also containing two atoms, combine to give two
molecules of water, each of them containing two atoms of
hydrogen and one of oxygen.