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SCIENTIST

TO THE TRUSTEES OF THE CARNEGIE INSTITUTION HAS BEEN LEFT A CERTAIN
AMOUNT OF MONEY FOR THE FOLLOWING PURPOSES: "TO DISCOVER THE EXCEP-
TIONAL MAN WHENEVER AND WHEREVER FOUND, INSIDE OR OUTSIDE SCHOOLS,
AND ENABLE HIM TO MAKE THE WORK FOR WHICH HE SEEMED ESPECIALLY
DESIGNED, HIS LIFE WORK."

BY CHARLES V. STORY

Such a man has been found in Luther Bur- world, and which is still the standard of exbank. He was born in Massachusetts in 1849. cellence in potatoes on the Pacific coast, At that time the effort to develop satisfactory although perhaps not so well known in the American grapes, which had been going on East. since the time of the Colonists, reached a Luther Burbank went to California in 1875 notable stage, and the growing of seedling to secure a climate which would prove an ally grapes became almost a passion with some,

and not an enemy, for he had already found out among them being young Burbank's relatives.

the immense value of environment in plant Also great interest prevailed in the growth of

improvement. He started there in the nursery new varieties of potatoes, owing to the failure

business; he acquired property, but at the of older sorts and the successful introduction

same time continued his experiments. About of South American varieties. Efforts for nov

fifteen years ago he found himself able to break elties extended to other kinds of garden plants away from commercial business and devote all and the exhibition of results at the county fairs his time to developing new species of plant life. heightened the interest.

It is through the arts of crossing and hybridNaturally a boy keen for this line of work

ization that Burbank's most surprising results and athirst for open air, too frail physically to

have been attained. He has held from the bebe pushed in school work and wearying of the trade which he chose first, because his people that can be used to overcome stubborn or dom

ginning that crossing is the greatest agency were interested largely in shops, young Bur

inant traits and bring latent ones to ascendbank began early to indulge his taste for the

ency. garden and soon took up horticulture as his chosen work. The idea of producing new

The crossing of varieties has resulted in plants better than the old ones quickly pos

striking results which have been heralded in sessed him, and he devoted his time for years

the newspapers far and near. One of his greatto this work. His first appearance in public

est productions came about this way. It is the was as an exhibitor of new seedlings and as a

"Wickson Plum," produced by crossing the writer on horticultural fairs for the local news

“Burbank” and “Kelsey.” It is a triumph of papers. From the very beginning he saw

selection in uniting the best features of two strange things in the plant world. His bean

good things and it delighted Mr. Burbank so experiments yielded manifestations which fully that his first name for it was “Perfection." would have enabled him to deduce biological hybridization involving different species. The

But more surprising results are wrought by laws if his mind had turned towards scientific conclusions.

stoneless prune, which has the kernel but not But his trend was otherwise from the first.

the shell, is a novelty with great commercial He held the horticulturist view and was ruled possibilities, because it admits of producing by the passion for producing something better,

prunes already stuffed—the cured pulp having He did not care how things changed under his

the flavor of an almond. hands, if for the better, all right. Whatever This result was attained by using an Euroappeared good was to be enjoyed, and remem- pean species which had never been of value bered; let the bad perish. Here is shown, un

until Burbank conceived the idea that he could consciously, the wonderful powers of observa- make use of one habit of the plant which was to tion, discrimination, analysis and memory

place a naked kernel in its scant acrid flesh. By which were the natural gifts of the boy's mind. securing a large number of crosses of this He can still see the minute forms of various species with the French prune, and by a tiredevelopments in his early experiments even

less selection afterwards, a group of stoneless when from his point of view they had no value. fruits has been secured, in one of which at least He believed the good things needed no record; a plump white kernel lies naked in abundant they would stand as their own monuments. sweet and juicy flesh. One of these was the Burbank potato, which The making of flowers from common weeds sold for enough to give Burbank a start in the is another result of the interweaving of species,

Common-Sense

II

or

of which the daisy is the best specimen. The THE WAY YOU SAY YOUR WORDS moon-daisy of Europe, the ox-eyed daisy of

BY STELLA MAY TINSLEY. American fields and another specie from Japan are in nature rather coarse, unsavory things, On this depends largely one's success more cursed for their aggressiveness than failure in life. The way one talks is a good praised for their beauty. Hybridization has indication of his personal qualities. We disbrought from them the Shasta daisy of surpris- play these unconsciously in conversation. A ing size and beauty and great commercial person of refinement is known by expression ; value. The rays have been enlarged, thickened a few words, profane words, are evidence that and given a dazzling whiteness; the stem a lofty character does not abide within. Words lengthened and made more rigid. By selection are also indicative of wisdom or a lack of it. the chosen group includes a great variety of Pronunciation indicates cultivation and taste forms, attitudes and arrangements of rays; or the absence of both. We show embarrassit comprises the grace of one specie, the size

ment, indifference, stupidity, courage, energy, of another and the whiteness of the third, and delight, and admiration by the vehicles called all these extended.

words. In the same manner our displeasure is Still another result in the interweaving of exhibited. several species is far away from the last, both Intellectual attainments, great or small, are in material and motive; that is, the shearing of brought to view in this way. the cactus. Smooth cacti are very old in Words are powerful things—great issues nature and horticulture, but the plants have come out of them. The whole tenor of a life been reduced in size, owing to the fact that the has been changed by a cheerful or a cutting horticulturist had been working only for the remark. fruit, caring nothing about the plant. It was

We are creatures of habit, therefore it is conceived by Burbank to secure the absence of

necessary to guard well our diction. Talk thorns and prickles, and still drive the plant thoughtfully_talk kindly-wounds are made to greater size and hardiness, so that the cactus

oftentimes unintentionally. Words cannot be deserts anywhere could be made stretches of

recalled. There is no place for the rude of pasturing for live stock. The suggestion came

speech-the world is not benefited by surly from the fact that the fleshy leaves or pods of

discourse. Persons are in demand who heighten the prickly pear cactus are sometimes prepared

life's pleasures; not those who detract from for cow-feeding by beating off the spines and

them. The saucy retort and stinging rebuke singeing off the prickles.

will gain nothing socially or financially; they To Burbank it seemed more rational to grow

are not welcome visitors at any fireside. them without these appendages. The result of

The business man is at once interested in the hybridization and selection, secured by the use

polished stranger; the social circle is charmed of five species, natives from Alaska to South

with the polite new member. Few are averse Africa, is a cactus from which you can possibly take a leaf weighing fifty pounds and so smooth

to pleasantry properly used.

Many truly delightful friendships could exist that you can safely rub your cheek against it.

but for something some one has said—the way Another of his achievements which is almost

it was said. So many joyous days could be past common belief is crossing the genera of

spent but for the harsh tone employed on many the botanists and intermingling their distinc

occasions. In that way much happiness is tive characters in the offspring. Of a number

marred. Manifold are the friends won by of such successes the plumcot, combining the characters of the plum and the apricot, is the

words; our enemies are largely made by the

same process—words. It is worth while to most surprising and possibly the most val

think before we speak. uable. Burbank has, during his forty years of work, public, newspapers very often state that “polite

In putting an event before the notice of the left few groups of plants untouched and touched few to which he did not impart new

people” are in attendance. Courteous people character and uses.

attract—they can do greater service than the As to the general char

most well meaning morose individual. acter of his work, it may be said that he has

The world's celebrated singer, Patti, does disclosed material of incalculable value to

not allow her politeness to wane, no matter science. For horticulture he has not only pro- what the circumstances. The fatigue of long duced a wealth of material, but has accom

journeys does not change her pleasing mode of plished more than any other man ever did in the elevation of horticulture towards the plane people is one reason for her popularity. "The

conversation. The respectful way she talks to of biology.

way she says words makes them attractive, This story won first prize in our recent contest. and it is always the same.” (A photograph of Mr. Burbank appears on the

Politeness is never out of place. The educover page)

cated and the ignorant enjoy it alike.

By EDWARD T. PAGE

The planning of an advertising campaign is that way. There are a hundred earnest students one of the greatest responsibilities and most im- for every football fiend. portant duties of the advertising man.

Unquestionably, the great public that buys or It is needless to say that the proposition or rejects what the advertiser offers, generally article to be put before the public should be so speaking, is honest. So in planning a campaign well prepared, so entirely worthy of favor, that

it is safe to figure upon about only six or seven there can be absolutely no question as to its per cent for leakage from dishonest patronage; merits. At the time it is brought to the office this is the smallest part of an advertiser's and put onto the manager's desk it must of troubles. necessity embody all the virtues desired in such

IMPORTANT DETAILS. a proposition or article by the average man and woman. It should be no matter for especial

When the article is selected and ready to be pride on the manufacturer's part that his article put up into proper form, the next thing to conis well made—first class in every respect; this

sider is the cost of shipping, and maintaining a condition is to be taken for granted. An article

sufficiently large quantity in a warehouse for

immediate delivery. designed to become a necessity in home, office, or shop must on the face of it approximate per

It is necessary to keep the subject of convenfection. If it does not, the advertiser becomes a

ience uppermost in mind at all times: convenience party to a swindling game. No man deserves or

for the customer in buying, convenience in use, receives praise for not being a robber, hold-up

and convenient payment plans. man, or general cut-throat. Neither is it a mat

The article must be constantly compared with ter for especial commendation that a manufac

others having its especial function, that it may tured article lacks poor material, underrate work

not be allowed to fall below grade. You must manship or any other weakness that would mar

offer at least as good an article as there is on it. As a matter of course, the article must be

the market and a better one if possible. meritorious.

It is not difficult to popularize an article. Re

peated announcements read by housewives or THE PUBLIC IS HONEST

office men produce a thirst or a desire that is The buying public, generally speaking, is an satisfied finally only by a purchase. And then honest public. It has been proved beyond doubt the real merit of the article decides its future. that 97 per cent of the people are honest-think- There must not be the slightest hitch in the ing people, serious in their motives. When they

matter of delivery, as this causes irritation, which enter upon a contract they fully expect to live can ruin the prospects of the most meritorious up to it, and in a large majority of cases do so. article. Credit mail-order houses that accept a small pay- The small details of planning an advertising ment down on purchases made by out-of-town

campaign are all too often disregarded by the customers find that the buyer's word is as good advertising man. To settle the cause of failure as his bond. Purchases mounting up to thou- on a mere delay in filling orders would seem to sands of dollars are shipped hundreds of miles him like splitting hairs to find an excuse; but to the most remote sections of the country with

with years of experience he learns the danger of full confidence that each month's installment will carelessness in details, and looks scrupulously be met when it falls due.

after the small things. Speaking of the general honesty of the people TWO PLANS FOR AN ADVERTISING CAMPAIGN reminds me of all this hue and cry about graft There are two distinct plans for advertising that is heard everywhere, today. Unthinking campaigns: general publicity, and that designed people exclaim in dismay, “There is no honesty to bring direct returns. The former method is anywhere any more," seeming not to realize that on a broader scale, is considered the most subthe politicians, boodlers, and grafters form a very stantial, and is in greater favor where products infinitesimal part of our population; honest mer- are to be sold largely upon the reputation of the chants, farmers, grocers, and business men in all concern. the other legitimate lines form the great bulk of You see examples of this kind of advertising our citizenship. Again, it is like the great cry everywhere, on bill boards, in magazines, newsraised against football, with the claim that it is papers, circulars-in fact, in every conceivable ruining colleges, when not one-hundredth of the form in which printer's ink can come before the total number of students ever have an oppor- public. tunity to kick a bali. The great college game In the 17th century the only kind of adveris confined to a few who have a special leaning tising known was merely an announcement; and

Common-Sense

13

in truth many small-town merchants seem to the retailer carry at least a small stock to meet think to this day that the 17th century form of the demands created by extensive advertising. publicity is sufficient. Country weekly papers Other inducements are made right along until carry the same cut-and-dried card week in and the retailer has been swung into line and is week out, every season of the year. They think handling the manufacturer's goods. The latter that “Smith's is the place for first-class gro- furnishes cuts, well-written advertisements, calceries" should be sufficient to attract any man or endars, booklets, and such other forms of adverwoman to Smith's counters. The line positively tising as the business and conditions may sugbecomes an eye-sore. This, however, is not the gest-all carrying the retailer's name. type of general publicity I refer to in speaking It is important to the manufacturer that the of this subject; there is a type that pays, and article have some point of idenification, either a pays handsomely. The type that changes copy, special name or some special feature by which cuts and offers frequently, and always has a the consumer can identify it in calling for it over newsy message to impart.

the counter, because it is an unwritten law among I notice, however, that as a rule when a

retailers to hand out something "just as good, worthy article is reported to me as having been

if “just out" of the article asked for. advertised with unsatisfactory results, the adver- I am not questioning the relative values of tising was of this 17th century general publicity

articles--I am merely suggesting ways to forevariety. In fact, all advertising not classed

stall the natural tendency of a dealer to sell the under the direct results" head hovers under the goods he has in stock. wings of "general publicity.”

The retailer is not particularly interested in As has already been stated, there is a scien- any one article more than another, but he is intific way to use general publicity that makes it terested in getting rid of the goods on his shelves. of the greatest value.

The whole point of an advertising campaign, Some propositions require this form of adver

then, is to get the retailer in a frame of mind tising almost exclusively, but such a proposition

whereby he would "just as soon handle your must be a large one.

goods as not. The very nature of this advertising requires it.

It never pays to stock up a retailer too heavThe manufacturer today has the best hold

ily. Nothing so disgusts the average storekeeper

as to have a row of goods carrying handsome upon the results from general publicity because

labels grin at him every morning on opening he controls his article, and thus does not build

up, and, still unbroken, yawn at him the last thing up the reputation of another man's product. He

at night at closing time. receives the full benefit of every cent he expends. His object is to compel the retailer to

WHEN I CAMPAIGN FAILS carry his product, and his plan is to present the

The failure of many a good proposition arises merits of his article to the consumer in a man

from the fact that the manufacturer thought the ner that will induce him to demand this very

only thing necessary was to "make a sale. This article of his local store in preference to others.

is a most erroneous idea. The manufacturer This naturally forces the retailer to carry the

must take the consumer into consideration. He called-for goods in stock.

must see to it that his goods become so strongly Whenever a manufacturer indulges in the "di

entrenched in the household that the retailer will rect results” form of advertising, and at the same

have difficulty in substituting another brand. time places his goods through the retailer, it is

On the other hand, the modern merchant ap

preciates the advertising the manufacturer is done only for the purpose of strengthening the confidence of the consumer and to show an obsti

doing and will use his efforts to increase connate retailer that his trade wants the manufac

sumption. turer's goods.

ADVERTISING AND THE SALESMAN A manufacturer who says in his advertise- Advertising by no means does away with ment, “If your dealer doesn't carry them, send traveling salesmen, as some people are inclined to us and we will supply you," doesn't place any to believe. On the contrary, it acts as an introvalue upon the direct returns he receives ex- duction, making salesmanship easier. Through cepting as a lever which he can use to get his advertising it is possible for the salesman to apgoods onto the shelves of the retailer. His proach his prospective buyer with the assurance immediate course is to write a letter to the retail that he will be met with a cordial “good mornmerchant, stating that Mr. Smith saw their ad- ing.” The retailer has read of his concern, and vertisement and wrote for the article, and re- is fairly familiar with its standing. questing the courtesy of the retailer to deliver Contrast this conditon with that of former the order to Mr. Smith, deducting the usual per- years, when the salesman was met with a cold, centage for his trouble, and forwarding check "We don't need anything," "We never heard of for the balance. At the same time, the manu- your concern,” and hundreds of other such greetfacturer uses this opportunity to suggest that ings that required hours to combat before he was even allowed to show his goods, and then they A THOUGHTFUL LETTER OFFERwere shown under the most unfavorable and

ING SENSIBLE SUGGESTIONS nerve-trying conditions.

Today the traveling salesman has time to study his proposition, to talk to the retailer, rationally and intelligently, upon points of vital import, on

Los ANGELES, Calif.

EDITOR COMMON-SENSE: the manner of disposing of the goods, of the help “the house” will give the retailer, etc., and

It is with great pleasure I have read COMMON

Sense, and can see in this magazine a great help finally makes an intelligent sale. The old way

to the one who will read and profit thereby. was to load up the merchant with goods that he

The wide-awake, progressive young man of todid not want, and which gave him a spasm of dis

day must cast aside, to a certain extent, intergust every time he thought of the salesman's

esting frivolities and devote his time to that visit.

which is beneficial, uplifting, and to that which THE MARKET CENTERS

makes and strengthens character, not merely Market centers have multiplied and New York

idling his time away in amusement, which will is no longer the only place where buyers con

surely bring want in the end. gregate to lay in a stock of goods. We have In this connection, I might add a few lines today, Chicago, St. Louis, Denver, San Fran- from my own experience and trust they will cisco, and twenty other progressive cities ready be a help to some fellow who feels as though to meet the buyer with the same facilities that the whole world were down on him simply beonce could be found only in New York. This

cause he hasn't made the most of his Godcondition makes it necessary for the enterprising given opportunities. The first thing you must manufacturer to establish distributing points con

realize is to grasp the opportunity when it venient to all parts of the country. These dis- presents itself. Decide on the merits of the tributing stations may or may not be also jobbing thing; don't waver, but make your own dehouses in their respective cities.

cision and stay by it. If you find by experience you have made a mistake, analyze the

whole matter thoroughly and let it be a lesson THOUGHTS ON ADVERTISING in your memory to profit by.

After your daily work is done and you have BY CHARLES J. LEVEQUE.

had a stroll with a good sociable companion,

retire to your room and hold a little council Being launched into the sea where competi- with yourself and ask yourself the questions: ion holds full sway, and requiring a steady Have I learned anything of benefit? Can I do hand to guide aright in order to avoid the better tomorrow? The world must recognize snags and stumps of adversity, a pilot who has originality and I am going to prove myself experience and tactis entrusted with the original and learn the value of every passing manipulation of the ship in order to reach the moment. shores of success safely.

If a young man were to ask me the question: This is his duty, and one which he is fully What do you consider the best occupation or able to fill, being equipped with a clear, con- trade for one just out of school, with a high cise and thorough knowledge of the channel

school or grammar school education, and with of advertising

no very decided tendencies as to what branch This advertising is the key of success, to

of business to devote himself, I would say, which all these great mammoth concerns of Spend two years at least learning the rudicommerce owe their tribute.

ments of the printing trade, but don't stick to If history had repeated itself in this manner

it; read all you can the best magazines on the years ago, the exact proportion of business to topics of the day and especially those which date would be hard to estimate.

advise and help in a business way. Then if

you can write a little, branch into the newsThe peg which confronted the merchant in

paper business, which in itself is a great eduyears gone by, was not the lack of business

cator and one must be abreast of the times to ability, but the lack of promulgation. When,

succeed in it. The people you come in contact where, and, above all, how to prepare and distribute through different mediums.

with during this probationary course will all

aid in helping you and giving you ideas which This peg, which looked so small to them, has

will be helpful in your future life whatever you proved to the world its necessity and essen- branch into later, and the experience gained tiality in order to succeed.

will be like so much money in the bank when That advertising is the promoter of pros- you are looking around for something to do. perity and wealth is proven by the way in

Yours for success. which it is adopted by all business concerns.

Geo. W. HARRINGTON.

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