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but from Jesus Christ. He willingly grants that he is the first among his brethren, and that he holds among them the first place of honour. He further maintains that he is neither the sole judge nor the only interpreter of revelation ; that he is not above a council, nor endowed with the personal privilege of infallibility, but that these prerogatives belong to the universal church; and that the universal church is above the pope, possessing the right of judging his conduct. He maintains, finally, that Jesus Christ has conferred upon bim no power over temporalities (sur le temporel) and that, far from baving put sceptres and crowns at the feet and the disposal of his vicar, he has made bim a bishop in bis church and not emperor of the world.
3. “ We say to our wandering brethren of the protestant churches, cast with us a veil over the insults which have been so'unworthily heap. ed upon the chair of St. Peter. Adopt the sentiments of some of your own learned and moderate men. You have already heard Melancihon (quoted in my last letter) .There is no dispute concerning the superiority of the pope, and the authority of the bishops. The monarchy of the pope' would also be of great service to preserve, among different nations, consent with regard to doctrine.' And do not forget this expression of Grotius: •Let the bishop,' says he, 'preside over the priests; the metropolitan over the bishops, and over all, the bishop of Rome. This order ought always to continue in the church, for the cause al. ways continues, that is, the danger of schism.'*
4. “We say to our separated brethren, the Christians of the Greek church, how can you prolong a schism, the most destructive of evils, and the most unpardonable of crimes, on account of opinions which you are not obliged to adopt ? They appear to you inadmissible, and they appear so to us. The faith does not ordain, and you can oppose them, and still be united to us. - There needs little more to effect this object, than the concessions which your learned divines have already
* We have not the writings of Melancthon to refer to in order to ascertain whether this quotation be just. His love of peace led him to make some concessions which did not satisfy his protestant brethren, and of which an undue advap. tage was taken by the partisans of Rome. The expressions of Grotius, when taken in connexion with the context, are not quite so strong as they are here represented. After mentioning St. Cyprian's view of Christian unity, and quoting the expressions of St. Jerome adv. Jovin, evidently taken from Cyprian, he says, a Tale caput est inter Presbyteros Episcopus, inter Episcopos Metropolitanus, aut alio quis modo electus ut cæteris prąsit. Tale inter omnes Episcopus Romanus. Hic ordo in Ecclesia semper manere debet quia semper manet causa, id est periculum a schis. mate.” The words in Italicks are omitted by our Sorbonist, but they prove, that Grotius meant only such a presidency as is given to the senior bishop in the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States; one chosen to preside over his equals. In like manner, at a general council of all the bishops of the church, if it should again be united, the right of presiding might belong to the bishop of Rome. That such was his idea is further evident from the following words which occur soon after : “ Regitur enim Ecclesia communi Episcoporum consilio : sed et portionum plurium inter se coagmentatio, et illa totius corporis unum requirunt præsidem : ita et paritas manet potestatis, et exsors quædam potestas, ut Hieronymus loquitur, inter cætera pares ; sunt enim pares jure collegii, non jure principatus." Grotius, Votum pro pace Ecclesiastica ad art.vii.-Opera Amst 1679. Tom. iv. p. 658.
made. Doubtless they would not have refused the little which it re. mained for them to do. Let us be united. We were so for nine successive centuries, and both our churches were then more holy and more flourishing.
5. “ Finally, with all the respect which we profess for our superiours and brethren of the ultramontain churches, we say to them, You who are still so deeply tinctured with those extravagant tenets (principes exagérés) which have sprung up among you, in modern times, reflect upon all the evils which they have caused to the church, and that instead of giving to the holy see a power wbich it had not, they have in fact caused it to lose what it really had : reflect upon the calumnies which they have occasioned and the uneasiness which in consequence of them has often been conceived even by friendly powers ; reflect upon the jealousies and aversion which they have nourished in the Protestant states, and the specious motives with which they furnish the Greek churches for maintaining and justifying their schism. Do not such numerous and powerful motives demand the sacrifice of some arbitrary maxims? Will you say, that, considering the question as not yet decided, it is lawful for you, as in every other undecided question, to support the opinion which you prefer? The principle, in itself, is certainly very catholick. I complain only of its application, which in the present instance appears to me blind, and even blameworthy, When, from any opinion whatsoever, there result destructive consequences to the church, or to the salvation of souls, the sacrifice of it is equally a dictate of charity and justice. It is certain that by pressing these ultramontain maxims, an eternal obstacle will be presented to the return of the separated communions. I would not affirm, indeed, that the Greeks would become reconciled to us, even if we were all to come to an understanding with them concerning the papal authority. They say it, however, and it is said by persons among them of the most influential character. If we may believe them, your assertions alone keep them still in a state of separation. Is not this enough to make it your duty to renounce them? For, I beseech you to consider, if the formation of schisms be the first and the most unpardonable of crimes, must not the second be that of hindering the return to unity? Do not, then, I conjure you, render their approach to a reunion more difficult. Attempt rather to smooth for them the path which leads to 'it. At least, you will have put the Greeks to the proof, and we shall see in an affair of primary importance, if their declarations have been sincere.
" But if motives of interest are not to be considered, and if your opinions seem to you too intimately connected with the faith for you to abandon them, then keep them to yourselves till the church has established them as articles of doctrine (les ait consacrées en dogmes) and, in the mean while, do not refuse to submit them to a new exam. ination."
We have laid this long extract before our readers, principally for the sake of the second and the concluding paragraphs. Let the opin ion of this zealous Sorbonist concerning the reformers, or his addresses
GOSPEL ADVOCATE, VOL. III,
to the Protestants and to the Greeks, be received for what they are worth; but it is evident from his address to the superiours of the ultramontain churches, (whom we take to be the court of Rome,) that there are two parties on the subject of the pope's prerogative, one of which, embracing probably the Italians and the great body of the Spanish and Portuguese clergy, are disposed to support the most extravagant tenets, and to consider them as too intimately connected with the Ro. man faith to render the abandonment of them lawful or expedient. When, therefore, Dr. England says that it never was an article of the Roman Catholick faith that the pope is infallible, it means only that there has been no formal decision of the question. Protestants must receive, with great distrust, all such representations, till the ultramontain party with the pope and cardinals at their head bave openly and distinctly renounced their high pretensions. We have no doubt that the Roman Catholicks of America will generally side with the moderate party, in opposition to the ultramontainists. The very institu. tions of our country, and the influence of religious freedom, will pro- . duce this effect. Whether they will carry their moderation so far as finally to produce that reunion, which the author we have quoted, so eloquently urges, time alone must determine. It is not, however, such men as Dr. England, who will lead to this happy and desirable result; but there are those elevated individuals in the Roman communion whom we should delight to name; who are elevated alike by virtues and by office ; who, like Fenelon and Pascal, would be ornaments to any com, munion ; and whose urbanity and Christian charity, are calculated to subdue unfounded prejudices, remove unkindly feelings, and diminish, as far as possible, the distance of our separation.
FROM THE CHRISTIAN GUARDIAN. I HAVE abridged the following narrative from a letter contained in a publication lately re-edited by Mrs. Sherwood. As this little work has not met with any very extensive circulation, the story will be new to many of your readers, and its insertion will gratify, sir, yours most truly.
T. H. NARRATIVE OF LITTLE EMILY. A little more than twelve years ago, my husband having had a severe illness, we were advised to spend our summer months in the country ; and, in consequence, took a journey into the north of Eng. land, and there hired for the season an old-fashioned house, situated in a garden abounding with fruits and flowers of various kinds. Here, having no employment, and but few neighbours, we spent a great part of our time in sitting on a garden-chair, which we found under the spreading branches of a walnut-tree, situated on a round plot of grass in the centre of the garden. On this pleasant spot, while I employed myself with my needle, my husband read to me the Pastorals of Philips, the Arcadia of Sir Philip Sydney, and other fashionable works of the day.
From this our walnut-tree seat we were presented with one of the most lovely prospects which can be imagined. Our garden and house were situated on the declivity of a considerable eminence. Directly on our front was an orchard, below which appeared a rich country, abounding with woods, from the centre of wbich, at a considerable distance, arose the tower of a church. On the right hand, a different prospect opened to our view—a range of bills of considerable height terminated the horizon, whence an irregular and exceedingly beautiful country descended to the banks of a river, which wound its secret course through the bottom of the valley. On the pearer side of the river the country was smiling and fertile, abounding with orchards, corn-fields, and cottages.
One feature in this landscape particularly pleased my fancy: it was a little foot-path, which, passing by our garden-gate, and descending into the valley, appeared again at the distance of about a quarter of a mile, winding through a corn-field, till it was lost at the entrance of a little coppice. From the centre of this coppice arose a white chimney, the blue smoke of which indicated that the place was inhabited; but it was left to my imagination to picture by what kind of persons. Nor did I fail to indulge iny fancy, by supposing it might be the abode of some Phillis and Damon, these being the most perfect beings of which I could then form an idea.
It happened, one morning, about ten o'clock, as we were sitting in our usual place, that I saw something coming out of the little coppice and proceeding towards us along the path ; but at that distance, whatever it might be, it appeared only like a black speck. After a little while I looked again, when I could distinguish a small figure clothed in black; and, as the figure approached, I perceived it was a little girl, perhaps not seven years of age, carrying a basket. She came tripping along with a light and graceful step, discovering in every motion so peculiar a vivacity and elegance as greatly attracted my attention, and convinced me, that whatever her place of abode, or her parentage might be, there was in her something which I had not often observed in children ; yet what this was, I could not define. I watched her till she had passed the garden-gate ; and, about an hour afterwards, saw her return, having been, as I supposed, to the village, which was at some little distance from our hired habitation. I marked her till she had retraced her steps, and entered again into the coppice. A second view did not destroy the first impression which the appearance of this little girl had made upon my imagination; and, as my head was then filled with poetical and pastoral ideas from the books which we had been reading, I said to my husband, “This little girl wants only to lay aside her mourning dress, and to be clothed in white, with a straw hat, a wreath of flowers, and a crook; to become as elegant a shepherdess as any described by Sir Philip Sydney."
The next day, about the same hour, while we were engaged as usual under our walnut tree, the little shepherdess appeared again. I traced her uneven and childish steps, as she sometimes tripped hastily onwards, and then 'stopped and stooped, as I rightly guessed,
to gather flowers; for I afterwards saw a few violets tied together with a blade of grass in her basket. At lengtb she ascended the hill towards us, while I went out at the gate of the garden to look at her, resolving, if I liked her equally well on a near approach as at a distance, to speak to her.
I had time to examine her minutely as she came forward. Her hood was not pulled very far over her face, and her fair brown hair was gently agitated by the breeze. But it is impossible to describe her countenance, and equally so to give an idea of the delicacy of her features, or the sparkling vivacity of her blue eyes: yet what was most remarkable in this child was, a dignified kind of carriage and self-possession, which was not in the least disturbed when I addressed her. She was exceedingly fair ; but air and exercise had given her a high bloom, which added much to the sweetness of ber appearance. In her hand she carried a basket, which had nothing in it but the bunch of violets before spoken of. Her dress was mourning, and, though neat, bespoke an attention to economy.
I stepped into the middle of the path, and asked her name, her place of abode, and several other questions. She told me her name was Emily ; that her father, who had been an officer, was lately dead; that she once had a very dear little sister, who was also no more ; and that now she only was left to her dear mamma. She added, that her mother having left the place in which she formerly resided with her father, had come to live at a cottage in the wood, where they occupied only one room, there being other inbabitants in the house. She informed me also that her mother was very ill.,
While she gave me this account, which she entered upon without confusion or hesitation, the colour rose in her cheeks, her eyes filled with tears, her lip quivered, and at length she burst into an agony of crying, making a motion as if she would have thrown herself into my arms, as, no doubt, she had been accustomed to do, on like occasions, into those of her tender mother ; but, hastily recollecting berself, shę recovered with a peculiar dignity, and, stopping short, was going to wish me a good morning with much sweetness and courtesy, 'when I said, “ My little miss, do not be in a hurry to leave me. Tell me why you cry; and let me know if I can do any thing to comfort
“When I think of my papa and my little sister,” she answered, “ I cannot help crying ; and yet I know it is wrong."
“ Wrong, my dear!" I answered, “why should it be wrong to weep for such dear friends ?”
“Because,” she answered, “they are very happy, they are gone to our Lord Jesus Christ, and are in his house : I know this, and therefore I ought to be glad, and not to cry.".
I found my heart strangely drawn to this little girl from the first moment I saw her distinctly, and every word she said increased my interest in her. Finding, however, a reluctance to speak with her on religious subjects, I inquired only whither she was going.
“I am going, ma'am,” she said, “to the village, to fetch a roll for my mother, and one for myself, with a little pot of butter, and some medicine for my mother; and I go almost every day.”