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7 and 8. There is no retired list.

9. The whole number of persons in the civil service is about 200,000, of whom 69,000 are postmasters and 25,000 laborers and workmen. Of the remaining places about 43,000 are in what is termed the classified service, entrance to which, under the act of January 16, 1883, can only be had through examinations held by the Civil Service Commission. The act provides for “open competitive examinations for testing the fitness of applicants, *," prohibits the use of “official authority or influence to coerce the political action of any person or body," and makes penal the levying of political assessments. The classification embraces the Departments at Washington, having 10,000 places; the railway-mail service, with 7,000 places; the Indian school service, with 650; 610 post-offices having free delivery, employing 23,000 persons, and the customs ports at which as many as 50 persons are employed, with 2,300 places. Outside of the civil-service act examinations are conducted in the respective offices for the skilled and unskilled labor service of the navy-yards, for promotion in the railway-mail service, at large post-offices, and in some of the Departments at Washington, but these outside examinations are not required by law. For entrance to the classified service applicants are required to be within certain limits of age, and, in an application paper, to set forth, under oath, answers to searching questions showing the material facts as to their qualifications.

Certificates must also be furnished by vouchers in answer to printed questions. The examinations are open to all persons duly qualified as to age, citizenship, etc., and by law are required 6 to relate to those matters which will fairly test the relative capacity and fitness of the persons examined to discharge the duties of the service into which they seek to be appointed.” In the Departments at Washington the appointments must be apportioned among the States and Territories according to population. Appointments are required to be made from among the three persons standing highest of the sex and grade called for by the appointing officer. Upon appointment an oath must be taken in the form prescribed by law. All appointments to the classified service are on probation for six months; after that they are made absolute, and continue during the pleasure of the appointing officer. The power of removal is not restricted by law, except that a removal may not be made for political reasons. There is no authority vested anywhere to review the action of the appointing officer in making a removal.

10. Women are rarely employed in the postal service except as postmistresses and clerks in post-offices. Of the 69,000 postmasters it is said that a little more than 6,000 are women. In the customs service they are only employed as inspectresses, with here and there a clerk. Of all those employed in whatever capacity in Washington less than onethird are women; and in the classified service at Washington about one in seven of those appointed is a woman. They are employed as type

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writers, money counters and assorters, and in various subordinate capacities. In the Indian school service women are employed as matrons, teachers, and nurses. They are never employed in the railway mail service. Their pay is the same as for men for the same work, but their employment as a rule is confined to the lower grades.

11. In the Departments at Washington the heads of the Departments are paid $8,000 per annum; the associate justices of the Supreme Court of the United States, $10,000; the assistant secretaries and chiefs of bureaus, $3,000 to $5,000; the clerical force, $600 to $1,800; messengers, $840; watchmen, $600 to $840, and laborers, $660 and sometimes less. - In the customs service the salaries are about the same as in the departmental service. Letter-carriers in the large cities are divided into three classes; the first having salaries of $1,000 per annum, the second $800, and the third $600. In cities with a population of less than 75,000, carriers of the second class receive $840 per annum and the third $600. Assistant-postmasters receive from $1,500 to not exceeding $3,000 per annum, except at New York, where it is $3,500 per annum; secretary and stenographer to postmasters, $1,200 to $1,600; cashiers,$1,800 to $2,600; assistant-cashiers, $1,200 to $1,400; finance clerks, $1,200 to $1,700; stamp-clerks, $800 to $1,700; superintendents of mails, $1,300 to $2,700, except at New York, where it is $3,200; mailing-clerks, letter-distributers, and others of like grades, $600 to $1,400. Entrance to the classified service is usually in the lowest grades, the higher grades being filled by promotion. In the railway mail service length of service is considered as a ground for increase of compensation, together with periodical examinations. Promotions in that service are strictly based upon records of service. In other parts of the service promotions are unregulated, except that in the New York custom-house there are examinations for promotion under the control of the Civil Service Commission.

Under the civil-service act referred to, no official may be promoted or changed for failure or refusal to make political contributions or to render political services. In the customs service an official may not receive extra compensation or be concerned in importations, nor hold any other office of profit. A general law applying to the entire civil service forbids gifts to superiors. In the customs service officials must reside within their distriets. General statutes require that persons discharged from the military or naval service for wounds or sickness incurred in the line of duty shall be preferred for appointments to civil offices if of the req. uisite business capacity; also that no officer may receive consideration for procuring any contract, office, or place in the Government; forbidding a member of Congress from receiving any consideration for any action brought before him in his official capacity. In reductions of force those are retained who, if equally qualified, have been discharged from the military or naval service or who are the widows or

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orphans of deceased soldiers or sailors. No one may be employed by the Government unless such employment is authorized in the law granting the appropriations, and no voluntary services are allowed ex. cept in cases of sudden emergency involving the loss of human life or the destruction of property. We have the honor to be, your obedient servants,



H. Ex. 1, pt. 8—3

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* Mr. Doyle was appointed stenographer to the Commission March 9, 1883, and promoted upon appointment by the President from that position to Secretary. † Appointed Commissioner.


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