« AnteriorContinuar »
ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS
TO THE SIXTH EDITION.
NUMERous small corrections have been made in the
last and present editions on various subjects, according
as the evidence has become somewhat stronger or weaker. The more important corrections and some additions in the present volume are tabulated on the following page, for the convenience of those interested in the subject, and who possess the fifth edition. The second edition was little more than a reprint of the first. The third edition was largely corrected and added to, and the fourth and fifth still more largely. As copies of the present work will be sent abroad, it may be of use if I specify the state of the foreign editions. The third French and second German editions were from the third English, with some few of the additions given in the fourth edition. A new fourth French edition has been translated by Colonel Moulinié; of which the first half is from the fifth English, and the latter half from the present edition. A third German edition, under the superintendence of Professor Victor Carus, was from the fourth English edition; a fifth is now preparing by the same author from the present volume. The second American edition was from the English second, with a few of the additions given in the third; and a third American edition has been printed from the fifth English edition. The Italian is from the third, the Dutch and three Russian editions from the second English edition, and the Swedish from the fifth English edition.
Edition. Edition. Chief Additions and Corrections.
100 106 || Influence of fortuitous destruction on natural selection.
158 156 On the convergence of specific forms.
220 221 Account of the Ground-Woodpecker of La Plata modified.
225 227 . On the modification of the eye.
230 233 Transitions through the acceleration or retarda
tion of the period of reproduction.
231 234 The account of the electric organ of fishes added to.
233 237 Analogical resemblance between the eyes of Cepha
lopods and Vertebrates.
234 239 Claparéde on the analogical resemblance of the
hair-claspers of the Acaridae.
248 254 The probable use of the rattle to the Rattle-snake.
248 254 Helmholtz on the imperfection of the human eye.
255 262 The first part of this new chapter consists of por
tions, in a much modified state, taken from chap.
iv. of the former editions. The latter and larger
part is new, and relates chiefly to the supposed
incompetency of natural selection to account
for the incipient stages of useful structures.
There is also a discussion on the causes which
prevent in many cases the acquisition through
natural selection of useful structures. Lastly,
reasons are given for disbelieving in great and
sudden modifications. Gradations of character,
often accompanied by changes of function, are
likewise here incidentally considered.
268 333 The statement with respect to young cuckoos
ejecting their foster-brothers confirmed.
270 334 On the cuckoo-like habits of the Molothrus,
307 9 On fertile hybrid moths.
319 22 The discussion on the fertility of hybrids not having been acquired through natural selection
condensed and modified.
- - - - -
AN HISTORICAL SKETCH
PREVIOUSLY TO THE PUBLICATION OF THE FIRST EDITION
I will here give a brief sketch of the progress of opinion on the Origin of Species. Until recently the great majority of naturalists believed that species were immutable productions, and had been separately created. This view has been ably maintained by many authors. Some few naturalists, on the other hand, have believed that species undergo modification, and that the existing forms of life are the descendants by true generation of pre-existing forms. Passing over allusions to the subject in the classical writers,” the first author who in
* Aristotle, in his “Physicae Auscultationes’ (lib. 2, cap. 8, s. 2), after remarking that rain does not fall in order to make the corn grow, any more than it falls to spoil the farmer's corn when threshed out of doors, applies the same argument to organisation; and adds (as translated by Mr. Clair Grece, who first pointed out the passage to me), “So what hinders the different parts [of the body] from having this merely accidental relation in nature? as the teeth, for example, grow by necessity, the front ones sharp, adapted for dividing, and the grinders flat, and serviceable for masticating the food; since they were not made for the sake of this, but it was the result of accident. And in like manner as to the other parts in which there appears to exist an adaptation to an end. Wheresoever, therefore, all things together (that is all the parts of one whole) happened like as if they were made for the sake of something, these were preserved, having been appropriately constituted