« AnteriorContinuar »
To the Editor of the Farmers' Register.
| I then, with a couple of largo two-horse drags, EXHAUSTING AND IMPROVING CULTIVATION. harrowed the land the same way it was broken Powhatan, dipril 13th, 1834. up, which smoothed the surface, although the
weather was very dry. On the 27th of September, I have, for some time, desired that some one following, I commenced sowing upon this lot about woull undertake to correct the evils prevailing in twenty-five bushels of wheat, harrowing it the our county, to the devastation and entire destruc-' same way that the land was ploughed, and la tion of the value of our lands, by hard and exces about half the width of the harrows, by which sive culture, and which ought to have opened the means the land was gone over twice, the lapped eyes of more gentlemen who are really practical part finishing the work as it went on; the hoe fariners, well-informed, and influential in many hands followed, chopped over, cleared out the laudable things, but who appear to me, to have water-furrows, and grips, and broke up all the yielded without a struggle to this ruinous system clods. The prospect for a crop is, at this time, of management. By pursuing this course, detri- very promising, and I shall not be much mistaken mental to their own interest and diminishing the in my calculation when I say that the product will wealth of our beloved commonwealth, they have be more than seventy-five per cent. greater than already caused, and will continue to produce that I have ever inade from the same land. I am conabandonment of their native state and emigration fident that I have added to the fertility of this land to the west, which has been forced upon our people more in two years than could have been done in six, by their increasing necessities. That this diminu- in the way I at first attempted its improvement; and tion in the value of our lands is too much owing to that by some similar course of culture, land may neglect and bad management, and that an im- be so highly improved that a crop of small-grain will proved plan of cultivation will, with but little ad- lodge upon it, and render the cultivation of other ditional industry, effect a very great and desirable crops necessary to reduce its exuberant fertility. change in the present gloomy appearance of our Having abandoned the three-shift system altolands, must, I think, be evident to all who bestow wether, and pursuing now a different mode of culeven a slight degree of attention on this important tivation, I may hereafter give you the results of my subject. To reclaim our exhausted lands, is not experience, when I have acquired more than I now so impracticable as it has been considered: but it possess. In the mean time, it may be not uninrequires the dissemination of information acquired teresting, to give you some account of the present by experience, and the free interchange of opinion state of my little farm. It consists of about two on agricultural subjects. The work in which you hundred and thirty acres, divided by a fence runhave engacred, is a proper channel for the commu- ning nearly through the middle of the plantation. nication of this mutual instruction, which I look On one side of this fence is the fresh land, being upon as a sateguard of our happiness, and a har- the smallest portion, and containing about one binger of our future prosperity: and I consider it hundred acres, which is already sown in wheat the duty of each subscriber to the “Register,' to and clover; (the clover up tolerably well:) on the contribute all in his power to the general stock of opposite side are one hundred and thirty acres of information. Under a sense of this duty, and not land, much more lean. Each of these divisions with a vain expectation of imparting any material will be subdivided by turning-rows, so as to make benefit to my brother farmers, I have been induced two fields of fitty acres on one side, and two of to address you; and I have been the more en- sixty-five on the other side of the fence. It is not couraged to do so, from having already observed my intention, however, to commence with corn the good which has resulted from the communica- upon any one of my fields until the year 1836: in tions of some of your earlier correspondents. the meantime the division of one hundred and
Having for eight or ten years past, been in the thirty acres is to be fallowed in the course of this habit of partially grazing my land, and having summer, and laid down in wheat this fall; and in found, as I supposed, an improvement therefron, the spring ensuing the whole of this part will be I took up an idea that by pursuing this course, sown in clover. I have no standing pasture, but with the addition of all my manure, (a scanty por-use a tract of rented land for grazing; and should tion however,) I could restore my farm to its origi be pleased to learn what kind of grass would be nal productiveness. But the period within which most profitable, and prosper best, if sown in the I had hoped to effect this desirable change passed woods for a standing pasture, the undergrowth away, and instead of improving, I had impoverished being first cleared up, the brush cleaned off, and my land. I determined, therefore, to resort to clover; the leaves raked up and hauled away. and in 1831 I sowed a lot of about twenty-four The production of my farm in small grain, has acres with twenty gallons of clover seed. Upon been moderately increasing for several years, by about one-third of this lot, immediately after sow- its having been a little more nursed than some ing, I scattered the chaff of three crops of wheat, others. I have for some time been in the habit of which had a very happy effect: for although the top-dressing. I have top-dressed clover one year whole of the seed took tolerably well, it came up old with wheat straw, put on in the fall. This much thicker upon this portion of the lot, and plan is well adapted to produce a vigorous growth would have produced more than twice the quan- of clover in the ensuing spring. I have also used tity, by weight, had it been cut and tried. The ashes on the surface, at the rate of one bushel to clover here lodged. It should be mentioned how- thirty feet square, well spread, upon wheat and ever, that the land on this part of the lot was better clover, then covered with litter from the stable; than the rest. In April, twelve months after the consisting principally of wheat straw, thrown out clover was bown, I had plastered it with one ton every morning into a pen, and allowed to go of plaster to the whole. This clover was turned through a fermentation. This I think the best under last August, (1833) with double ploughs, top-dressing I have ever tried. breaking the land to the depth of six or eight inches. I have top-dressed land too poor to bring a crop
of any kind, with leaves from the wood, mixed are neglected and abandoned to destruction: with wheat straw, which I think answers well, if whereas, if our lands were cultivated in grain and fallowed afterwards for wheat. The most abun-clover, with other valuable grasses, they would dant manure we have is that from the farm pen, present a very different aspect, with much more the top-dressing with which should be done in a valuable returns. careful manner; great regularity should be main-1 In some instances, however, a farmer might tained in spreading it to prevent the tender plants make a small crop of tobacco with advantage. If from being stifled: other advantages also will re- he owned only a small tract of land, and too many sult from this care: the manure will cover a greater hands to find employment in the cultivation of a surface, and the land will be regularly benefited, crop of small grain, and was unwilling to hire out whereas, if it is carelessly spread, the crop will be any part of his negroes, he might, by resorting to uneven, unseemly to the eye, and much less pro- a tobacco crop, keep them profitably employed for ductive.
a few years.
S. B. I am now trying an experiment in the cultivation of new-ground corn, which I had heard of some time ago, as well as more recently. The
- ORIGIN AND USE OF TOBACCO. land is not cleared of the leaves, trash, sticks, &c.,
From the London Penny Magazine. which are not too much in the way of the plough Tobacco was introduced into Europe from the or coulter; and after the operation of the coulter, province of Tabaca in St. Domingo, in 1559, by a the ground is hilled up five and a half feet apart Spanish gentleman, named Ilernandez de Toledo, one way, and two and a half the other, chopping who brought a small quantity into Spain and Pordown the hills low, opening holes at the same tugal. From thence, by the means of the French time, into which four or five grains of corn in a ambassador at Lisbon, Jean Nicot, from whom it hill are dropped. The crop is cultivated with derived its name of Nicotia, it found its way to coulters first, and then with bar-share ploughs, and Paris, where it was used in the form of a powder should be laid by just before harvest. Once hill- by Catherine de Medici. Tobacco then came uning will be sufficient, and that when the corn is der the patronage of the Cardinal Santa Croce, the about twelve inches high; taking care to chop out pope's nuncio, who, returning from his embassy the bushes after harvest. A preparation of this at the Spanish and Portuguese courts, carried the kind is exactly calculated to add to the natural fer- plant to his own country, and thus acquired a tility of the land, and must, I think, be the best tame little inferior to that which, at another period, plan to preserve the productiveness of the maiden he had won by piously bringing a portion of the soil: it saves, besides, the labor of hauling off the real cross from the Holy Land. Both in France litter, unless it is intended, by collecting and burn- and in the Papal States it was at once received ing it, that the first blow in the destruction of the with general enthusiasm, in the shape of snuff; soil should be struck by the hand of the owner, in- but it was some time after the use of tobacco as stead of his adding to his land whatever may re- snuff, that the practice of smoking it commenced. pay him for his labor in its cultivation.
This practice is gencrally supposed to have been It is insisted that the next crop after the corn introduced into England by Sir Walter Raleigh; should be tobacco, by which the planter may avoid but Camden says, in his Elizabeth,' that Sir the labor of hauling off or burning the leaves, and Francis Drake and his companions, on their return may, at the same time, improve his new land. from Virginia 1585, were the first, as far as he But upon estimating the profit and loss upon the knew, who introduced the Indian plant, called cultivation of tobacco for a century past, (not half Tabacca or Nicotia, into England, having been the time from its commencement,) I am disposed taught by the Indians to use it as a remedy against to think the planter a loser to no little amount. It indigestion. And from the time of their return," is owing, in my opinion, to that crop principally, says he, “it immediately began to grow into very that the face of our country presents so melancholy general use, and to bear a high price; a great many an aspect. Take a glance at the states to the persons, some from luxury, and others for their north of us, and see if it requires a Solomon to health, being wont to draw in the strong-smelling judge the difference of the two countries. Theirs smoke with insatiable greediness through an is a grain and grass growing country, and quad-earthenware tube, and then to puff it forth again ruples ours in the product of small grain to the through their nostrils; so that tabacca-taverns, acre: here, to the unsuccessful culture of grain and (tabernæ tabaccanæ) are now as generally kept grass, we add a tobacco crop, the worst of all in all our towns, as wine-houses or beer-houses." others to impart any benefit to the soil on which it No doubt the tobacco-taverns of Queen Elizagrows. The labor in cultivating tobacco, can beth's times were not unworthy predecessors of scarcely, at any time, be intermitted longer than the splendid cigar divans of the present day. It three days; and all other crops whatever, except appears from a note in the Criminal Trials, vol. i. in time of harvest, (and I have seen thousands of p. 361, that in 1600, the French ambassador, in plants topped in harvest,) must wait for the to- his despatches, represented the Peers, on the trial bacco; and after it is made, it frequently remains of the Earls of Essex and Southampton, as smokupon hand for twelve months or longer, because ing tobacco copiously while they deliberated on the price it can command, will not more than half their verdict. Sir Walter Raleigh, too, was acrepay the cost of the labor bestowed upon it; and cused of having sat with his pipe at the window when at length it is sold, not one hogshead in a of the armoury, while he looked on at the executhousand, perhaps, commands ten dollars. The tion of Essex in the Tower. Both these stories remainder is sold at from three to five dollars per are probably untrue, but the mere relation of cwt, and during the numerous operations requisite them by contemporaneous writers shows that they in its cultivation and preparation for market, gul- were not then monstrously incredible, and they leys are forming and increasing; and the fences therefore prove the generality of the practice of
smoking at that time amongst the higher class of English Dictionary of Francis Holy-oke. The copy society. After a time, however, the practice of before us was printed in 1659, the last year of the life emoking tobacco appears to have met with stre- of Oliver Cromwell; but as it is the seventh edition, it nuous opposition in high places, both in this coun- is probable that the whole of this account of “Tatry and other parts of Europe. Its principal op-bacco" is much older than the book itself, and was ponents were the priests, the physicians, and the
e probably copied without alteration from the first, sovereign princes; by the former its use was declared sinful; and, in 1684, Pope Urban VIII. pub
** us through every successive edition of the dictionary. lished a bull, excommunicating all persons found
“Tabacco herba ab insula Tabaco,&c. A kind of herbe guilty of taking snuff when in church. This bull called Tabacco, it is like henbane, and may be called was renewed in 1690, by Popc Innocent; and, the Indian henbane, hot and dry in the third degree about twenty-nine years afterwards, the Sultan (as I take it.) The juyce of the greene leafe is good Amurath IV. made smoking a capital offence. to cure any greene wound, though it be poysoned, the For a long time smoking was forbidden in Russia, syrup is good for divers diseases, the smoake of the under pain of having the nose cut off; and in some leafe dryed and taken in a pipe, is used as in old time parts of Switzerland, it was likewise made a sub- Tussilage was, for the cure of the Tissike, the cough ject of public prosecution-the police regulations of the lungs, distillations of Rheumes, cold, toothach, of the Canton of Berne, in 1661, placing the pro
ng the pro- headach, and in fine whatsoever disease commeth of a hibition of smoking in the list of the Ten Com
cold and moyst cause, and good for all full bodies, that mandments, immediately under that against adul
are cold and moyst of constitution, if it be moderately tery. Nay, that British Solomon, James I., did not think it beneath the royal dignity to take up
| used, and taken upon an empty stomacke, and that it his pen upon the subject. He accordingly, in
ir be good Indian, and not sophisticated, Immoderatly 1603, published his famous Counterblaste to To- | taken, it dryeth the body, inflameth the blood, burteth bacco, in which the following remarkable passage [burneth?] the braine and intoxicateth, breedeth wind occurs:-" It is a custom loathesome to the eye, and crudity, and hath a bewitching facultie that when hateful to the nose, harmfull to the braine,dangerous men use it overmuch they cannot leave it. See Weekto the lungs, and in the black stinking fume thereoferus and others; now of the syrupe of Tabacco they nearest resembling the horrible Stygian smoke of make a vomit.”1 the pit that is bottomless." But notwithstanding this regal and priestly wrath, the use of the plant extended itself far and wide; and tobacco is at this
From the Library of Useful Knowledge. moment, perhaps the most general luxury in exis
AGE OF THE HORSE. tence. The allusion to the practice in the following lines, taken from the Marrow of Compli
The method of judging the age of a horse is by ment,' written in 1654, seems to show the preva
examining the teeth, which amount to forty when lence of smoking at that period:
complete; namely, six nippers, or incisors, as they
are sometimes called, two tushes, and six grinders “ Much meat doth Gluttony procure
on each side, in both jaws. A foal, when first To feed men fat as swine;
born, has in each jaw the first and second grindBut he's a frugal man indeed,
ers developed; in about a week the two centre nipThat on a leaf can dine!
pers make their appearance, and within a month He needs no napkin for his hands,
à third grinder. Between the sixth and ninth His fingers' ends to wipe, , That hath his kitchen in a box,
month the whole of the nippers appear, completing His roast meat in a Pipe !"
the colt's mouth. At the completion of the first
year, a fourth grinder appears, and a fifth by the [Before meeting with the foregoing article, we had end of the second year. At this period a new marked several passages from old authors on this sub-process commences, the front or first grinder givject, which will make a suitable addition.
| ing way, which is succeeded by a larger and perKing James in his Counterblaste says tobacco smakes manent tooth, and between two years and a half a kitchen, also, often in the inward parts of men, soyl- an
on soul and three years the two middle nippers are dising and infecting them with an unctious and oily kind
i placed, and succeeded by permanent teeth. At
Tihree years old the sixth grinder has either made, of soote, as hath been found in some great tobacco
or is about making its appearance. In the fourth takers, that after their death were opened:” and in his
year another pair of nippers and the second pair Witty Apothegms, after observing that “a tobacco pipe of grinders are shed; and the comer nippers, is a lively image of hell,” the royal author specifies toward the end of the fifth year, are succeeded by the things which he most abhorred, by saying that permanent teeth, when the mouth is considered “were I to invite the devil to dinner, he should have almost perfect, and the colt or filly becomes a three dishes-- Ist a pig; 2d a pole of ling, and mustard; horse or a mare. What is called the mark of the and 3d a pipe of tobacco for digesture."
| teeth by which a judgment of the age of a horse Old Burton in his Anatomy of Melancholy, says of for several years may be formed, consists of a portobacco-"a good vomit I confesse; a vertuous herbe, thon
betion of the enamel bending over and forming a if it be well qualified, opportunely taken, and medi
E' little pit in the surface of the nipper, the inside and
"bottom of which becomes blackened by the food. cinally used; but as it is commonly used by most men, This soon begins to wear down, and the mark which take it as tinkers do ale, 'tis a plague, a mis- becomes shorter and wider, and fainter. By the chiefe, a violent purger of goods, lands, health; hellish, end of the first year the mark in the two middle develish, damned tobacco; the ruin and overthrow of teeth is wide and faint, and becomes still wider body and soule."--Anatomy of Melancholy.
and fainter till the end of the third year, by which The following account of tobacco is from the Latin-1 time the centre vippers have been displaced by, the permanent teeth, which are larger than the Good Hope. A fort was erected, roads constructothers, though not yet so high, and the mark is ed, gardens planted, houses built, &c. long, narrow, deep, and black. At four years the. This island is of triangular shape, about twenty second pair of permanent nippers will be up, the miles in circumference; being eight miles from mark of which will be deep, while that of the first north to south, and five miles and a half from east pair will be somewhat fainter, and that of the corner to west. It may be seen from the mast-head in pair nearly effaced. At this age, too, the tushes be- clear weather at the distance of ten leagues, its gin to appear. Between the fourth and fifth year, appearance is uneven and rugged, being an asthe corner nippers have been shed, and the new semblage of hills, with a mountain overlooking teeth come quite up, showing the long deep irreg- them from the south. This is called Green Mounular mark; the other nippers bearing evident tokens tain, and is about eight hundred yards in height. of increasing wearing. At six years the mark The best anchorage at this island is in Turtle on the centre nippers is worn out, but there is still Cove, in eight or ten fathoms of water, with the a brown hue in the centre of the tooth. At seven flag-staff on Cross-Hill bearing south-east-halfyears the mark will be worn from the four centre east; Rat Corner, south-south-west. Distance nippers, and will have completely disappeared at from the nearest shore about one mile. A heavy eight years from them all. It may be added, that surf often interrupts the landing for several days it is the lower jaw of the horse that is usually ex-together. amined, and which is here described. The changes. The whole island is of volcanic origin, and the of the teeth taking place in both jaws about the surface is now partly covered with a reddish soil, same time, but the cavity of the teeth in the upper while in some places there is a yellow earth rejaw being somewhat deeper, the mark lasts longer, sembling ochre. A fine black earth covers the though the exact period is a matter of controversy. bottom of the valleys, which are now in a fine state According to what may be considered good au- of cultivation by the little military colony before thority, however, it may be stated that at nine alluded to. The island is composed of several coyears the mark will be worn from the middle nip- nic hills, from two hundred and fifty to three hunpers, from the next pair at ten, and from all the upper dred and fifty yards in height. Green Mountain nippers at eleven. "During all this time the tushes has a double top, rising in two peaks, like the (the extremities of which are at first sharp-point- Grecian Parnassus. In almost every part of the ed and curved) become gradually blunter, shorter, island, as Mr. Purdy justly observes, are found and rounder.
prodigious quantities of rocks full of holes like a honey-comb; together with calcined stones, very
light, and pumice-stones. “The rocks, lying THE CHANGE OF VOLCANIC PRODUCTS TO upon each other in a very irregular way, and FERTILE SOIL.
mostly on the declivity of hills, leave great chasms [The slow but certain change of lava and other pro
between them; and as they have very little solididucts of volcanoes to fertile soil, has long been
ity, an observer runs some risk who ventures with
long been out caution upon them.” About the middle of known as a remarkable and general operation of na- the island, and between the hills, there are several ture. The length of tine required for this process is as little plains, which are divided into small spaces, various as are the proportions of the materials acted so remarkably distributed that you would take on; and even the shortest periods have generally been them for so many pieces of land cleared of stones, too long to be recorded by authentic history. The and separated from each other by long walls. neighborhood of Siena, in Italy, still remains as bar-| According to the statement of the officers of ren and desolate as if the volcanic covering of the the English brig Slaney, who visited this island earth was of recent formation: yet it is known that the
that the in February, 1827, Ascension was then (under eruption that produced it took place more than three
the government of Lieutenant Colonel Nicholls) thousand years ago. To this, a remarkable contrast
in a most flourishing state of progressive improveis presented in the following account of the island of Be
ment as to its resources, both natural and artificial.
I Roads are constructing from the several springs Ascension, on which, the fertilizing effects of natural. (sixteen in number) to convey water to the garcauses have rapidly worked to convert a naked and rison; and hopes were entertained of being able desolate rock, to a fertile habitation for man.]
to supply a squadron with that essential article From Morrell's Voyages. 1
in the course of a year, by means of iron pipes
from the principal spring to a reservoir near the The island of Ascension was formerly described beach. Pasturage for cattle is making its appearas “a barren uninhabited island in the South At-ance. Sheep, turkeys, guinea-fowls, and live-stock lantic Ocean, without soil or vegetation," and as of every description thrive well. Fruit, such as “an impracticable heap of volcanic ashes." This pines, Indian gooseberries and plantains have been description was once correct; but industry, skill, successfully cultivated. Potatoes, onions, carrots, and perseverance have now rendered a more fa- pease, French beans, and almost every esculent vorable one appropriate. The island is in fact a vegetable have been produced upon the island; shattered volcano, the pulverized materials of and thus from a desert cinder, nature has been which, are rapidly becoming converted into a rich courted successfully to yield most of her useful and fertile soil. It formerly belonged to the Por- vegetable productions. Only two deaths from tuguese, who discovered it in 1501; but in 1816, sickness have occurred at Ascension during the some English families from the island of St. He- last two years (1825 and 1826;) and when we lena settled here, and it was taken possession of consider that gales of wind are unknown to have by the British government as a military station; visited the anchorage there, the value of the island and sixty transport ships provided the garrison of as a rendezvous' and a depot for stores and provitwo hundred men with supplies from the Cape of sions, for a squadron of observation, destined to cruise either on the African or Brazilian coast among the reeds at the bottom of the lake from hereafter, will obviously repay the liberal attention the side of a boat, and turned round several times, that has been bestowed upon it.”
| a quantity of plants are torn off from the bottom, A short time after the visit of the brig Slaney, and carried in the boat to the platform, where the the William Harris, a transport, landed at the weeds are twisted into conical mounds about two island a cargo of live-stock, horses, hares, rabbits, I feet in diameter at their base, and of the same pheasants, poultry, partridges, &c., seeds of vege- height, terminating at the top in a hollow, which tables, agricultural implements, and a supply of is filled with fresh soft mud, and sometimes wood necessaries for the garrison, who all enjoyed very ashes. The farmer has in preparation a number mood health. In return, she took a large quantity of cucumber and melon plants, raised under mats, of fine turtle, with which the island abounds; and and of these, when they have four leaves, he according to Capt. Leslie, it furnishes the finest places three plants in the basin of every cone or in creation," being “not only fat and large, but in mound, of which a double row runs along the the highest perfection for eating. Their weight, edge of every bed at about two feet distance from in general, is from one to seven hundred pounds. each other. No further care is necessary except They are of all I ever tasted, the fattest and the that of collecting the fruit, and the expense of prefinest; all others I ever saw before bear no com- paring the platforms and cones is very trifling. parison with them.”
Mr. Moorcroft traversed about fifty acres of these floating gardens of growing cucumbers and melons,
and saw not above half a dozen unhealthy plants; FLOATING GARDENS OF CASHMERE. and he says, he never saw in the cucumber and From the London Penny Magazine.
melon grounds, in the vicinity of populous cities
in Europe or in Asia, so large an expanse of The city of Cashmere, being the capital of the plant in a state of equal health or luxuriance of province of that name in Asia, is situated in the growth. The general depth of the floating beds midst of numerous lakes, connected with each is about two feet, and some of them are seven other, and with the River Vedusta, by canals, feet broad. The season lasts for three months separated by narrow lines and insulated plots of and a half, beginning in June. From the first ground. Upon these lakes are floating gardens, setting of the fruit to the time of pulling, seven or cut off generally from the body of the lake by a eight days are the ordinary period. Thirty fullbelt of reeds; the cultivation of which is not only sized fruit from each plant, or from ninety to à very singular, but highly profitable, and worthy hundred from each cone, are the average crops. of imitation in many parts of Europe as a re- The seed of the melon is brought annually from source for raising food for man. The second num-Baltistan, and the first year yields fruit of from four ber of the Journal of the Geographical Society' to ten pounds each in weight; but if the seed be contains a notice of the Natural Productions and re-sown, the produce of the second year exceeds Agriculture of Cashmere, from which the follow- not from two to three pounds. Unless when eaten ing account is compiled:
to great excess, the melon produces no disorders, The city of Cashmere is subject to considerable and it is remarked that healthy people who live inundations, which have become annually more upon this fruit during the season, become very frequent, through the neglect of the government speedily fat; and the effect upon horses fed upon in not checking the accumulation of weeds and this fruit is reported to be the same. In the early mud, which diminish the depth, and consequently part of the season, cucumbers of full size sell at increase the surface of the lakes. This has sug- the rate of about three for a piece of coin of the gested the expediency of a floating support by value of a halfpenny; but as the weather becomes which vegetables are cultivated in salety, deriving hotter, and the plants get into full bearing, ten, as much moisture as is beneficial without the risk fifteen, and even twenty are purchased for this of being destroyed. Various aquatic plants spring price. It is calculated that every cone yields a from the bottom of the lakes, as water lilies, i money return of about eighteen-pence. Allowsedges, reeds, &c.; and as the boats which traverse iog six-pence for labour of every description, and those waters take generally the shortest lines they including also the tax, the clear profit is a shilling can pursue to their destination, the lakes are in for every two square yards. The yield of the some parts cut into avenues as it were, separated melon is numerically less, but the return of profit is by beds of sedges and reeds. Here the farmer at least equal. No other vegetables are raised establishes his cucumber and melon floats, by cut- upon the spaces between the cones, although Mr. ting off the roots of the aquatic plants about two Moorcroft thinks that onions, cresses, and other feet under water, so that they completely lose all useful vegetables might be raised upon them; and connection with the bottom of the lake, but retain water-mint grows spontaneously upon the floats. their situation in respect to each other. When Cashmere, or Cassimere, is one of the northern thus detached from the soil, they are pressed into provinces of India within the Ganges. It is sursomewhat closer contact, and formed into long rounded by mountains, and from its beauty and beds of about two yards breadth. The heads of fertility has been called the Paradise of the Indies. the selges, reeds, and other plants of the float, It contains upwards of 100,000 villages, is well are next cut off and laid upon its surface, and stocked with cattle and game, and is said to be covered with a thin coat of mud, which, at first unmclested by beasts of prey. The people are interrupted in its descent, gradually sink into the ingenious, and resemble the Europeans in their mass of matted stalks. The bed floats, but is persons, and the women are fair and tall. The kept in its place by a stake of willow driven iamous Cashmere shawls derive their name from through it at each end, which admits of its rising this country, though at present the supply that and filling in accommodation to the rise and fall actually comes from it is comparatively small. of the water. By means of a long pole thrust!